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2.2 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: Muḥammad
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In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 212. M. Ibn Isḥāq al-Muṭṭalibī lived for a time at al-Madīnah, probably his birthplace, but he left it for Egypt and ultimately went to al-ʿIrāq, where he met the Caliph al-Manṣūr and at his invitation settled in Bag̲h̲dād. He died there in or about the year 150/767. [See Brockelmann i 134, Ency. I si. ii 389–90 etc.]

His life of the Prophet, if extant at all in its original form, is exceedingly rare,1 but an abridgment, the Sīrat Rasūl Allāh, made by ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn His̲h̲ām (b. at al-Baṣrah, d. at al-Fusṭāṭ ah 218/834, see Brockelmann i 135, Ency. Isl. ii 387 etc.), is well known, having been published at Göttingen in 1858–60°* (ed. F. Wüstenfeld), at Būlāq in 1295/1878 and at Cairo in 1324/1906 (on the margin of Ibn Qaiyim al-Jauzīyah’s Zād al-maʿād), in 1329–32/1911–13 (in 3 small volumes) and in 1332/1914 (on the margin of al-Suhailī’s commentary al-Rauḍ al-unuf). A German translation by G. Weil was published at Stuttgart in 1864.

Abridged Persian translation (presumably of Ibn His̲h̲ām’s recension): Tarjamah i Siyar al-Nabī begun in 612/1215 (according to the Bodleian copy) or 620/1223 (according to the i.o. copy) at the request of the Atābak Saʿd b. Zangī (for whom see Ency. Isl. iv 31 etc.) by an anonymous translator who read the book in Egypt and began to translate it at Abarqūh after his return to Persia: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3255 = Tauer 165 (ah 648/1250), 3257 = Tauer 167 (ah 864/1460), 3256 = Tauer 168 (ah 887/1482), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü = Tauer 166 (ah 723/1323), 1527 = Tauer 171, Fātiḥ 4406a = Tauer 169 (9th/15th cent.), Bodleian 127 (defective. ah 936/1529), Ethé 135 (apparently somewhat defective. ah 1030/1621), Blochet i 372 (ah 1073/1662), K̲h̲āliṣ Efendī 3255 = Tauer 170 (ah 1083/1672), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 731).

§ 213. M. b. ʿUmar al-Wāqidī, who was born at al-Madīnah in 130/747–8 and who died in D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 207/823, nearly four years after his appointment as Qāḍī of ʿAskar al-Mahdī in al-Ruṣāfah by al-Maʾmūn, wrote a kitāb al-mag̲h̲āzī, which has been preserved, and numerous other works (Futūḥ al-S̲h̲aʾm, Futūḥ al-ʿIrāq, Maqtal al-Ḥusain etc.), which are now lost (see Brockelmann i 135–6 and Ency. Isl. under al-Wāqidī). Ostensibly by al-Wāqidī but in reality the compositions of a later date are some historical romances, Futūḥ al-S̲h̲aʾm, Futūḥ al-ʿIrāq, Futūḥ Miṣr etc., which exist in manuscript and several of which have been printed (see Brockelmann i 135–6, Ency. Isl. under al-Wāḳidī, etc.).

Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī: Rieu Arabic Suppt. 502 (the only known complete copy. ah 564/1169), Cureton-Rieu p. 419 (first half of the work).

Edition (of the first third of the work): History of Muhammad’s campaigns, byal-Wákidy. Edited by A. von Kremer [from a ms. discovered by him at Damascus in 1851], Calcutta 1855–6°* (Bibliotheca Indica).

Condensed German translation: Muhammed in Medina. Das ist Vakidi’s Kitab al Maghazi in verkürzter deutscher Wiedergabe herausgegeben von J. Wellhausen, Berlin 1882°*.

Persian translation of a portion by Maulawi M. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Aʿẓamgaṛhī:2,3 Tarjamah i Tārīk̲h̲ i Wāqidī (pārah). Edition: place ? 1891 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 232 no. 867).

§ 214. M. Ibn Saʿd al-Zuhrī, a client of the Banū Hās̲h̲im, was one of the pupils of al-Wāqidī (see p. 135 supra) and is often called Kātib al-Wāqidī. He died at Bag̲h̲dād in 230/845. His great work the Kitāb al-Ṭabaqāt, which contains the lives of the Prophet, his Companions and their successors, was published at Leyden in 1904–28 by E. Sachau in collaboration with C. Brockelmann, J. Horovitz, J. Lippert, B. Meissner, E. Mittwoch, F. Schwally and K.V. Zetterstéen (see Brockelmann i 136–7, Ency. Isl. under Ibn Saʿd).

Tarjamah i fārisī i pāraʾī az Ṭabaqāt i Muḥammad ibn i Saʿd, an extract (106 pp.) relating to Muḥammad’s political activities translated by M. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd. Edition: Āgrah 1891°.

§ 215. M. b. ʿĪsā b. Saurah al-Tirmid̲h̲ī is celebrated as the author of one of the six canonical collections of traditions (al-Jāmiʿ or al-Ṣaḥīḥ or al-Sunan). He is said to have died at Tirmid̲h̲ in 279/892–3 (or 275/888–9 or 270/883–4).

S̲h̲amāʾil al-Nabī, a collection of traditions concerning the person and character of the Prophet: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 548, Brockelmann i 162 (q.v. for editions and commentaries), Ellis ii 197–8, Ency. Isl. iv 796.

Persian commentaries:

(1)
S̲h̲amāʾil i Nabawī, by M. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Lārī (d. 979/1571–2, see p. 90 supra): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 70. Editions: Lahore [1879*], 1309/1892°.
(2)
Tarjamah i S̲h̲amāʾil al-Nabī, completed at the k̲h̲ānaqāh of S. ʿAlī al-Hamadānī ah 988/1580 by a certain Ḥājjī, i.e. apparently Ḥājjī M. Kas̲h̲mīrī (d. 1006/1597, see Raḥmān ʿAlī 46), who was a pupil of Ibn Ḥajar al-Haitamī (for whom see Brock, ii 387 etc., Ency. Isl. ii 380): Būhār 159 (16th cent.), Bānkīpūr xiv 1191.
(3)
of unknown authorship: Bānkīpūr xiv 1192 (ah 1272/1855–6).
(4)
by ?: Peshawar 439c (?).
(5)
by ?: i.o. D.P. 60 (Bilg. 12).

§ 216. Abū Saʿd (or Saʿīd) ʿAbd al-Malik b. Abī ʿUt̲h̲mān M. al-K̲h̲argūs̲h̲ī,4 a celebrated devotee (zāhid) and preacher (wāʿiẓ), died at Nīs̲h̲āpūr in 406/1015–16 or in Jumādā i 407/1016. He was the author of several Arabic works, including

(1)
Tahd̲h̲ib al-asrār, on Ṣūfism, Ahlwardt iii 2819,
(2)
al-Bis̲h̲ārah wa-’l-nid̲h̲ārah fī taʿbīr al-ruʾyā, Leyden 1213, Cairo vi 118, and
(3)
(S̲h̲araf al-Nabī) or (Dalāʾil al-nubuwwah), or (S̲h̲araf al-nubuwwah) or (S̲h̲araf al-Muṣṭafā), a classified collection of traditions relating to the Prophet: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv 7556, Rieu Arabic Suppt. 509 (11th cent. ad), Ahlwardt ix 9571 (an abridgment ?. ah 447/1055).

Persian translation by Maḥmūd b. M. b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī:5 Asʿad 2222 (ah 599/1202–3. See Tauer 287, note 3), Blochet i 371 (ah 608/1211–12), Bāyazīd 888 (ah 755/1354. See Tauer 287, note 3).

[Subkī iii 282–3; Rieu Arabic Suppt. 509; Brockelmann i 200, 521 (where the reference to the Cairo catalogue seems to be incorrect).]

§ 217. al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā al-Yaḥṣubī al-Sabtī al-Mālikī was born in 476/1083 at Ceuta, of which town he eventually became qāḍī. He died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 544/1149. Of the score of works written by him al-S̲h̲ifāʾ bi-taʿrīf ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā became widely celebrated (see Brockelmann i 369, Ency. Isl. under ʿIyāḍ).

al-S̲h̲ifāʾ bi-taʿrīf ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā, an Arabic work on the merits of the Prophet and the duties of Muhammadans towards him: for mss. see Brockelmann i 369.

Editions: [Cairo,] 1276/1859° etc.

Persian translations: (1) by ?: i.o. D.P. 42 (?) (Bilg. 695) (ah 1158/1745), (2) by Abū Bakr b. M. Bharūc̲h̲ī: Āṣafīyah i p. 682 no. 487 (1st half only).

§ 218. Raḍī al-Dīn Abū Naṣr al-Ḥasan b. al-Faḍl al-Ṭabarsī is much less celebrated than his father, Amīn al-Dīn al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭabarsī (d. 548/1154), the author of the well-known Arabic S̲h̲īʿite commentaries on the Qurʾān entitled Majmaʿ al-bayān completed in 536/1142 (see Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in the Library of the India Office, vol. ii no. 1102, Ahlwardt 802, Loth 61–3, Cureton-Rieu 1473 etc.) and Jawāmiʿ al-Jāmiʿ written in 542–3/1147–8 (see Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in theIndia Office, vol. ii no. 1104, Loth 64 etc.). The date of his death does not seem to be recorded.

Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāq,6 an Arabic work on the practice of the Prophet and the Imāms as an example for Muslims (De imitatione Muhammadis).

Editions: Būlāq 1300/1883°, Cairo 1303/1886°, 1311/1893°.

Persian translations:

(1)
Makārim al-karāʾim, by ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan al-Zawārī (see pp. 11–12 supra), who flourished under S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp i (ah 930/1524–984/1576): i.ḥ. 574 and 3088: i.o. D.P. 744 (?) (Bilg. 595) (19th cent.).
(2)
Maḥāsin al-ādāb, by Naṣīr al-Dīn M. b. ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Anṣārī al-Astarābādī, written also in S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp’s reign not earlier than 941/1534–5: Rieu i 15b (16th cent.).
(3)
Tarjamah i Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāq, by an unknown author, completed in 1064/1654: i.ḥ. 575, Bānkīpūr xiv 1218, Calcutta Madrasah p. 64 no. 112.
(4)
Tarjamah i Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāq, completed in 1065/1655 by ʿAlī b. Ṭaifūr al-Bisṭāmī: Ivanow Curzon 751 (ah 1076/1665), Bānkīpūr xiv 1220 (19th cent.).

