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2.1 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ
(4,489 words)

In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

previous chapter: 1 General History

§ 194. In the preface to the “Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ wa-siyar al-mulūk” which has been lithographed several times in Persia the 1st of Rabīʿ al-awwal 352/963 is given as the date on which “S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad Ḥuwaizī1” began with the collaboration of other scholars to translate the work from an Arabic original supplemented from other sources. The translation was undertaken by order of a certain “Sulṭān G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muẓaffar”, no doubt a fictitious personage. If the date given were correct, this work would be among the oldest surviving specimens of Muḥammadan Persian, like the translation of al-Ṭabarī’s history and the other works mentioned on p. 1, note 2, but it may be surmised that the date 352 was selected by some unknown forger as an appropriate date merely because that was the year in which Abū Ṣāliḥ Manṣūr b. Nūḥ instructed al-Balʿamī to translate al-Ṭabarī’s history.

Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ wa-siyar al-mulūk.

Editions: Tabriz 1279/1862–3 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1864–8) p. 518), [Tabrīz,] 1281/1864°, [Ṭihrān,] 1284/1867°, [Tabrīz,] 1290/1873°.

The manuscript Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ Flügel iii 1572 (ah 1000/1591–2 ?) begins with the same words as the edition of 1281/1864° (viz. al-Ḥamdu li-llāh allad̲h̲ī k̲h̲alaq al-insān wa-ʿallamahu ’l-bayān wa-akramahu bi-mazīd al-iḥsān), but the arrangement of the contents seems to differ from that indicated by the table of contents prefixed to the lithograph. The ms. evidently contains no preliminary story about the Sulṭān G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muẓaffar and S̲h̲aik̲h̲ M. Ḥuwaizī.

§ 195. Aḥmad b. M. b. Manṣūr al-Arfajnī [?] wrote at some date unknown, but probably quite early, since he was aware of no book dealing exclusively with the history of the Prophets.

Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, a history of the Prophets and the Imāms based mainly on the Takmilat al-laṭāʾif wa-nuzhat al-ṭarāʾif of Abū M. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Jasrī: Blochet i 360 (mid 7th/13th cent.).

§ 196. At Balk̲h̲ in 475/1082–3 Abū Naṣr A. b. A. b. Naṣr al-Buk̲h̲ārī wrote his Anīs (or Uns ?) al-murīdīn wa-rauḍat al-muḥibbīn (v. ante p. 29), which he incorporated in his Tāj al-qiṣaṣ.

Tāj al-qiṣaṣ, a large work on the lives of the Prophets from Adam to Muḥammad: i.o. D.P. 618 (not later than ah 1081/1670–1), Bānkīpūr vi 482 (old), xiv 1111 (Anīs al-murīdīn only. ah 1001/1592–3), Ethé 591 (ah 1104/1693), 592 (breaks off in the 12th majlis of the story of Joseph), Bodleian 342 (breaks off with Battle of Ḥunain).

Ivanow 326 (Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ) begins, like Bānkīpūr vi 482, Ethé 591 and Bodleian 342, with the words al-Ḥamdu li-llāh allad̲h̲ī tawaḥḥad bi-’l-malakūt wa-taʿazzaz bi-’l-jabarūt and the apparent identity of the works is noted by Ivanow, but the statement that Ivanow 326 was compiled by Aḥmad Muns̲h̲ī, the author of another work entitled Baḥr i laʾāliʾ, at Bījāpūr in 993/1585 occasions difficulty.

[Bānkīpūr vi 482.]

§ 197. Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm b. Manṣūr b. K̲h̲alaf al-Naisābūrī cannot have lived much later than the close of the fifth century of the Hijrah.

Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, lives of the Prophets etc. and the early Caliphs, al-ʿAbbās, Yazīd and al-Ḥajjāj: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 518 and vii p. 839, Blochet i 361 (early 13th cent.), 362 (defective at beginning. ah 669/1270), 363 (ah 736/1335), 364 (ah 989/1581. Pictures2), 365 (16th cent. Pictures), Nāfid̲h̲ Pās̲h̲ā 1184 = Tauer 288 (ah 764/1362–3), Ḥamīdiyah 980 = Tauer 289 (circ. ah 900/1494–5. 26 Pictures), Berlin 1016 (ah 984/1577. Pictures), Lālā Ismāʿīl 364 = Tauer 290 (circ. ah 1000/1591–2), Rieu i 143a (16th cent.), 143b (16th cent. Pictures), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (ah 1062/1652. See Mélanges asiatiques vi (St. Petersburg 1873) P. 124), Asʿad 2352 (1) = Tauer 291 (circ. ah 1100/1688–9), i.o. D.P. 697 (17th cent.), Ethé 590 (ah 1125/1713), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 936 (late 17th cent. Pictures), Āṣafīyah i p. 880 no. 55, Bag̲h̲dād Köshkü 249 = Tauer 292, Flügel ii 1205, Fātiḥ 4449 (?).