[Rauḍāt al-jannāt 512–14.]

§ 219. The traditionist Abū ’l-Karam ʿAbd al-Salām b. M. b. [Abī] l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Ḥijjī al-Firdausī al-Andarasfānī7 does not seem to be mentioned in the biographical dictionaries, but his Mustaqṣā was probably written in the latter half of the 6th/12th century, since his immediate predecessor in the isnād prefixed to it is said to have received a tradition at Jurjānīyah (Gurgānj) in 536/1141–2. ʿAbd al-Salām had spent a whole life in collecting all the genuine traditions from the best authorities and his Mustaqṣā was written at the request of the Saiyid i qurrā i ahl i Islām Abū ’l-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad.

It was translated into Persian by Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. al-Ḥasan al-K̲h̲uwārazmī al-Kubrawī, who died in 839/1435–6 (according to the Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq). He was a disciple of the great saint K̲h̲wājah Abū ’l-Wafāʾ (who died at K̲h̲wārazm in 835/1431–2, see Nafaḥāt al-uns, Haft iqlīm no. 1411), and he wrote a commentary on the Mat̲h̲nawī and a commentary on the Burdah of al-Būṣīrī in the K̲h̲wārazm dialect of Turkī.

[Ḥabīb al-siyar ii 3, 144; Haft iqlīm no. 1412.]

al-Mustaqṣā [fī s̲h̲arḥ. al-Mujtalā ?]:8 an Arabic history of the Prophet and the first five Caliphs based mainly on the Ṣaḥīḥs of Muslim and al-Buk̲h̲ārī and the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 375. No mss. recorded.

Persian translation: al-Maqṣad al-aqṣā9 fī tarjamat al-Mustaqṣā enlarged by an account of the Imāms to ʿAlī al-Riḍā and other historical information and written after the death of Amīr S̲h̲āh-Malik, Governor of K̲h̲wārazm, in 829/1425–6 and before the expulsion of his son Amīr Ibrāhīm from K̲h̲wārazm by the Uzbaks in 834/1430–1, the former being referred to in the work as dead and the latter being spoken of as Governor of K̲h̲wārazm: Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 90, Salīm Āg̲h̲ā 849–50 = Tauer 181–2 (ah 894/1489), Rieu i 144 (16th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 482 no. 60 (ah 1152/1739–40), Upsala Zetterstéen 405.

§ 220. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar.

Sīrat al-Nabī, a short biography abridged from a larger work and divided into 8 (7) bābs: Salīm Āg̲h̲ā 808 = Tauer 172 (ah 694/1295).

§ 221. Abū ’l-Fatḥ M. b. A. b. Abī Bakr al-Kārtānī (?) was for some time at the court of Pādis̲h̲āh K̲h̲ātūn (ah 693/1294–694/1295) at Kirmān and then went to Pūman, where he wrote his life of the Prophet for Abū ’l-Naṣr Dibāj b. Fīl-S̲h̲āh, the ruler of Gīlān.

Zulāl al-ṣafā fī aḥwāl al-Muṣṭafā: Fātiḥ 4376 = Tauer 173 (circ. ah 700/1300–1).

§ 222. Abū ’l-Fatḥ Fatḥ al-Dīn M. b. M. al-Yaʿmarī al-Andalusī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī called Ibn Saiyid al-Nās was born at Cairo in 661/1263 or 671/1273, became Professor of Ḥadīt̲h̲ in the Ẓāhirīyah Madrasah and died in S̲h̲aʿbān 734/1334.

ʿUyūn al-at̲h̲ar fī funūn al-mag̲h̲āzī wa-’l-s̲h̲amāʾil wa-’l-siyar, a detailed Arabic biography of the Prophet: for mss. see Brockelmann ii 71 (add i.o. 4105).

Arabic abridgment by the author himself: Nūr al-ʿuyūn: for mss. see Brockelmann, loc. cit.

Persian translation of the abridgment: Surūr al-maḥzūn by Walī Allāh Dihlawī (d. 1176/1762–3, see pp. 17–18 supra).

Editions: [Calcutta,] 1249/1833–4*, [Delhi?] Muḥammadī Press, 1257/1841*, Cawnpore 1851* (see Rieu iii 1058a), Lahore 1891°.

[Brockelmann ii 71, Ency. Isl. under Ibn Saiyid al-Nās.]

§ 223. Saʿīd [al-Dīn M.]10 b. Masʿūd b. M. al-Kāzarūnī, a descendant of Abū ʿAlī al-Daqqāq, died according to al-Durar al-kāminah in Jumādā ii 758/May–June 1357. He was the author of

(1)
an Arabic commentary on the Mas̲h̲āriq al-anwār of al-Ṣag̲h̲ānī entitled according to Ḥ.K̲h̲. al-Maṭāliʿ al-Muṣṭafawīyah,
(2)
a work entitled S̲h̲ifāʾ al-ṣudūr,
(3)
al-Musalsalāt, a collection of traditions completed in 742/1341 (Cairo Arabic Cat. vii 455), and
(4)
an Arabic life of Muḥammad, which Ḥ.K̲h̲. calls al-Muntaqā fī siyar maulid al-Nabī al-Muṣṭafā but which the b.m. Catalogue and the Persian translator call Maulūd al-Nabī (or Maulūd al-Muṣṭafā), divided into four qisms and a k̲h̲ātimah and written between ah 732/1331 (the date of an incident in the author’s life mentioned by the translator, see Bānkīpūr Cat. vi p. 85) and 758/1357, the date of the author’s death: Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 167,11 Cureton-Rieu p. 423 no. 920, Bānkīpūr Arab. Cat. xv no. 1010, Yeñī 857.

Persian translations:

(1)
completed at S̲h̲īrāz ah 760/1358 by the author’s son ʿAfīf b. Saʿīd al-Kāzarūnī:12 Tarjamah i Maulūd i Muṣṭafā (or al-Nabī), sometimes called Siyar i ʿAfīfī or Siyar i Kāzarūnī: Bāyazīd 883 = Tauer 174 (ah 793/1391. Bad ms.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3342 = Tauer 175 (ah 833/1430), Bānkīpūr vi 484 (ah 841/1437), Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 no. 135 (ah 860/1455–6), Lālā Ismāʿīl 328 = Tauer 176 (ah 876/1472), Fātiḥ 4405b = Tauer 177 (ah 885/1480), Browne Coll. J. 5 (10) = Houtum-Schindler 34 (ah 896/1491 (?)),13 Ivanow 49 (ah 989/1581–2, said to be copied from an autograph), Būhār 17 (ah 1173/1760), Hamburg 220 (fairly old), Berlin 543 (old), 544, Ethé 165, i.o. D.P. 727, Rieu iii 1026a (table of contents only).
(2)
Nihāyat al-masʾūl fī dirāyat al-Rasūl, a translation made by ʿAbd al-Salām b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain al-Abarqūhī for a certain Abū ’l-As̲h̲raf Muḥammad described as Nāẓim i umūr i jumhūr al-Muʾminīn: S̲h̲ahīd ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 1962 = Tauer 179 (ah 780/1378–9), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3510 = Tauer 178 (ah 905/1499).

[al-Durar al-kāminah iv pp. 255–6; Brockelmann ii 195; Bānkīpūr vi 484 (where the problems relating to the author and Ḥ.K̲h̲.’s confusions are discussed).]

§ 224. Majd al-Dīn M. b. Yaʿqūb al-Firūzābādī, celebrated as the author of the Arabic dictionary entitled al-Qāmūs, was born in 729/1329 at Kāzarūn, near S̲h̲īrāz, and died in 817/1414 at Zabīd (for further information see Brockelmann ii 181–3 and Ency. Isl. under al-Fīrūzābādī).

Sufar al-saʿādah, or al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, traditions relating to the practice of the Prophet especially in regard to religious observances, divided into five unnumbered chapters ((1) ablutions (wuḍūʾ), prayer (namāz and adʿiyah), fasting (ṣiyām) etc., (2) Friday and the Friday service, (3) the pilgrimage, (4) the glorification of God (ad̲h̲kār), (5) the Prophet’s general manner of life (dar ʿumūm i aḥwāl u maʿās̲h̲ i ḥaḍrat i nubuwwat)14) preceded by a fātiḥah and followed by a k̲h̲ātimah: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 7174, Gotha 33 (ah 884/1480), Blochet i 89 (defective. ah 906/1500), Flügel iii 1963 (1) (extract dar faḍīlat i ḥajj u ʿumrah only. ah 949/1542–3), Peshawar 371 (ah 1098/1686–7), Bānkīpūr xiv 1185 (ah 1103/1691–2).

Editions: “Ṣirāṭ i mustaqīm al-maʿrūf Sifr al-saʿādahLahore 1286/1869*, 1293/1876*, 1294/1877*.

Arabic translation made in 804/1401–2 by Abū ’l-Jūd M. b. Maḥmūd Mak̲h̲zūmī Ḥanafī Miṣrī:15 Sufar al-saʿādah, Fagnan 1681 (ah 867/1462–3), Cairo Arab. Cat. i (ah 1310), p. 348 (ah 1097/1686).

Edition of the Arabic translation: [Cairo 1880 ?°] (with Walī Allāh Dihlawī’s al-Fauz al-kabīr (see p. 17 supra) on the margin).

Persian commentary completed ah 1016/1607 by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (for whom see p. 152): al-Ṭarīq al-qawīm fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm16 or S̲h̲arḥ Sufar al-saʿādah: Bānkīpūr xiv 1186 (ah 1033/1624, autograph), i.o. D.P. 56 (corrected by the author himself), Ethé 2656 (ah 1016/1607. Full Analysis), 2657 (n.d.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 nos. 28 (n.d.), 29 (ah 1086/1675–6), p. 1608 no. 181, Ivanow 1002 (ah 1087/1676–7), 1003 (an abridgment ?), Rieu i 15a (17th cent.), Calcutta Madrasah p. 63 no. 110 (ah 1194/1780), Madras, Peshawar 319,

Editions of ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq’s commentary: Calcutta 1252/1836*, [Lucknow] 1875*, [Lucknow] 1885°, Lucknow 1903*.