§ 198. In the time of the celebrated theologian Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī, who died at Samarqand in 333/944–5 (see Brockelmann i 195 and Ency. Isl. under Māturīdī), an unnamed Samarqandī wrote, doubtless in Arabic, a work entitled Maʿāṣī ’l-anbiyāʾ, which contained such heresies that al-Māturīdī denounced the author as a kāfir and ordered the book to be burnt. Then Abū ’l-Ḥasan M. b. Yaḥyā al-Bas̲h̲āg̲h̲irī wrote, also in Arabic, his

Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲awāmiḍ fī aḥwāl al-anbiyāʾ or ʿIṣmat al-anbiyāʾ, of which no copies appear to be recorded.

This work is said to have gained much popularity, but in the sixth/twelfth century it was understood with difficulty on account of its ornate style, and for this reason an abridgment shorn of rhetorical embellishments was written by Nūr al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Maḥmūd ibn Abī Bakr al-Ṣābūnī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, a Ḥanafī theologian who died in 580/1184 (see Ibn Quṭlūbug̲h̲ā no. 20, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah p. 42, Brockelmann i 375). This abridgment is said to have become very popular, but no copies seem to be recorded.

Persian translation of al-Ṣābūnī’s abridgment completed in 608/1211–12 by Abū ʿAbd Allāh Masʿūd b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-Ṣarrāf, a pupil of al-Ṣābūnī’s: Ḥiṣaṣ al-atqiyāʾ min qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 70 no. 4525, where the title is given as Ḥiṣn al-atqiyāʾ min qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, Blochet i 370 (ah 994/1586).

§ 199. ʿImād al-Dīn Abū ’l-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad al-Fāriyābī is best known as the author of the Arabic ethical and religious miscellany entitled K̲h̲āliṣat al-ḥaqāʾiq, which he completed in 597/1200–1. He died in 607/1210.

Maqāṣid al-auliyāʾ fī maḥāsin al-anbiyāʾ, lives of the Prophets with a brief account of the first four Caliphs, dedicated to the Saljūq Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Ibrāhīm b. Jalāl al-Dīn: Mehren 41 (ah 1037/1627–8), Āṣafiyah ii p. 882 no. 52 (ah 1044/1634–5), Decourdemanche s.p. 1852 (end of 17th cent.), Edinburgh 189 (not later than 1186/1772–3), Būhār 38 = Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 72 (18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 184 no. 422 (ah 1235/1819–20), Rieu iii 1030a (extracts, ad 1844), i.o. D.P. 710.

[Ibn Quṭlūbug̲h̲ā 207; Brockelmann i 379.]

§ 200. A certain al-Kisāʾī, whose name and kunyah are variously given (Abū ’l-Ḥasan, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, M. b. ʿAbd Allāh, M. b. ʿAbd al-Malik, Ḥasan b. M. etc.), wrote an Arabic

Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, which exists in many manuscripts and of which an edition was published by I. Eisenberg at Leyden in 1922–3. He wrote before, but probably not long before, ah 617/1220, the date of the b.m. ms. Or. 3054, and is no doubt identical with the Abū Jaʿfar M. b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Kisāʾī to whom Ḥ.K̲h̲. (iv 8075) ascribes a kitāb ʿAjāʾib al-malakūt.

Persian translation: Nafāʾis al-ʿarāʾis wa-Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, by M. b. Ḥasan Daidūzamī: Blochet i 366 (ah 673/1274), ʿUmūmiyah 5275 = Tauer 293 (circ. ah 950/15–13–4. 44 Pictures), Bag̲h̲dād Kös̲h̲kü = Tauer 294 (ah 983/1575–6. 21 Pictures).