§ 225. Abū ’l-Ḥasan M. b. al-Ḥusain17 b. al-Ḥasan al-Baihaqī al-Naisābūrī usually called Quṭb al-Dīn al-Kaidarī,18 a scholar and poet, belongs apparently to the 6th/12th century.19 According to the Rauḍāt al-jannāt (p. 604), the year 773/1371–2 is mentioned in his commentary on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah as that in which he received a riwāyah from ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥamzah al-Ṭūsī at Sabzawār (of Baihaq), but 573/1177–8 should doubtless be read. He was the author of several works including

(1)
al-Iṣbāḥ,20 a work on S̲h̲īʿite law,
(2)
Ḥadāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq21 fī fasr daqāʾiq aḥsan al-k̲h̲alāʾiq, a commentary on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah, and
(3)
Mabāhij al-muhaj fī manāhij al-ḥujaj,22 all of which were presumably in Arabic.

A Persian abridgment of the third of these works was prepared under the title Bahjat al-mabāhij by Abū Saʿīd23 Ḥasan b. Ḥusain S̲h̲īʿī Sabzawārī (an author of the 9th/15th century), who wrote

(1)
Maṣābīḥ al-qulūb, a paraenetic work in Persian (i.ḥ. 2948),
(2)
Rāḥat al-arwāḥ wa-muʾnis al-as̲h̲bāḥ, anecdotes of the Prophet and his family dedicated to the Sulṭān Niẓām al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. al-Ṣāḥib al-A‘ẓam S̲h̲ams al-Dīn [of the 4th Ṣaffārid dynasty, reigned ah 842/1438-9-885/1480-1. See Zambaur Manuel de généalogie etc. p. 200], Ivanow 1110 (defective. 18th cent.),
(3)
a translation of al-Irbilī’s Kas̲h̲ f al-g̲h̲ummah (see p. 164v.).
Bahjat al-mabāhij, on the merits and miracles of the Prophet and his descendants, being an abridgment (with additions) of the aforementioned Mabāhij al-muhaj: i.h. 406, Būhār 34 (16th cent.), i.o. D.P. 578a, 578b, Browne Suppt. 202 (ah 1199/1784–5. King’s 58).

Metrical version: Bahjat al-mabāhij or Kitāb i muʿjizāt (a chronogram = 953/1546–7), by M. Taqī al-Dīn “Ḥairatī”24 Tūnī written by order of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp: Rieu Suppt. 303 (slightly defective. ah 965/1558), Bānkīpūr ii 235 (ah 1055/1646), 236 (ah 1075/1665), Glasgow (jras. 1906 p. 601 no. 27), Rehatsek p. 129 no. 13 (?).

[Rauḍāt al-jannāt 170 (Ḥasan Sabzawārī), 604 (al-Kaidarī).]

§ 226. Apparently unknown is the authorship of

al-D̲h̲irwat al-ʿulyā fī sīrat al-Muṣṭafā, an Arabic work, of which no copies seem to be recorded.

Persian translation made by Bahāʾ al-Dīn Kāzarūnī25 for the Amīr i kabīr Nāṣir i juyūs̲h̲ al-Muslimīn … ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah [wa-] ’l-Dīn Pīr ʿAlī: Lālā Ismāʿīl 330 = Tauer 180 (ah 818/1415), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 44.

§ 227. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz called (mulaqqab) Muḥyī al-Ḥiṣārī wrote in 821/1418 his

Siyar al-Nabī, in twelve majālis, the last of which contains an account of Muḥammad’s death and a short history of the first four Caliphs: Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3346 = Tauer 183 (ah 844/1441).

§ 228. S. Muḥammad b. S. Naṣīr al-Dīn Jaʿfar Ḥusainī Makkī is said to have been a pupil and k̲h̲alīfah of the celebrated saint Naṣīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī (d. 757/1356), to have lived from the time of Sulṭān Muḥammad Tug̲h̲luq (reigned 725/1325–752/1351) to that of Sulṭān Buhlūl (reigned ah 854/1450–894/1489) and to have reached an age of more than 100 years. Among his works are mentioned (1) Baḥr al-maʿānī, Ṣūfic letters to Malik Maḥmūd (S̲h̲aik̲h̲an) written ah 824/1421–825/1422 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 404 nos. 789, 886, Ethé 1867–8), (2) Risālah dar bayān i rūḥ, and (3) Panj nikāt. According to the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ he died in 891/1486 and was buried at Sirhind.

Baḥr al-ansāb, a historical and genealogical work on the Prophet and his ancestors, the first six Caliphs and the Imāms, being (according to the Edinburgh catalogue) a translation of an Arabic work by the translator’s father: Edinburgh 407 (ah 1011/1602–3), Browne Suppt. 153 (Corpus 205 (1)).

[Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 332); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 402.]

§ 229. Amīr Saiyid Aṣīl al-Dīn Abū ’l-Mafāk̲h̲ir ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḥusainī al-Das̲h̲takī al-S̲h̲īrāzī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī was summoned from S̲h̲īrāz to Harāt by Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd and used to deliver sermons every week in the mosque of Gauhar S̲h̲ād Āg̲h̲ā. In the month of Rabīʿ i he used to read his Mīlād i Nabī [i.e. apparently al-Mujtabā] to large and attentive audiences. He died in 883/1478.

A Risālah i mazārāt i S̲h̲īrāz is mentioned as a work of his by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr, and he is apparently also the author of a similar work relating to the distinguished persons buried at Harāt and entitled Maqṣad al-iqbāl al-Sulṭānīyah wa-marṣad al-aʿmāl al-K̲h̲āqānīyah (see Asʿad 2428 and Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1860–3), p. 54). For his nephew, Jamāl al-Ḥusainī, see p. 148.

al-Mujtabā fī sīrat al-Muṣṭafā, a large history of Muḥammad in 28 majālis (see Bānkīpūr vi p. 93): no copies recorded.

Abridgments by the author himself:

(1)
al-Mujtanā min kitāb al-Mujtabā fī sīrat al-Muṣṭafā completed in 830/1427 at Kirmān for the wazīr Jamāl al-Dīn Ibrāhīm known as (al-mas̲h̲hūr bi) Abū Kālījār and divided into a muqaddimah, three aṣls and a k̲h̲ātimah: S̲h̲ahīd ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 1897 = Tauer 184 (11th/17th cent.).
(2)
Durj al-durar wa-darj al-g̲h̲urar fī bayān mīlād Saiyid al-bas̲h̲ar, completed in (or after) 858/1454 and divided into twelve majālis: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 222, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3195 = Tauer 185 (ah 886/1481), 3196 = Tauer 186 (11th/17th cent.), Aumer 270 (Majlis vii–xii only, i.e. ah 3–11. ah 1060/1650), Bānkīpūr vi 485 (18th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 876 no. 119.

[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 335; Haft iqlīm no. 208; Majālis al-muʾminīn 226–7; Rieu i 147a; Bānkīpūr vi 485.]

§ 230. Salām Allāh b. ʿAlī al-Bakrī composed in al-ʿIrāq ah 863/1458–9

al-Tuḥfat al-Salāmīyah fī ’l-jawāhir al-Islāmīyah based on the Taʿrīf [bi-’l-maulid al-s̲h̲arīf] of M. b. M. Ibn al-Jazarī26 and other works and divided into twelve bābs: Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1526 = Tauer 187 (ah 894/1489).

§ 231. A quotation or quotations from Jāmī (d. 898/1492) and the date of Ethé 137 (ah 871/1466–7) show that the fifteenth century is the period to which we must assign—

Siyar al-Nabī, a detailed life of Muḥammad in 45 faṣls and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ethé 136 (Faṣls 1–30, defective at beginning. N.d.), 137 (Faṣls 32–45 and k̲h̲ātimah. ah 871/1466–7), Bānkīpūr vi 489 (opens in fifth faṣl. 16th cent.).

§ 232. Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Ardistānī usually called Pīr Jamāl or, as a poet, “Jamālī,” an eminent Ṣūfī, the eponym of an order of dervishes (the Pīr-Jamālīyah), and the author of numerous works, mainly poetical, died ah 879/1474–5. A copy of his Kullīyāt, preserved in the India Office, has been described by R.A. Nicholson in the Volume of Oriental studies presented to E.G. Browne, Cambridge 1922, pp. 364–70. For other collections of his poems see Bodleian 1274, Browne Coll, v 38, Būhār 357, and Ivanow 648 = Sprenger 296.

Bayān i ḥaqāʾiq i aḥwāl i Saiyid al-Mursalīn (or al-Muṣṭafā), a large mat̲h̲nawī with many interspersed prose passages on the life of Muḥammad as the perfect model for mystics, divided into the seven parts (1) Miṣbāḥ al-arwāḥ completed ah 868/1463–4, (2) Aḥkām al-muḥibbīn, (3) Nihāyat al-ḥikmat, (4) Bidāyat al-maḥabbat, (5) Hidāyat al-maʿrifat, (6) Fatḥ al-abwāb, (7) S̲h̲arḥ al-wāṣilīn completed ah 876./1471–2: Blochet iii 1757 (early 16th cent.), 1758–9 (lacking Pt. 7. Mid 16th cent.), 1760 (Miṣbāḥ al-arwāḥ only. Early 16th cent.), 1761 (Fatḥ al-abwāb only. Circ. ad 1480), Ivanow 648 (Pts. (1) and (7) only. Mid 10th/16th cent.), i.o. 3866, Browne Coll. v 38 (ah 1235/1819).

[Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm (Berlin p. 633 no. 55 and p. 636 no. 41); Maʿṣūm ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq, Ṭihrān 1319/1901–2, ii, p. 159; Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn pp. 53–7; Nicholson in the Browne Volume, loc. cit.]

§ 233. Ḥājjī Nūr al-Dīn M. Kāzarūnī began in 885/1480–1 for S̲h̲āh Yaʿqūb [of the Āq-quyūnlū presumably] his

Maulūd i ḥaḍrat i Risālat-panāh i Muḥammadī, a large mat̲h̲nawī on the life of Muḥammad in four qisms: Ḥakīmog̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 812 = Tauer 188 (10th/16th cent.), Hudāʾī Efendī 97/1 = Tauer 189 (10th/16th cent.), Yildiz Kös̲h̲kü, k̲h̲uṣūṣī 39 = Tauer 190 (12th/18th cent.).

§ 234. The well-known poet, scholar and mystic Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad Jāmī died at Harāt in 898/1492.