Ḥ.K̲h̲. identifies the author of the Arabic original with the celebrated philologist ʿAlī b. Ḥamzah al-Kisāʾī and speaks of a Persian work on the subject by M. b. Ḥasan al-Daidūzamī in which he “iqtafā at̲h̲ar al-T̲h̲aʿlabī”.

[Brockelmann i 350; Ency. Isl. ii 1037 (Brockelmann); Eisenberg Die Prophetenlegenden des Muḥammed ben Abdallah al-Kisâî, Berne 1898, and his edition mentioned above.]

§ 201. Kai-Kāʾūs b. Kai-K̲h̲usrau b. Dārā, of Raiy, translated into Persian verse a Pahlawī work on the life of Zoroaster. The date of this translation is unknown, but in the year 647 of the Yazdagirdī era (ad 1278) Zartus̲h̲t b. Bahrām b. Paz̲h̲dū, who subsequently translated the Book of Ardā-Vīrāf (Rieu i 47, Ethé 2819 etc.), wrote out Kai-Kāʾūs’s poem, appended an epilogue and possibly modified it to some extent.

Zarātus̲h̲t-nāmah, or Zartus̲h̲t-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī in 1,570 verses on the legendary history of Zoroaster from before his birth till the events of the last millenniums were revealed to him: G.i.P. ii 122, Lindesiana p. 235 (ad 1636), Glasgow 3 (a.y. 1046/1677), Rieu i 46 (17th cent.), 49b (ad 1677), Blochet i 198 (2) (ad 1735), 199 (1) (18th cent.), 197 (ah 1205/1790–1), Bodleian 1947 (circ. ad 1811), 1948 (defective), 1949 (Persian prose paraphrase), Dhabhar 107, 121, 124, 127, Ross and Browne 213.

Edition: Le Livre de Zoroastre—Zarâtusht Nâma—de Zartusht-i Bahrâm ben Pajdû, publié et traduit par F. Rosenberg, St. Petersburg 1904°*.

English translation by E.B. Eastwick: The Parsi Religion, by J. Wilson, Bombay 1843°*, pp. 477–522.

French translation: see above under Edition.

Descriptions: (1) Hyde Historia religionis veterum Persarum pp. 328–9, (2) J. Wilson The Parsi Religion, pp. 417–27.

§ 202. Abū ’l-Ḥasan b. al-Haiṣam al-Būs̲h̲anjī wrote in Arabic a work on the Prophets.

Persian translation by M. b. Asʿad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥanafī al-Tustarī: Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, Browne Coll. J. 12 (12) (ah 731/1330).

§ 203. Muʿīn al-Dīn Farāhī died ah 907/1501–2 (see p. 9 supra).

Tārīk̲h̲ i Mūsawī, a life of Moses completed ah 904/1498–9: Ethé 605 (ah 906/1501), 2853 (ah 1189/1775–6), 2854, i.o. D.P. 703 (ah 1268/1852), Lindesiana p. 197 no. 455 (ah 1123/1711–12), Ivanow 323 (late 12th cent. ah), 324 (12th cent. ah), Būhār 24 (13th cent, ah), Browne Suppt. 250 (King’s 79), Madras, r.a.s. F. 17.

§ 204. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan al-Zawārī (for whom see pp. 11–12 supra) completed his best-known work, the tafsīr entitled Tarjamat al-k̲h̲awāṣṣ, in 946/1539–40.

Majmaʿ al-hudā, biographies of the Prophets, the Imāms and other holy men in forty bābs: Ethé 598 (bears a seal of 1079/1668–9), Ivanow 61 (ah 1083/1672–3).

§ 205. Father Jerome Xavier, a Navarrese and a grandson of St. Francis Xavier’s sister, was born in 1549. He entered the Society of Jesus at Alcala in 1568 and in 1581 he left Lisbon for Goa. After serving as Rector of the Colleges of Bassein and Cochin, as Master of Novices and as Superior of the Professed House of Goa, he started in December 1594 for the Mug̲h̲al Court and lived for nearly twenty years at Lahore and Agra, coming into close contact with Akbar and Jahāngīr. He died at Goa in June 1617 as Coadjutor-Archbishop elect of Cranganore.

He applied himself to the study of Persian and seems to have acquired a competent knowledge of the language, but no doubt all, as certainly some, of his Persian works were written originally in Portuguese and translated by him into Persian with Oriental help. Among these works are (1) Āʾīnah i ḥaqq-numā, on the Christian religion, dedicated to Jahāngīr (see Rieu i 4a etc., Sir E. Maclagan The Jesuits and the Great Mogul, London 1932, pp. 206–9), (2) Muntak̲h̲ab i Āʾīnah i ḥaqq-numā, an abridgment of the preceding (see Rieu i 4b etc., Maclagan op. cit. p. 208), (3) Zabūr, a translation of the Psalms (see Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies iii (1923–5) p. 138, Maclagan op. cit. pp. 211–12), (4) Ādāb al-salṭanat, written at Āgrah in 1609 and dedicated to Jahāngīr (see Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies iii (1923–5) p. 138, Maclagan op. cit. p. 215). The fourteenth chapter of the above-cited work by Sir E. Maclagan is devoted to Xavier’s Persian works.

Mirʾāt al-quds or Dāstān i Masīḥ, a life of Christ written by Akbar‘s desire in 1602 at Āgrah, originally no doubt in Portuguese, and translated jointly by the author and ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim Lāhaurī:3 Lahore Museum (incomplete and damaged. ad 1602, bearing Akbar’s seal. Pictures. See Maclagan op. cit. p. 203), Bodleian 364 (said to have been presented to Akbar in April 1602), Ivanow 1635 (ah 1013/1604–5. Bears Akbar’s seal), Ivanow Curzon 665 (early 20th cent.), Gotha 34 (contains notes in Xavier’s hand), London School of Oriental Studies (bears an inscription in Xavier’s hand. See Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies ii (1921–3), p. 533, iii (1923–5), p. 138, Maclagan op. cit. p. 203), Rieu i 3a (ah 1027/1618), 3b (incomplete. 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 649 (ah 1037/1628), 650 (incomplete. 18th cent.?), Lindesiana p. 177 no. 832 (circ. ad 1620), Blochet i 13 (early 17th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1540 no. 3 (Pictures), Cataloghi p. 436 (Casanatense), Ethé 619 (ah 1185/1771–2, transcribed from the printed edition), Eton 215.

Edition with Latin translation: [Dāstān i Masīḥ] Historia Christi persice conscripta, simulque multis modis contaminataLatine reddita & animadversionibus notata a Ludovico de Dieu.4 Leyden 1639o*.

Descriptions: (1) Note on a Persian MS. entitled Mir-át ul Quds, a Life of Christ compiled at the request of the Emperor Akbar by Jerome Xavier,—by H. Blochmann (in Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1870, pp. 138–47, where the preface is translated and chapter i summarized), (2) Father Jerome Xavier.—4; By H. Beveridge (in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal lvii, pt. i (1888), pp. 33–9), (3) The Holy Mirror; or The Gospel according to Father Jerome Xavier. By A. Rogers (in the Asiatic Quarterly Review x (July–Oct. 1890), pp. 184–200). This is the fullest analysis of the work, (4) Maclagan op. cit. pp. 203–6.

Dāstān i aḥwāl i Ḥawāriyān, or Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥawāriyān i duwāzdah-gānah, written at Akbar’s request subsequently to the Mirʾāt al-quds, translated into Persian by the author and ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim, apparently issued in instalments, since four of the lives are said to have been presented to Akbar before his death in 1605, and dedicated in its final form to Jahāngīr, to whom a copy was presented in 1607: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1540 no. 5 (? “Majmūʿah i rasāʾil i ḥālat i Piṭrus wa-g̲h̲airah ḥawāriyān i Ḥaḍrat i ʿĪsā”. Author not stated. Said to have been in Akbar’s library), Louvain Bibliothèque des Missions (formerly in the Goethals Indian Library, Calcutta, and earlier in the possession of G.S.A. Ranking. Said to bear Akbar’s seal. Lives of Andrew, James, Peter and Paul only. See jasb., n.s., x (1914) pp. 71–2, Maclagan op. cit. pp. 209, 219 and the references there given), Blochet i 14 (early 17th cent.), 15, Bodleian 365 (not later than ad 1638), Ethé 620 (“Kawāʾif i Pītar i ʿĪsawī”. St. Peter only. ad 1778, doubtless transcribed from de Dieu’s edition), Ivanow 1636 (ad 1871), Ivanow Curzon 666 (incomplete. Early 20th cent.), Leyden v p. 91 no. 2396, London s.o.s. (see bsos. iii (1923–5) p. 138), Serampur College (see jasb., n.s., x (1914) pp. 65–71).