S̲h̲awāhid al-nubuwwah li-taqwiyat yaqīn ahl al-futuwwah, evidences of Muḥammad’s prophetship in his own life and in that of his companions and their successors, written ah 885/1480 and divided into a muqaddimah, seven rukns and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 82, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3279 = Tauer 191 (ah 888/1483), 3277 = Tauer 192 (ah 889/1484), 3283 (1) = Tauer 194 (ah 893/1488), 3282 = Tauer 196 (ah 897/1492), 3275 = Tauer 201 (circ. ah 900/1494–5), 3276 = Tauer 202 (circ. ah 900/1494–5), 4206 (1) = Tauer 205 (ah 906/1500–1), 3280 = Tauer 206 (ah 913/1507), 3278 = Tauer 208 (ah 937/1530), 3281 = Tauer 209 (ah 949/1543), 4207 (1) = Tauer 216 (10th/16th cent.), 4208 (5) = Tauer 217 (10th/16th cent.), 4209 (1) = Tauer 218 (10th/16th cent.), Yeñī 991 (2) = Tauer 193 (ah 893/1488), Ḥakīmog̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 660 (1) = Tauer 195 (ah 896/1490–1), 725 (1) = Tauer 220 (10th/16th cent.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 4171 (1) = Tauer 197 (ah 898/1492–3), 4176a (2) = Tauer 200 (ah 899/1494), 4179a (4) = Tauer 219 (10th/16th cent.), Fātiḥ 4044 (1) = Tauer 198 (ah 898/1492–3), 4045 (1) = Tauer 199 (ah 898/1492–3), 4417 = Tauer 222 (11th/17th cent.), ʿUmūmīyah 3410 (1) = Tauer 203 (9th/15th cent.), 3698 = Tauer 204 (9th/15th cent.), Leyden iv p. 299 no. 2112 (ah 902/1496–7), 2111 (ah 993/1585), v p. 273 (ah 918/1512–13. Utrecht 41), Salīm Āg̲h̲ā 819 (1) = Tauer 207 (ah 921/1515), Dorn p. 370 (circ. 930/1523–4 ?), Bodleian 894 (4) (ah 941/1534), 895 (2) (ah 963/1556), 967 (ah 951/1544), 968, Blochet i 375 (ah 976/1568), 376 (17th cent.), 377 (17th cent.), Ethé 1357 (6) (ah 979/1571), 1374 (not later than ah 1031/1621–2), i.o. D.P. 36 (b), 679 (3 copies), Cairo p. 534 (ah 985/1577–8), p. 410 (ah 993/1585), Bānkīpūr ii 181 (4) (ah 970/1562–3 (?)), 203 (16th cent.), Rieu i 146a (ah 1008/1600), Peshawar 1447 (ah 1018/1609–10), 835 b, Berlin 38 (3) (ah 1097/1685–6), 550, 551, 552 (defective), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 4, Aumer 271 (ah 1221/1806–7), Calcutta Madrasah 126 (ah 1231/1816), Browne Suppt. 819 (King’s 254), 820 (Corpus 240), Gotha 22 (fragment). Several other Constantinople mss. are mentioned by Tauer.

Editions: (place ?) 1279/1862–3 (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 114), (place ?) 1288/1871–2 (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 128), Lucknow 1876°*, 1882°.

Turkish translation by Lāmiʿī: Flügel iii 1686.

§ 235. Muʿīn al-Dīn Farāhī died ah 907/1501–2 (see p. 9 supra).

(1)
Maʿārij al-nubuwwah fī madārij al-futuwwah, a life of Muḥammad divided into a muqaddimah, four rukns and a k̲h̲ātimah and based on some detached discourses (majālis) which the author began to write in Rabīʿ i ah 891/1486: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 608 no. 12295, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3442 = Tauer 228 (ah 898/1492), 3387 = Tauer 230 (K̲h̲ātimah only. ah 917/1512), 3444 = Tauer 232 (ah 953/1546–7), 3443 = Tauer 234 (ah 968/1560–1), 3258 = Tauer 243 (10th/16th cent.), Qarah Muṣṭafā 403 = Tauer 229 (ah 904/1499), Asʿad 2414 = Tauer 231 (ah 922/1516), Lālā Ismāʿīl 373 = Tauer 233 (ah 968/1560–1), C̲h̲elebī ʿAbd Allāh 266 = Tauer 236 (ah 968/1560–1), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 408 = Tauer 237 (ah 978/1570–1), 409 = Tauer 244 (10th/16th cent.), 410 = Tauer 245 (10th/16th cent.), Tark̲h̲ān K̲h̲adījah Sulṭān 246 = Tauer 238 (ah 981/1573), Bānkīpūr vi 486 (ah 1001/1592–3), 487–8 (ah 1057/1647), Rieu i 150b (Rukns iii–iv and K̲h̲ātimah. 16th cent.), 149a–150a (17th cent.), 150b (Rukns i–ii. 18th cent.), Ethé 138 (ah 1008–10/1599–1602), 139 (ah 1029/1620), 140 (slightly defective, ah 1025/1616), 141 (damaged and lacking K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1022/1613), 142 (lacks Muqa­ddimah. 11th cent, h.), 143 (lacks Muqaddimah), 144 (Muqaddimah and Rukns i–ii. ah 1015/1606), i.o. d.p. 716 (lacunae. Partly autograph (??), partly ah 1134/1722), Bodleian 128 (ah 1021/1612), 129, 130 (Rukn iv and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1162/1749), 1963 (very defective), Āṣafīyah ii p. 880 nos. 10 (ah 1087/1676–7), 2 (Rukn iv. ah 1026/1617), 7 (Rukns iii–iv. ah 1100/1688–9), 38 (Rukn i), 39 (Rukn ii), 40 (Rukn iii. ah 1095/1684), Ivanow 50 (11th cent, ah), 51 (defective at end. ah 1033/1623–4), 52 (Muqaddimah only), Curzon 11 (Muqaddimah and Rukn i. 17th cent.), 1st Suppt. 819 (Rukns iii–iv. 11th/17th cent.), Aumer 269 (ah 1043/1633–4), Peshawar 1403–4 (ah 1066/1655–6), 1405 (Rukn i), Eton 12–13 (ah 1090/1679–80), Blochet i 383 (extends to beginning of Rukn iii. 17th cent.), 384 (Muqaddimah and Rukns i–ii. 17th cent.), 385 (Muqaddimah and Rukns i–ii. 17th cent.), Decourdemanche s.p. 1854, Lindesiana p. 197 nos. 385–6 (ah 1118/1706–7), no. 454 (? Siyar al-Nabī by Muʿīn b. Maḥmūd ? Circ. ad 1660), Edinburgh 190 (before ah 1137/1724–5), Būhār 23 (ah 1282/1865–6), Browne Suppt. 1211 (King’s 76), Leningrad Mus Asiat. (2 defective copies. See Mélanges asiatiques vii (1876) p. 400), Salemann-Rosen p. 19 nos. 300 (vols. iii–iv), 614*, 615, Upsala Zetterstéen 404.

Editions: Lucknow 1875°*, Lahore 1292/1875*, Cawnpore 1882°, 1887†, [1895°], Bombay 1300/1883°, 1324/1906*.

Turkish translation by M. b. M. called Altī-Parmaq (d. 1003/1623–4): Dalāʾil i nubuwwat i Muḥammadī u s̲h̲amāʾil i futuwwat i Aḥmadī, Flügel ii 1231 (ah 1093/1682), 1232 (ah 1032/1622), Dresden 385, Berlin (Cod. Petermann ii 125), Cairo Turk. Cat. p. 15 (3 copies), Karlsruhe 26 (defective), New York Columbia Univ. (see jaos. 49 (1929) p. 232), Hamburg 267.

Editions: Constantinople 1257/1841–2 (see Journal asiatique 1843, i 263), Būlāq 1271/1854–5.

(2)
(Miʿrāj-nāmah) or (Qiṣṣah i Miʿrāj), probably by Muʿīn al-Dīn Farāhī, since some of the many poetical quotations contain the tak̲h̲alluṣ Muʿīn miskīn: Ivanow 325 (17th cent.).

§ 236. Amīr Jamāl [al-Dīn] ʿAṭāʾ Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh al-Ḥusainī al-Das̲h̲takī al-S̲h̲irāzī was the nephew and pupil of Amīr Aṣīl al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusainī (for whom see p. 144 supra). He was, according to K̲h̲wānd-Amīr. an outstanding divine of Sulṭān Ḥusain’s time at Harāt, where for some years he taught in the Madrasah i Sulṭānīyah and preached in the Masjid i jāmiʿ. K̲h̲wānd-Amīr speaks of him as living in retirement, wholly absorbed in devotions and good works. According to the Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī he died in 926/1520.27