Edition (of St. Peter’s life only) with Latin translation: [Dāstān i San Pēdrō]. Historia S. Petri persice conscripta, simulque multis modis contaminata. Latine reddita, & brevibus animadversionibus notata, a Ludovico de Dieu. Leyden 1639°*.

Urdu translation: Nusk̲h̲ah i kitāb i Bārah Apustal, Sardhănah 1894 (acc. to title-page 1873, but see Hosten in jasb., n.s., x (1914) pp. 72–4).

Descriptions: (1) Fr. Jerome Xavier’s Persian Lives of the Apostles. By the Rev. H. Hosten, S.J. (in jasb., n.s., x (1914), pp. 65–84, where the Persian text of Xavier’s preface with an English translation (by H. Beveridge) is given). (2) Maclagan op. cit. pp. 209–11.

[Eulogy of Father Jerome Xavier, S.J., … Translated from the Spanish by the Rev. H. Hosten, S.J. (in jasb., n.s., xxiii (1927) pp. 109–30); Sir E. Maclagan The Jesuits and the Great Mogul, London 1932, pp. 50–1, 55–9, 62–5, 70–2, 203–21 etc. (see Index); etc. etc.]

§ 206. Fatḥī Ḥusainī wrote

Zād al-āk̲h̲irah, of which the first daftar, completed in 1015/1606–7, contains a history of the Prophets to the death of Muḥammad: Vollers 976 (Daftar i only. ah 1019/1610–11).

§ 207. M. Ṣādiq is possibly identical with M. Ṣādiq Kas̲h̲mīrī Hamadānī, the author of the Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn written in 1023/1614 and the Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī written in 1046–1636–7.

Manāqib i anbiyā (?), a short (25 foll.) collection of legends concerning pre-Islāmic prophets with brief notes on Muḥammad and his first successors: Ivanow Curzon 101 (ah 1038/1629).

§ 208. In the years 1633–39 Adam Olearius (b. 1599, d. 1671) went in the capacity of secretary with the ambassadors sent by Frederick Duke of Holstein to Russia and Persia for the purpose of promoting the trade in silk. In his account of this journey (English translation, London 1669, p. 309) he mentions “the Persian, whom I brought out of the Country,5 and who still waits on me, named Achwerdi”. On the 21st of May 1642 this Ḥaqq-wīrdī, having migrated from Holstein to Holland, bound himself by a written contract (clauses from which are quoted by Juynboll) to copy manuscripts6 for Jacobus Golius, the well-known Professor of Hebrew and Arabic at Leyden.7 After a renewal in September 1642, this contract finally expired at the end of August 1643 and shortly afterwards Ḥaqq-wīrdī returned by sea to Holstein. He helped Olearius to prepare a Latin translation of Saʿdi’s Gulistān, and he died, at the age of 65 or thereabouts, more than three years before the publication of the German translation (Persianischer Rosenthal, Schleswig 1654°*), i.e. circ. 1650. Both he and his son had become converts to Christianity.

Legends of the Prophets and Imāms preceded by an account of the Creation: Mehren p. 17 no. 42 (defective at end).

[M. Th. Houtsma Uit de Oostersche correspondentie van Th. Erpenius, J. Golius en Lev. Warner pp. 75–9 (in Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Academie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, xvii, no. 3, Amsterdam 1887); W.M.C. Juynboll Zeventiende-eeuwsche beoefenaars van het Arabisch in Nederland, Utrecht [, 1932 ?], pp. 162–5.]

§ 209. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. M. al-Muftī lived not earlier than the 16th century and not later than the first half of the 18th.

ʿAjāʾib al-qiṣaṣ, lives of the prophets: Ethé 597 (ah 1148/1735), Ivanow Curzon 748 (ah 1197/1783), Lindesiana p. 119 no. 426 (circ. ad 1770).

Editions: Cawnpore 1868* (2nd ed.), Lucknow 1876*, 1882°, Delhi (“Jahānābād”) 1884*, Lahore 1306/1889*, 1905°*.

Urdu translation: Cawnpore 1903* (and other editions).

§ 210. A certain Bāqir “K̲h̲ādim”, who came to India from Īrān, wrote in 1149/1736–7

Rauḍat al-muttaqīn, a poetical account of the Prophets from Adam to Muḥammad: Bānkīpūr iii 392 (ah 1164/1750–1).

§ 211. Appendix

2.1.1 Titled or Quasi-Titled Works

Afṣaḥ al-aḥwāl, on the Pre-Islāmic Prophets, by Ātmān Rām (?): Berlin 539.
Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ, on the legend of Joseph, written at Lucknow by ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm Ḥusainī Iṣfahānī: Ivanow 938 (ah 1239/1824).

For other works dealing with the legend of Joseph or with the explanation of Sūrah xii see above, pp. 9, 20, 23 (nos. (2) and (10)), 25, 27 and nos. (41) (48) and (49) below. Poetical versions of the story of Yūsuf and Zulaik̲h̲ā will be mentioned in the section relating to Poetry.

Ak̲h̲bār al-anbiyāʾ (beginning Ḥamd i bī-ḥadd u sipās i bī-ʿadad mar K̲h̲udāy rā kih k̲h̲āliq i har jahān, etc.): Ross and Browne 125 (18th cent.).
Anbiyā-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī on the Pre-Islāmic Prophets and Muḥammad, composed by “ʿIyānī” (Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Bālah-C̲h̲anī [?] al-S̲h̲abistarī) at some date unknown but possibly in the time of G̲h̲āzān (ah 694/1295–703/1304): Ivanow 1754 = Sprenger 364 (slightly defective at beginning. Early 16th cent.).
Badr al-ahillah fī kanz al-ḥikmah (?),8 a work containing inter alia an account of the Creation and of the Pre-Islamic prophets divided into a large number of sections called laṭīfah and ending (at any rate in the Berlin ms.) with Joseph: Berlin 540 (old).
Baḥr al-durar dar aḥwāl i Mūsā: Rehatsek p. 187 no. 22.
Baḥr i mawwāj, metrical lives of the Prophets and of Fāṭimah and ʿUmar, by Iḥsān Allāh “Mumtāz” (d. 1275/1857).

Edition: [Lucknow ?] 1262/1846°*, Lucknow 1923*.