(1)
Rauḍat al-aḥbāb fī siyar al-Nabī wa-’l-Āl wa-’l-Aṣḥāb, lives of Muḥammad, his family, companions etc. written at the request of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, completed ah 900/1494–5 and divided into three maqṣads ((1) Muḥammad, completed ah 888/1484, (2) Bāb 1 (Bāb 2 does not occur), the first three Caliphs,28 (3) ʿAlī and the twelve Imāms, with an alphabetical list of famous Companions etc.29): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 495, Mas̲h̲had iii p. 85 (apparently Maqṣad i. Autograph (?)), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3209 = Tauer 248 (Maqṣad i. ah 892/1487), 3208 = Tauer 251 (Maqṣad i. ah 927/1521), 3253 = Tauer 252 (Maqṣad i. ah 935/1528–9), 3211 = Tauer 254 (Maqṣad ii. ah 964/1556), 3207 = Tauer 261 (Maqṣad i. 10th/16th cent.), 3210 = Tauer 262 (Maqṣad i. 10th/16th cent.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3298 = Tauer 249 (Maqṣad i. ah 903/1498), 3300 = Tauer 257 (Maqṣad i. ah 973/1566), 3299 = Tauer 263 (Maqṣad i. 10th/16th cent.), Flügel ii 1202 (Maqṣads i–ii. ah 910/1504 and 973/1565), 1203 (Maqṣad ii. ah 1010/1601), Nāfid̲h̲ Pās̲h̲ā 1135 = Tauer 250 (Maqṣad i. ah 913/1508), Dorn 309 (Maqṣad i. ah 937/1530–1), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 nos. 155 (ah 939/1532–3), 20 (n.d.), 6 (n.d.), 56 (n.d.), Ethé 145 (Maqṣads i, ii, bāb i and part of iii. ah 954/1547. Written by author’s son apparently), 146 (Maqṣads i, ii, bāb i and part of iii. ah 1121/1709), 147 (Maqṣad i. ah 984/1576–7), 148 (Maqṣad i. ah 1044/1635), 149 (Maqṣad i. N.d.), 150 (Maqṣad i. N.d.), 151 (Maqṣad i, defective), 152 (Maqṣad i, defective), 153 (Maqṣad ii, bāb i. ah 1094/1683), 154 (Maqṣad ii, bāb i.), 155 (Maqṣad ii, bāb i), 156 (Maqṣad ii, bāb i and part of Maqṣad iii), 157 (Maqṣad iii. ah 1107/1695), i.o. D.P. 649a (ah 1126/1714), 649b (Maqṣad ii), 649c (ah 1143/1730–1), Faiḍ Allāh Efendī 1456 = Tauer 253 (Maqṣad i. ah 960/1553, copied from an autograph), Ḥakīmog̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pāshā 751 = Tauer 256 (Maqṣads i and ii. ah 962/1555 and ah 965/1558), Rieu i 146a (lacks part of Maqṣad ii and whole of Maqṣad iii. 16th cent.), 147b (Maqṣad i. ah 964/1557), 148a (Maqṣads i and ii. 16th cent.), 148a (Maqṣads i and ii. 16th cent.), 148a (Maqṣads i and ii. 16th cent.), 148b (Maqṣad i and part of the life of ʿAlī (from ii ?). ah 1013/1604), 148b (life of ʿAlī and the Imāms, i.e. Maqṣad iii (?). ah 1262/1846), K̲h̲āliṣ Efendī 4899 = Tauer 255 (Maqṣad i. ah 964/1557), Lindesiana p. 123 no. 130 (ah 973/1565–6), no. 408 (Maqṣad ii only. ah 1231/1815–16), Salīm Āg̲h̲ā 794 = Tauer 258 (Maqṣad i. ah 985/ 1578), Turin 95 (ah 986/1578), Ivanow 53 (Maqṣad i. ah 999/1590–1), 54 (Maqṣad i. ah 1029/1620), 55 (Maqṣads i and ii, defective at end. ah 1060/1650), 56 (Maqṣad ii), 57 (Maqṣad ii. 18th cent.), 58 (Maqṣad iii, defective in middle. S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign (1759–1809)), Curzon 12 (Maqṣad i. 18th cent.), 13 (part of Maqṣad i. 18th cent.), 1st Suppt. 921 (Maqṣad ii. ah 1029/1620 (?)), Asʿad 2113 = Tauer 259 (Maqṣads i and ii. ah 989/ 1581), Lālah-lī 1782 = Tauer 260 (Maqṣad iii. ah 995/1587), r.a.s. P. 18 = Morley 5, P. 19 = Morley 6 (Maqṣad i, ending with ah 4. ah 999/1590), Lālā Ismāʿīl 344 = Tauer 265 (Maqṣad i. Circ. ah 1000/1591–2), 345 (Maqṣads ii and iii. ah 1007/1599), Eton 15 (Maqṣad i. Owner’s date 1091/1680–1), Blochet i 378 (Maqṣad i. ah 1003/1594), 379 (Maqṣad i. ah 1088/1677), 380 (Maqṣad i, incomplete. 18th cent.), 381 (Maqṣad ii. ah 1013/1604), 382 (Maqṣad ii. ah 1027/1617), Decourdemanche s.p. 1853 (end of 16th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 496 (Maqṣads i and ii. 16th cent.), 497 (Maqṣads ii and iii. 18th cent.), Edinburgh 191 (Maqṣad i. ah 1011/1602), 420 (all three Maqṣads, the 2nd (incomplete) dated ah 1027/1617), Būhār 19 (all three Maqṣads. ah 1281/1865), 20 (all three Maqṣads. ah 1294/1877), 21 (Maqṣad i. 17th cent. Fine copy), Rāg̲h̲ib Pās̲h̲ā 1014 = Tauer 268 (all three Maqṣads. 11th/17th cent.), Majlis 546 (ah 1130/1718), 547 (“Daftar” i), 548 (“Daftar ii”), Browne Suppt. 715 (ah 1172/1758–9. King’s 192), Browne Coll. J. 20 (10) (Maqṣad i. N.d.), Berlin 553 (Maqṣad i), 554 (Maqṣad ii), 555 (Maqṣad iii), Bodleian 131 (Maqṣad i), 132 (Maqṣad i), 133 (fragment-of Maqṣad i), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 75, Cairo p. 503 (def. at end), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926), p. 59), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vii (1876), p. 400), Peshawar 1420, 1421 (1st half), Upsala Zetterstéen 632 (Maqṣad i).

Edition: [Lucknow,] 1297/1880–2°.

Abridgment: Muntak̲h̲ab i Rauḍat al-aḥbāb: Būhār 22 (ah 1045/1635–6).

Turkish translation by Maḥmūd al-Mag̲h̲nīsāwī: Constantinople 1268/1852 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1864–8), p. 470).

Description: Hammer-Purgstall in Wiener Jahrbücher, vol. 71, Anzeige Blatt, pp. 25–27.

(2)
Tuḥfat al-aḥibbāʾ fī manāqib Āl al-ʿĀbāʾ, on the merits of Muḥammad, ʿAlī, Fāṭimah etc., divided into two maṭlabs: Ethé 145 foll. 406b–441b (a fragment only, part of the muqaddimah of the first Maṭlab. ah 954/1547 (?)).

This second work as well as another entitled Riyāḍ al-siyar is mentioned by ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr Qāniʿ in his Tuḥfat al-kirām. In the Ency. Isl. Jamāl al-Ḥusainī is identified with ʿAṭāʾ Allāh b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥusainī, the author of a work on prosody (called Takmīl al-ṣināʿah), of which an autograph copy dated 925/1519 is mentioned in Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 304 (ʿAlī Ḥusain Library, Ḥaidarābād, cf. Āṣafīyah i p. 166 no. 247, no. 251, ii p. 1734 no. 31 (12), Cairo p. 524 etc.), but this is incorrect (see Rieu Suppt. 191 (3)).

[Bābur-nāmah tr. A.S. Beveridge i 282; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, p. 348; Haft iqlīm no. 209; Majālis al-muʾminīn 227; Ṭabaqāt i Shāh-Jahānī; Tuḥfat al-kirām ii 70–1; Yādgār i Bahādurī fol. 263; Rieu i 147, iii 1081b; Rauḍāt al-jannāt 469–71; Ency. Isl. under D̲j̲amāl al-Ḥusainī.]

§ 237. Aḥmad b. Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan b. Saif al-Dīn Astarābādī must have written bis Āt̲h̲ār i Aḥmadī between 900/1494–5, the date of the Rauḍat al-aḥbāb on which it is based, and 964/1556–7, the date of the manuscript Ivanow Curzon 351.

Āt̲h̲ār i Aḥmadī, a biography of the Prophet followed by a k̲h̲ātimah on the first four Caliphs and the twelve Imāms, abridged from the Rauḍat al-aḥbāb (see p. 148 supra): Ivanow Curzon 351 (ah 964/1556–7), Ivanow 69 (18th cent.), Āṣafiyah ii p. 876 no. 59 (ah 1076/1665), Berlin 560, 561, Browne Coll. J. 14 (11) (defective).

§ 238. At present unascertained is the authorship of the Mas̲h̲āriq al-tawārīk̲h̲, an Arabic work on the pre-Islāmic prophets and the life of Muḥammad, his family and his companions with a k̲h̲ātimah on the Imāms: no copies recorded.

Persian translation made at Adrianople in 956/1549 for the S̲h̲ah-zādah Salīm son of Sulaimān i by Naẓar b. Ḥasan al-Jilānī al-Dailamī al-Kis̲h̲warī known as (al-maʿrūf bi-) al-Naqīb (in the preface—min nuqabāʾ al-Kis̲h̲war): Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3022 = Tauer 284 (ah 956/1549, autograph).

§ 239. Saiyid ʿAbd al-Awwal b. ʿAlī al-Dīn b. Ḥasan Ḥusainī Zaidpūrī, a member of a family which before his time had come to the Deccan (= Gujarāt ?) from Zaidpūr near Jaunpūr, was a man of wide learning and the author of many commentaries and other works, such as Faiḍ al-Bārī, a commentary on al-Buk̲h̲ārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ, a metrical work on the law of inheritance and a Persian work on the soul. At the invitation of Bairam K̲h̲ān, the K̲h̲ān-k̲h̲ānān of Akbar’s reign, he migrated to Delhi, where he died in 968/1560–1. In 941/1534 he sought to achieve the double purpose of averting the invasion of the “troops of K̲h̲urāsān” (i.e. Humāyūn’s armies), which were marching against Gujarāt from Delhi, and of checking an epidemic of the plague by composing his

(Siyar i Nabawī) or (Muntak̲h̲ab i kitāb i Sufar al-saʿādah), a collection of traditions relating to the Prophet extracted from the Sufar al-saʿādah (see p. 141 supra) and divided into ten bābs: Ivanow 996 (ah 1084/1673–4), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 75.

Presumably different from this is the same author’s work al-Sair wa-’l-sulūk, which likewise occurs in the section Siyar i fārisī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 107 (ah 1084/1673–4).

[Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār; Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn no. 101 (see Bānkīpūr viii p. 43); Raḥmān ʿAlī 106.]

§ 240. S̲h̲. Ya‘qūb “Ṣarfī” b. S̲h̲. Ḥasan Ganāʾī ʿĀṣimī Kas̲h̲mīrī was a Ṣūfī and a k̲h̲alīfah of S̲h̲. Ḥusain K̲h̲wārazmī (d. 956/1549 in Syria, see Safīnat al-auliyāʾ no. 364, p. 191), whom he visited at Samarqand as he visited various other famous men in the course of extensive travels. He enjoyed the favour of Humāyūn and Akbar and died in 1003/159530 in Kas̲h̲mīr. He began but left unfinished at his death a large commentary on the Qurʾān and he wrote several mat̲h̲nawīs, a commentary on al-Buk̲h̲ārī, some ḥawās̲h̲ī and other works.

Mag̲h̲āzī ’l-Nabī, a life of Muḥammad in verse: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1226/1811. See Oriental College Magazine vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 60).

Editions: Lahore 1879*, 1885†, 1888°, 1899°.

[Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir (cf. Sprenger p. 50); Haft iqlīm no. 602; Badāʾūnī Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ (cf. Sprenger p. 60); Aʾīn i Akbarī p. 250; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū ii (Bodleian 376) no. 293; Wāqiʿāt i Kas̲h̲mīr; Sirāj Dīwān i muntak̲h̲ab (cf. Sprenger p. 151); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1307; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii 338–40; Raḥmān ʿAlī 255.]

§ 241. ʿAfīf [al-Dīn] b. Nur [al-Dīn] Kās̲h̲ānī wrote his Maṭāliʿ al-anwār in the 10th/16th century, according to Ivanow, who does not give his reasons for assigning the work to this (not at all improbable) date.

Maṭāliʿ al-anwār, a life of Muḥammad in 17 faṣls followed by an 18th on the first four Caliphs, a 19th on the Umaiyads, a 20th on the building of the Kaʿbah and a 21st on eschatology: Ethé 163 (ah 1088/1677), 164 (ah 1206/1791–2), i.o. D.P. 741 (ah 1212/1710), Ivanow 62 (17th cent.), 63 (18th cent.), 64 (late 18th cent.), Curzon 747 (ah 1186/1773), Browne Suppt. 1204 (ah 1153/1740–1. Corpus 2052), Būhār 40 (ah 1238/1823), Āṣafīyah ii p. 880 no. 57, Bodleian 141, 142, Madras.

§ 242. Nūr al-Dīn M. b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Ḥabīb Allāh, a preacher, of Iṣfahān, composed for the use of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās i (reigned 996/1588–1038/1629) his

Majmaʿ al-ansāb, a genealogy of the Prophet and his descendants, including the as̲h̲rāf and nuqabāʾ of numerous towns in Asia and Africa: Dorn 311.

§ 243. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq “Ḥaqqī” b. Saif al-Dīn Dihlawī Buk̲h̲ārī Turkī, a great saint, an eminent traditionist and a prolific author, was born at Delhi in 958/1551. In 996/1587 he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and remained there for more than two years, studying the Traditions and Ṣūfism under ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Muttaqī and others. He died in 1052/1642 and was buried at Delhi in a tomb which still exists. He is said to have written more than a hundred works. Among the best known are Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār, on the lives of saints, Jad̲h̲b al-qulūb ilā diyār al-Maḥbūb, a history of al-Madīnah, and the D̲h̲ikr al-mulūk or Tārīk̲h̲ i Ḥaqqī, a sketch of Indian history. For his commentary on al-Fīrūzābādī’s Sufar al-saʿādah see p. 141 supra.

Madārij al-nubuwwah, a detailed biography of the Prophet in five qisms and a takmilah: Ivanow 65 (ah 1048/1638–9 (?)), 66 (section dealing with Muḥammad’s personal appearance), 67 (same section), Curzon 352 (Takmilah only. ah 1136/1723–4), i.o. D.P. 717 (ah 1095/1684), Bānkīpūr vi 490 (ah 1162/1749), Rieu ii 863b (section on Muḥammad’s personal appearance. 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 402 no. 940 (“Intik̲h̲āb i Madārij al-nubuwwah”), ii p. 880 no. 19, Vollers 900 (defective at beginning).

Editions: [Lucknow?] Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib Press, 1271–4/1854–7*, Lucknow 1867°, 1880°.

The Risālah i ḥilyah i janāb i Risālat-maʾāb (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1342 no. 105. ah 1195/1781) and the Risālah dar s̲h̲amāʾil i Ān Ḥaḍrat (Āṣafīyah ii p. 878) and the Risālah i muk̲h̲taṣar dar bayān i ādāb i libās i ḥaḍrat i Saiyid al-bas̲h̲ar (Rieu ii 863b, Berlin 14 (25), 53 (2)) = Dastūr i fāʾiḍ al-nūr (Ethé 2658, Ivanow 1004–5) are probably extracts from the Madārij al-nubuwwah.

[Autobiographies in Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār (k̲h̲ātimah) and in the untitled work (beginning with the words Parwardgār i ʿālam and ending with the author’s own list of his works entitled Taʾlīf qalb al-alīf bi-kitābat fihrist al-tawālīf), which S. S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī has published under the title of Tad̲h̲kirah i muṣannifīn i Dihlī as a supplement to vol. i pt. iii–iv of the Urdu periodical Tārīk̲h̲ (Ḥaidarābād [1929 or 1930]) and of which an abridged English translation is given in Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 483–92 (for mss. see Rieu iii 1011a, 1047b, Ivanow 1006), Badāʾūnī Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 113; Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī; ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Pādis̲h̲āh-nāmah i 341–2; Mirʾāt al-ʿālam; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 164; Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 175–8, 483–92; Rieu i 14, 223; Raḥmān ʿAlī 109–10; Ency. Isl. under ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ; Bānkīpūr vi 490; Tārīk̲h̲ (Urdu periodical), Ḥaidarābād, vol. i, pt. iii–iv [1929 or 1930], supplement.]

§ 244. For Mīr M. Ṣāliḥ “Kas̲h̲fī” (d. 1061/1651), who left an unfinished work entitled Iʿjāz i Muṣṭafawī on the Prophet, the early Caliphs and the Imāms, but who is best known for his Manāqib i Murtaḍawī, see p. 168 infra.

§ 245. M. b. Maḥmūd K̲h̲āwand-S̲h̲āh is probably identical with Muʿīn al-Dīn b. Sirāj al-Dīn Maḥmūd K̲h̲āwand-Shāh, who wrote in 1073/1662–3 a Ṣūfistic work entitled Ganj i saʿādat or Kanz al-saʿādah and dedicated to Aurangzēb (see Ivanow 1275).

Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ (?), a detailed life of Muḥammad: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 937 (breaks off in the 7th year of the Hijrah. Late 18th or early 19th cent.).

§ 246. Saʿd Allāh “Masīḥ” or “MasīḥāKairānawī Pānīpatī was the adopted son of Muqarrab K̲h̲ān (S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥasan), also a Kairānawī, Jahāngīr’s surgeon and friend, who became governor successively of Gujarāt, Bihār and Āgrah and is often mentioned in Jahāngīr’s memoirs. It was to Jahāngīr that “Masīḥā” dedicated his abridged verse translation of the Rāmāyaṇa (for which see Rieu ii 689a, Ethé 1967–9, Bodleian 1315, Ivanow Curzon 265). Probably this “Masīḥā” is the “Mullā Masīḥā” who in 1050/1640–1 completed his

Paig̲h̲āmbar-nāmah, a metrical biography of Muḥammad: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1251/1835–6. See Oriental College Magazine vol. ii no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 60).

[Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii 382; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390 no. 62; Bānkīpūr viii p. 145 no. 42); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2573.]

§ 247. The celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Mullā M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī b. Maqṣūd ʿAlī al-Majlisī al-Iṣfahānī, “perhaps the most notable and powerful doctor of the Shí‘a who ever lived” (Browne), was born at Iṣfahān in 1037/1627–8 (see Bānkīpūr vi p. 133) or 1038/1628–9. His father and teacher, M. Taqī Majlisī, was S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām there before him. Mullā M. Bāqir became extremely influential in the reigns of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān (ah 1077/1666–1105/1694) and S̲h̲āh Sulṭān Ḥusain (ah 1105/1694–1135/1722) and zealously promoted the S̲h̲īʿite creed. ʿAbd al-‘Azīz Dihlawī goes so far as to say in his Tuḥfah i It̲h̲nā-ʿAs̲h̲arīyah (quoted by ʿAbd al-Muqtadir, Bānkīpūr Cat. vi p. 134) that the S̲h̲īʿite religion might properly be called the religion of Āk̲h̲ūnd Bāqir Majlisī, since he gave it splendour (raunaq) and a prestige that it had not previously possessed. He died in 1110/1698–9 or 1111/1699–1700. His works were numerous. A list of ten in Arabic (the most famous being the immense collection of traditions entitled Biḥār al-anwār, for which and other Arabic works including the popular devotional manual Zād al-maʿād see Ellis ii 325–6) and forty-nine in Persian was compiled by M. ʿAlī al-Ḥasanī (see Berlin 17 (2), where the titles are given, and cf. Ivanow Curzon 391 i).

(1)
Ḥayāt al-qulūb, lives of the Prophets and the Twelve Imāms in three volumes, the first completed in S̲h̲awwāl 1087/1676, the last incomplete ((1) Pre-Islāmic Prophets, (2) Muḥammad, (3) the Imāms): i.ḥ. 1043, Bānkīpūr vi 501 (vol. i only. ah 1090/1679), Ivanow 1122 (vol. i. 12th/18th cent.), 1123 (vol. ii. ah 1205/1790–1 (?)), Curzon 387 (vol. ii, defective at end. 12th/18th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 1029 (vol. iii. ah 1292/1875), Lindesiana p. 192 no. 411 (circ. ad 1800), i.o. D.P. 632a (defective at both ends), 632b (ah 1229/1814), Berlin 11 (9) (extract only), 12 (?) (extract), 14 (extract), (16) (extract), Mas̲h̲had i 4, p. 33 (vol. ii, defective at end), Salemann-Rosen p. 14 no. 515.

Editions: Ṭihrān N.d. (see Zenker no. 915), 1240/1824°–1260/1844°,31 1261/1845*–1267/1850–1*—1284/1867* (cf. Āṣafīyah ii p. 876 nos. 86–88), Tabrīz 1240–1/1824–6 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (1868), p. 518), Persia 1274/1857–8* (vol. i only ?), [Lucknow,] 1291/1874* (vol. iii only), Lucknow 1878–9°*, 1883–4†.

English translation of vol. ii: The life and religion of Mohammed, as contained in the Sheeāh traditions of the Hyât-ul-Kuloob. Translatedby Rev. J.L. Merrick. Boston [Mass.], 1850°.

German translation of extracts: Die Mythen des Lebens Jesu. Auszüge aus „Haiat ul Kulub, oder Geschichte Muhameds, beschrieben nach der Schiitischen Tradition von Muhamed Bachir“. Nebst einem das „Leben Jesu von Dr. Strauss“ betreffenden Anhang herausgegeben von. M. Chr. G. Barth, Stuttgart, 1837°.