Bilqīs u Sulaimān, a mat̲h̲nawī by Aḥmad K̲h̲ān “Ṣūfī”, for whom see also pp. 160vv. below. Edition: Āgrah 1296/1879°*.
Dāstān i Sulaimān, a poem on the legendary war between Solomon and Rustam. Edition: ʿAẓimābād [i.e. Patna], 1297/1880°.
Guls̲h̲an i farhang an account of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, by Kai-K̲h̲usrau b. Kāʾūs Fārisī. Edition: Bombay 1274/1858°.
Iskandar-nāmah, in prose: Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vii (St. Petersburg 1876) p. 404). Cf. no. (38) infra.
Iskandar-nāmah, in prose. Edition: [Persia,] 1274/1858°, 1284/1867°.
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-anbiyāʾ: no copies recorded. Urdu translation by G̲h̲ulām-Nabī. Editions: Calcutta 1868*, Cawnpore 1335/1917*, Lahore 1340/1921–2*, 1926*, [1929 or 1930†].
K̲h̲ulāṣah i tārīk̲h̲ i anbiyāʾ. Editions: Lahore a.h.s. 1306/1926*, [1927*].
Madīnat al-anbiyāʾ: Ivanow 328 (12th/18th cent.).
Majmaʿ al-ḥasanāt [?], lives of the Prophets etc. and the first four Caliphs: Bānkīpūr vi 483 (18th cent.), Berlin 541, Bodleian 343 (lacunae), Ethé 593, 594 (ah 1203/1789), 595 (an abridgment (of this same work (?)). ah 1076/1665), Browne Suppt. 957 (?) (Corpus 217).
Muntak̲h̲ab al-ak̲h̲bār, by Bahāʾ al-Dīn b. Saʿd al-Dīn: see p. 161 infra.
(Muntak̲h̲ab i qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi ’llad̲h̲ī̱ jaʿala ’l-ḥamda miftāḥan li-d̲h̲ikrihi: Ivanow 327 (ah 1027/1618 ?).
Mūsā-nāmah: Peshawar 1459.
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, by Allāh-Yār K̲h̲ān G̲h̲ilzaʾī: Ivanow 329 (19th cent.).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, beginning Andar tafsīr i īn āyah kih guft K̲h̲udāy taʿālā K̲h̲alaqa ’l-samāwāti wa-’l-arḍ: Cairo p. 506.
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, a long poem on the Pre-Islāmic Prophets and Muḥammad, beginning Ilāhī ba-dil kāmam az k̲h̲āmah dih: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3355 = Tauer 297 (defective at end. 10th/16th cent.).
(Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), another long poem beginning Suk̲h̲an-gūy c̲h̲ūn guft k̲h̲wāhad suk̲h̲an: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 2984 = Tauer 298 (8th/14th cent.).
(Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), a detailed work on the Pre-Islāmic Prophets in 41 majālis: Ethé 596 (first leaf missing. ah 1070/1660 ?).
(Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi Rabb al-ʿālamīn wa-’l-ʿāqibatu li-l-muttaqīn … ammā baʿd bi-dān kih c̲h̲ūn Malik subḥānahu wa-taʿālā k̲h̲wāst kih Ādam rā biyāfrīnad: Fātiḥ 4451 = Tauer 295 (ah 841/1437).
(Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), the legends concerning the Pre-Islāmic Prophets, the kings of the Yemen and the life of Muḥammad to the Battle of Badr, beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi Jāmiʿ al-as̲h̲tāt: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3347 = Tauer 296 (ah 891/1486).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi ’llad̲h̲ī k̲h̲alaqa ’l-insān: Flügel iii 1572 (cf. p. 124 supra).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, “imitation of Thaʿālibī’s [sic] work”: Eton 14 (ah 1190/1776–7).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Browne Suppt. 956 (ah 1074/1663–4).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Peshawar 1466 (9th/15th cent.).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Āṣafiyah ii p. 880 no. 14 (ah 1083/1672–3).
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1534 = Tauer 299.
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ: Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1536 = Tauer 300.
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, dar tārīk̲h̲ u ḥālāt i anbiyāʾ u mursalīn (beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi Rabb al-ʿālamīnammā baʿd riwāyat mī-kunad M. b. Ismāʿīl b. Ād̲h̲ar i Buk̲h̲ārī). Edition: Bombay 1282/1865°, 1293/1876*, 1300/1883*.
Qiṣaṣ i anbiyāʾ i kirām, in 83 chapters (74–83 on Muḥammad), by ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Bīrjandī: Berlin 542 (slightly defective at beginning. ah 962/1554).
Qiṣaṣ al-mursalīn, lives of the Prophets and Imāms with a compendium of the fundamentals of Islām, by M. Ḥusain b. M. Riḍawī Ṭihrānī. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1301/1884 (vol. i (Adam to Jirjīs) is in the b.m.).
Qiṣaṣ i tawārīk̲h̲ i anbiyāʾ: Leyden iii p. 16 no. 928 (ah 745/1344–5).
(Qiṣṣah i Iskandar i D̲h̲ū ’l-Qarnain), in prose: Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vii (St. Petersburg 1876), p. 174). Cf. no. (11) supra.
Qiṣṣah i Sulaimān, by S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī al-Tabrīzī, “the great Imām, the Muftī of Īrān and Ād̲h̲arbāijān,” written for the daughter of the Isfahsālār ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Ṭug̲h̲ā Mīrak al-Ag̲h̲ājī: Rieu i 144a (ah 870/1465).
Qiṣṣah i Sulaimān b. Dāʾūd (Dar bayān i qiṣṣah i ḥaḍrat i Sulaimān b. Dāʾūd). Edition: [Persia,] 1273/1857°.
Qiṣṣah i Yūsuf, by Ṣadr al-S̲h̲arīʿah: Browne Hand-list 860.
Tad̲h̲kirat al-anbiyāʾ, by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad: Lindesiana p. 145 no. 329 (ah 1229/1814).
Tafsīr i tad̲h̲kirat al-anbiyāʾ wa-’l-umam, lives of the Prophets from Adam to Muḥammad dedicated to K̲h̲wājah Ḥasan and divided into a dībāc̲h̲ah, two maqṣads and a k̲h̲ātimah (beginning Rabbi ’s̲h̲raḥ lī ṣadrī): Ethé 599 (ah 1013/1604–5).
Tālīf i Muḥammadī, by M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Anṣārī: see p. 158 infra.
Tārīk̲h̲ i Iskandar (Tarjamah i Tārīk̲h̲ i Iskandar), translation of an English history of Alexander the Great by James Campbell. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1262/1846° (appended to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Piṭar, i.e. a translation of Voltaire’s Histoire de l’Empire de Russie sous Pierre-le-Grand).
Tārīk̲h̲ i Iskandar i D̲h̲ū ’l-Qarnain: r.a.s. P. 333.
Tārīk̲h̲ i Sulaimānī, an anonymous account of Solomon, Bilqīs and David: Rāmpūr (see Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 59. ah 1260/1844. 18 Pictures).
Yūsuf u Zulaik̲h̲ā. For metrical versions of the story of Joseph and Zulaik̲h̲ā see the section relating to Poetry.
Kītab i Yūsufīyah, the story of Joseph in 16 majālis interwoven with an account of the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain,9 by M. Hādī Nāʾīnī. Edition: [Persia 1870 ?°],
Zubdat al-taṣānīf, on Muhammadan rites, lives of the Prophets, of ʿAlī and others, on moral conduct etc., by Ḥaidar b. M. K̲h̲wānsārī. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1278/1862°.