(2)
Jilāʾ al-ʿuyūn, lives of Muḥammad, Fāṭimah and the Imāms, completed in Muḥarram 1089/1678: i.ḥ. 772, Rehatsek p. 192 no. 31 (author not stated. ah 1101/1690), Brelvi and Dhabhar p. xxxvi (ch. 5 (al-Ḥusain) only. ah 1110/1698–9), Berlin 562 (ah 1129/1717), Princeton 459 (ah 1143/1731), Rieu i 154b (18th cent.), i.o. D.P. 48 (Bilg. 680) (ah 1221/1806), i.o. 3816, Mas̲h̲had i 4, p. 29 (begins with al-Ḥusain. ah 1225/1810), Bānkīpūr vi 500 (19th cent.), Būhār 29 (19th cent.), Bodleian 140 (n.d.), Āṣafīyah i p. 684 no. 447.

Editions: Ṭihrān 1240/1825°, 1262/1846°.

Sometimes ascribed to M. Bāqir Majlisī (but wrongly acc. to i.ḥ. 502, cf. Rieu Suppt. p. 306)32 is the

(3)
Tad̲h̲kirat al-aʾimmah, evidences of the divine mission of Muḥammad and of the holiness of the Twelve Imāms completed ah 1085/1674–5: i.ḥ. 502, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 nos. 38, 48 (ah 1179/1765–6), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1244/1828–9. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 61), Rieu Suppt. 44 (ah 1260/1844), Rehatsek p. 191 no. 30 (ah 1264/1848), Ross and Browne 232 (transcript of the preceeding. ah 1281/1864), Bānkīpūr vi 502 (19th cent.).

Editions: Ṭihrān 1259/1843 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 121), 1260/1844 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 120), 1300/1883°, [Persia] 1277/1860–1 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (1868), p. 518).

[Qiṣaṣ al-K̲h̲āqānī (Rieu i 190) fol. 158a; “Ḥazīn,” Tad̲h̲kirat al-aḥwāl, tr. Belfour, p. 32; Luʾluʾatā ’l-Baḥrain 44–9; Mirʾāt al-aḥwāl i jahān-numā, Maṭlab ii; S. Iʿjāz Ḥusain Kintūrī S̲h̲ud̲h̲ūr al-ʿiqyān (in Arabic, see Būhār Arab. Cat. 278) ii fol. 56; Rauḍāt al-jannāt 118; Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 161–79; Rieu i 20; Bānkīpūr Cat. vi pp. 133–5; Browne Lit. Hist. iv 403–4, 409–10, 417–18 etc.]

§ 248. M. Kāẓim, a physician entitled Ḥād̲h̲iq al-Mulk and calling himself, as a poet, “Ḥād̲h̲iq,” was a native of S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar and a son of the mujtahid Ḥaidar ʿAlī Tustarī Najafī. When he was upwards of seventy years old he wrote his Faraḥ-nāmah i Fāṭimī (p. 171 infra) to complete an unfinished poem on the life of Fāṭimah by Muḥibb ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ḥikmat”, whose Ṣaulat i Ṣafdarī, a continuation of “Bād̲h̲il’s” Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, was composed in 1143/1730.

Aḥsan al-siyar, a history of the prophets, more especially Muḥammad, the early Caliphs and the Imāms composed ah 1114/1702–3: Būhār 30 (19th cent.), 31 (18th cent.).

[Sprenger 314, Rieu ii 708.]

§ 249. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥabīb Allāh Qanaujī Ṣiddīqī was learned in the ʿulūm i darsīyah and profoundly versed in Ṣūfism. Among his works were (1) Jawāhir i k̲h̲amsah, (2) Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ, (3) Anīs al-ʿārifīn (for a ms. at Rāmpūr see Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 30) and (4) Rauḍat al-Nabī. He died at Qanauj in 1140/1727–8.

Rauḍat al-Nabī, a life of the Prophet in Arabic, written ah 1120/1708.

Persian translation: Madīnat al-ʿilm by S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Pīr Muḥammad Fārūqī Bilgrāmī, a disciple of the author: Bānkīpūr vi 491 (18th cent.), 492 (apparently transcribed from the preceding).

[Raḥman ʿAlī 46.]

§ 250. Mīrzā M. Rafīʿ “Bād̲h̲il”, entitled Rafīʿ K̲h̲ān, was born at Delhi. His father, Mīrzā Maḥmūd Mas̲h̲hadī, had migrated from Mas̲h̲had to India in the time of S̲h̲āh-Jahān with his uncle M. Ṭāhir, subsequently Wazīr K̲h̲ān, whom Aurangzēb (reigned ah 1069/1659–1118/1707) appointed Governor successively of Burhānpūr, Akbarābād and Mālwah and who died in 1088/1677–8. Bād̲h̲il became Dīwān to Prince Muʿizz al-Dīn and subsequently Governor of Gwalior and Bareilly. After Aurangzēb’s death, which occurred in 1118/1707, he lost his appointment and lived in retirement at Delhi, where he died in 1123/1711–12 or 1124/1712–13.

Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, a mat̲h̲nawī on the life of Muḥammad and his early successors based largely on the Maʿārij al-nubuwwah (for which see p. 146 supra) and brought down to the death of ʿUt̲h̲mān, at which point the author left it incomplete at his death, but supplied with continuations by several later poets including (1) “Najaf”, who having long desired to complete the poem was spared the trouble of doing so himself when in 1135/ 1722–3 he came across and appended to it an epic on the life of ʿAlī by S. Abū Ṭālib Findariskī Iṣfahānī,33 the son of a sister of Mīr Abū ’l-Qāsim Findariskī (author of the Maʿrifat al-ṣanāʾiʿ (Rieu ii 815b etc.), who died at Iṣfahān between ah 1046/1636–7 and 1052/1642), (2) “Āzād”, i.e. M. Ṣādiq “Āzād” (d. 1159/1746), who after finishing his Dilgus̲h̲ā-nāmah or Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah (Bānkīpūr iii 373, Rieu ii 719b) was requested by “Bād̲h̲il’s” cousin, M. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn, to complete the Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, (3) Muḥibb ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ḥikmat”, whose continuation, completed in 1143/1730–1, is called Ṣaulat i Ṣafdarī, (4) Miyān Aḥsan, whose continuation is called Muḥārabah i g̲h̲aḍanfarī or Takmilah i Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, (5) S. Pasand ʿAlī Bilgrāmī, whose continuation is called Takmilah i Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī: Sprenger no. 153, Blochet iii 1925 (defective. ah 1128/1716), 1921 (with “Najaf’s” continuation. ah 1153/1742), 1922 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. Late 18th cent.), 1923 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. ah 1169/1756. Pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques, 1899, p. 40), 1924 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. ah 1223/1808. Pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques, 1898, p. 446), Berlin 557 (defective. ah 1146/1733), 556 (defective), Būhār 409 (ah 1147/1734–5), Bodleian 519 (defective. ah 1152/1739), 518 (defective), Browne Suppt 419 (ah 1198/1783–4. King’s 139), 418 (ah 1226/1811), 417, Rieu ii 704a (with “Najaf’s” continuation, slightly defective at end. 18th cent.), 704b (first half of the poem. 18th cent.), 705a (second half of the poem. ah 1207/1792), 705a (with “Āzād’s” continuation. ah 1206/1791), Suppt. 336 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. 19th cent. Pictures), Bānkīpūr iii 374 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. 18th cent. Pictures), 375 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. 19th cent. Pictures), 376 (with “Āzād’s” continuation. ah 1252/1836–7. Pictures), 377 (without continuation. 19th cent.), Ivanow 829 (18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 238 no. 200 (ah 1215/1800–1), Ethé 900, ii 3039, Ross and Browne 174 (ah 1245/1829–30), r.a.s. P. 311 (Pictures), P. 312.

Editions: [Lucknow?] 1267/1851°*, Muttra [, 1895°].

“Ḥikmat’s” continuation: Ṣaulat i Ṣafdarī, Rieu ii 708a (18th cent.).

Aḥsan’s continuation: Muḥārabah i g̲h̲aḍanfarī mas̲h̲hūr bah Takmilah i Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī. Edition: Murādābād 1309/1891°.

Pasand ʿAlī’s continuation: Takmilah i Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī. Edition: Āgrah 1305/1888°.

[Kalimāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Sprenger p. 110); Hamīs̲h̲ah bahār (Sprenger p. 119); Safīnah i Khwus̲h̲gū (Bānkīpūr viii p. 91); Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Sarw i āzād; Sirāj Dīwān i muntak̲h̲ab (Sprenger p. 150); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390 no. 10, Bānkīpūr viii p. 140); Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm (Berlin p. 633 no. 67); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 44; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 368; Rieu ii 704 (where some further references will be found).]

§ 251. On the 1st of D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1127/28 Nov. 1715 in the fourth year of Farruk̲h̲­siyar’s reign Quṭb al-Dīn b. Saiyid S̲h̲āh b. Saiyid M. al-Ṣādiq al-Qādirī al-Ḥusainī al-Ḥanafī al-Madanī and/or al-Ḥamawī (mauṭinan aṣlīyan) al-Islāmābādī34 (wilādatan wa-sukūnatan) completed his

Tabṣirah i anwār wa-tad̲h̲kirah i asrār i Saiyid al-abrār, a life of Muḥammad in seven maqālahs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Berlin 548 (slightly defective at end).

§ 252. Kamāl Allāh b. M. Pīr Siddīqī wrote in 1185/1771–2 his Tarjamat al-asrār, a history of Muḥammad and the early Caliphs, followed by chronograms for the dates of saints, chapters on the duties of a Muslim, eschatology etc.: Būhār 32 (19th cent.), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 995 (mid 19th cent.).

§ 253. M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Anṣārī, the author of the Baḥr al-mawwāj, a general history, and of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muẓaffarī, a history of the Indian Tīmūrids) (for whom see p. 112), composed in 1208/1793–4 his

Tālīf i Muḥammadī, on the Prophets, the first four Caliphs, the Twelve Imāms and other learned and pious persons to the author’s time, in five baḥrs subdivided into maujs: Berlin 426.

§ 254. S.M. Abū Turāb b. S. Aḥmad Riḍawī wrote in 1221/1806 at Mir ʿĀlam’s request the Quṭb-numā i ʿālam (see Ethé 2840), which is virtually identical with the Ḥadīqat al-ʿālam (cf. Rieu i 324b).

Farḥat al-ʿālam, a life of Muḥammad (?):35 Āṣafīyah ii p. 880 no. 133 (ah 1221/1806, described as a printed edition but probably a ms.).