2.1.2 Untitled Works

Mystical tract on the prophet Jesus: Bodleian 1270 (3) (ah 886/1481).

next chapter: 2.2 Muḥammad


^ Back to text1. This is the form in which the nisbah appears in the edition of 1281/1864. The Tabrīz edition of 1279/1862–3 seems to have Juwairī (see Mélanges asiatiques v (1864–8), p. 518). It may be noted that in the edition of 1281 the Ṣūfī Abū Muḥammad Jurairī (for whom see ʿAṭṭār Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ ed. Nicholson, pt. ii, pp. 132–4 and Nicholson’s note (Variants, p. 84)) is called Abū Muḥammad Ḥuwaizī on p. 5, 1. 2.

^ Back to text2. For reproductions of some of these pictures see Arnold and Grohmann The Islamic book.

^ Back to text3. ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim Lāhaurī was a son of M. Qāsim Firis̲h̲tah, if we may believe a note in the Lindesian copy of the T̲h̲amarat al-falāsifah (see Maclagan op. cit. p. 217 ult.). He was ordered by Akbar to learn the language of the Franks (i.e. Portuguese) in order to translate European books into Persian. His Thamarat al-falāsifah or Aḥwāl i Farangistān is an account of Greece and Rome and of the lives of the philosophers (mss. at King’s College, Cambridge (v. Browne Suppt. 770), in the b.m. (Or. 5893, see Maclagan op. cit. p. 218, n. 16), at Manchester (Lindesiana p. 177, no. 445), in the Victoria Library, Patiala (see Maclagan op. cit. p. 218, n. 16), at Ḥaidarabad (Āṣafīyah i p. 346 nos. 118, 169) and at Mas̲h̲had (see the catalogue vol. iii p. 78)). He wrote also an abridgment of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāmah.

^ Back to text4. For Ludovicus de Dieu (b. 1590 at Flushing, d. 1642 at Leyden) see W.M.C. Juynboll Zeventiende-eeuwsche beoefenaars van het Arabisch in Nederland, Utrecht [, 1932 ?], pp. 200–4.

^ Back to text5. This statement is difficult to reconcile with Juynboll’s account, which says that Ḥaqq-wīrdī came to Europe in 1639 as secretary or “vizier” to an ambassador sent by the S̲h̲āh to the Court of Holstein, that on his return to Persia he was so ill rewarded by the S̲h̲āh that he came back to Holstein, accompanied on this occasion by his son, and offered his services to the Duke and that through the influence of Olearius, the Duke’s chancellor, he was appointed to give instruction in Persian and in the customs and ideas of the Persians.

^ Back to text6. Bodleian 441 (Kalīlah wa-Dimnah, translated into Persian, probably by Ḥaqq-wīrdī, from a Turkish version) is a manuscript transcribed by him at Leyden in 1642.

^ Back to text7. Both Ḥaqq-wīrdī and his son had themselves enrolled in the Album Studiosorum Acad. Lugd.-Bat.

^ Back to text8. It seems doubtful whether this is the title of the part of this ms. containing the account of the Prophets.

^ Back to text9. For a small fragment of a work in prose and verse on the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain, by M. Hādī b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan al-S̲h̲arif al-Nāʾīnī, see Rieu i 156a.

Cite this page
“2.1 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 23 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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