§ 255. M. Wāsiʿ wrote in the time of M. Akbar s̲h̲āh (i.e. the Indian Tīmūrid Akbar ii, reigned 1221/1806–1253/1837).

Durr i bī-bahā, an ornate history of Muḥammad and his first two successors: Berlin 559 (ah 1230/1815).

§ 256. Maulawī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAbd al-Karīm Ṣafīpūrī wrote a number of works including Muntahā ’l-arab fī lug̲h̲āt al-ʿArab, an Arabic-Persian dictionary well-known in India (Editions: Calcutta 1252–7/1836–41, Lahore 1871), Auḍaḥ al-masālik ilā Alfīyat Ibn Mālik, an Arabic commentary on Ibn Mālik’s Alfīyah (Edition: Calcutta 1832), Ḍarūrat al-adīb, an Arabic tract on the Arabic genders (Editions: [Calcutta 1821] and appended to several Indian editions of the Kāfiyah), Ḥall al-s̲h̲awāhid, an Arabic commentary on the poetical citations in the Kāfiyah (Edition: Calcutta 1236/1821), G̲h̲āyat al-bayān fī ʿilm al-lisān, a Persian work on Arabic accidence (Edition: Calcutta 1828) and al-Masālik al-bahīyah fī ’l-qawāʿid al-naḥwīyah, a Persian work on Arabic syntax (Edition: Calcutta 1828). He edited several of the Arabic and Persian works published at Calcutta in the first quarter of the 19th century, e.g. the Ṣurāḥ (jointly) in 1812, Jāmī’s al-Fawāʾid al-Ḍiyāʾīyah in 1818, and the Muʿallaqāt in 1823 (see Ellis and Edwards36). The date of his death was unknown to Raḥmān ʿAlī, who on p. 119 of the Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿulamā i Hind mentions five of his works without giving any biographical information.

Nūr al-īmān, on the genealogy, miracles, merits, qualities, prerogatives, distinctions and other particulars of Muḥammad and his companions: Būhār 43 (19th cent.).

Edition: place ? 1299/1881–2 (?) (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 nos. 100 and 80).

§ 257. ʿAlī Akbar “Bismil” S̲h̲īrāzī was ṣadr of the province of Fārs and a favourite of Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā, the Farmān-farmā. His Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā (on contemporary poets) is mentioned below. In the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ (ii p. 82) Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān, writing in 1283/1866–7, says that ʿAlī Akbar had died a few years previously. An extract from the Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā giving a list of his works (which include a tafsīr and a ḥās̲h̲iyah on al-Baiḍāwī) is quoted in Berlin 667.

Baḥr al-laʾāliʾ, commenced ah 1256/1840 and planned to consist of 14 volumes (on Muḥammad, Fāṭimah and the Twelve Imāms respectively): Rieu Suppt. 48 (vol. i only (a S̲h̲īʿite life of Muḥammad, completed ah 1257/1842). ah 1258/1842).

[Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā, k̲h̲ātimah; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 41b; Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 86b; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ; Pertsch Berlin Pers. Cat. no. 667; Browne Lit. Hist. iv 304–5.]

§ 258. M. ʿUbaid (or ʿAbd37) al-Raḥmān known as (ʿurf) ʿAbd Allāh Mus̲h̲tāq composed in 1279/1862–3 his

Tārīk̲h̲ i Nabawī. Edition: place ? 1279/1862–3 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 230 no. 784 and ii p. 876 no. 178).

§ 259. Farhād Mīrzā, Muʿtamad al-Daulah, b. ʿAbbās b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh was the uncle of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Qājār, and during his nephew’s reign he was twice Governor of Fārs. His administration was oppressive and unpopular and during the four years of his second term of office (ending about 1880, according to E.G. Browne) “he is said to have caused no less than 700 hands to be cut off for various offences”. He had a great reputation for piety and in 1292–3/1875–6 he performed a pilgrimage to Mecca of which his diary was published under the title of Hidāyat al-sabīl wa-kifāyat al-dalīl in two editions, S̲h̲īrāz 1294/1877* (362 pp.) and Ṭihrān 1294/1877° (385 pp.). He had some knowledge of English and wrote a translation of W. Pinnock’s Comprehensive system of modern geography and history, published at [Ṭihrān] in 1273/1856° under the title of Jām i Jam, as well as a versified English-Persian vocabulary Niṣāb i inglīsī published at Ṭihrān in 1866° (see E.G. Browne A year amongst the Persians, London 1893, pp. 105–6). He died in 1888.

Qamqām i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār wa-ṣamṣām i battār, notices of Muḥammad, the Caliphs and the Imāms, followed by a list of works on the subject (713 folio pp.). Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1305/1887°.

[E.G. Browne A year amongst the Persians, London 1893, pp. 105–8 etc. (see index).]

§ 260. Appendix

2.2.1 Titled or Quasi-Titled Works

(1)
Aḥasan al-qaṣaṣ or Tārīk̲h̲ i Nabī (chronogram = 1273/1856–7), by Maulawī Iḥsān Allāh, of Lucknow. Edition: Lucknow 1883†.
(2)
Ak̲h̲lāq al-Nabī: Rieu ii 863b (18th cent.).
(3)
ʿAṣr i saʿādat, by S̲h̲. S̲h̲araf, translated (from the Turkish ?) by S. Riḍā ʿAlī-Zādah. Editions: Lahore 1344/1926*, 1345/1927*.
(4)
Ḍiyāʾ al-muʾminīn,38 a mat̲h̲nawī on the life and legends of the Prophet and various members of his family: Berlin 574 (defective at end).
(5)
Ḥayāt i Fak̲h̲r i kāʾināt, by Luṭf Allāh Aḥmad, translated (from the Turkish ?) by S. Riḍā ʿAlī-Zādah. Edition: Lahore 1345/1927* (3 vols.).
(6)
Jāmiʿ i Ṭaiyibī dar bayān i aḥwāl i Nabī, a short life of Muḥammad (83 pp.), by S̲h̲āh Ṭaiyib Niʿmat-Allāhī. Editions: Cawnpore 1877°*, 1888†.
(7)
Jang-nāmah, a versified account of the life and wars of Muḥammad, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, by Aḥmad K̲h̲ān “Ṣūfī” Edition: Lucknow 1299/1882°.
(8)
Maḍārīb al-mus̲h̲akkikīn fī ansāb al-sādāt al-muntajabīn, rules to determine true descent from Muḥammad, by S. Mahdī Najafī Kas̲h̲mīrī. Edition: Lucknow 1894°.
(9)
Maqṣad al-Ṭālib, on the ancestors of Muḥammad and Abū Ṭālib. Edition: Bombay 1311/1893°.
(10)
Maulūd i Barzanjī 39 manẓūm fārisī. Edition: Lucknow 1344/1925–6*.
(11)
Maulūd al-Nabī, by Maulawī Pīr M. Ḥaḍrat. Editions: Lucknow 1882†, 1885†.
(12)
Miʿrāj-nāmah:40 Āṣafīyah ii p. 880 no. 3 (ah 1032/1622–3).
(13)
Miʿrāj-nāmah: Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 no. 78.
(14)
Miʿrāj-nāmah: Bodleian 143 (cf. Berlin 27(1), defective at beginning).
(15)
Miʿrāj-nāmah: i.o. D.P. 63 (?) (Bilg. 1210) (defective at end. 19th cent.).
(16)
Miʿrāj-nāmah, in verse, by “S̲h̲ujāʿī”. Edition: [Persia,] 1272/1856°.
(17)
Muntak̲h̲ab al-ak̲h̲bār, a history of the Prophets, especially Muḥammad, the first four Caliphs and the Imāms, by Bahāʾ al-Dīn b. Saʿd al-Dīn: Ethé 166 (ah 1148/1735), 167 (modern).
(18)
Muntak̲h̲ab al-manāqib, a history of Muḥammad, the first Caliphs and the Imāms: Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (ah 1134/1721. See Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 494).
(19)
Nabī-nāmah or Ḥamlah i Aḥmadī, a metrical account of Muḥammad, by Aḥmad K̲h̲ān “Ṣūfī”. Edition: Āgrah 1300/1882–3°.
(20)
Nasab-nāmah i Rasūl i maqbūl, an annotated genealogy of the Prophet. Editions: Lahore 1289/1872°*, 1886†, 1888†, 1889†, Bombay 1290/1873*, [Lucknow,] 1291/1874*.
(21)
Nasab-nāmah i Sarwar i anbiyāʾ ʿm. Edition: place ? date ? (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 1778 no. 130).
(22)
Nat̲h̲r al-jawāhir, a life of Muḥammad, being a translation by Auḥad al-Dīn Mīrzā K̲h̲ān of ʿAlīm Allāh Ḥusainī’s Naẓm al-durar. Edition: Lahore 1902°.
(23)
Naẓm al-durar: see Nat̲h̲r al-jawāhir above.
(24)
Nūr al-ak̲h̲bār fī taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Nabī wa-ālihi ’l-ak̲h̲y̱ār, by S. ʿAlī Naqī al-Ḥāʾirī.

Edition: place ? 1309/1891–2 (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 no. 81).

(25)
Risālah i s̲h̲aqq al-qamar: see p. 20 supra.
(26)
Riyāḍ al-uns, a detailed biography of the Prophet divided into rauḍahs: Ivanow 70 (fragments only. Late 18th or early 19th cent.).
(27)
al-Saif al-māḍī li-qaṭʿ al-qaul li-munkirī ’ns̲h̲iqāq al-qamar fī ’l-māḍī (“Persian and Arabic” ?), by Maulawī ʿAbd Allāh. Edition: Benares 1879†.
(28)
Sīrat al-Nabī manẓūm: Peshawar 1446.
(29)
(Siyar al-Nabī), anecdotes and legends of the Prophet and his companions (beg.: Rāwiyān i ak̲h̲bār u k̲h̲udāwandān i asrār): Bodleian 344 (ah 1052/1642).
(30)
Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲aqq al-qamar (“Arabic and Persian” ?), proofs of the miracle of splitting the moon, by Maulawī Najaf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. Edition: Benares 1878†.
(31)
Tanwīr al-ʿain fī ḥāl al-wālidain, on the parentage of Muḥammad, by Saʿd al-Dīn Jalālābādī. Edition: Delhi 1308–9/1890–1°.
(32)
Tārīk̲h̲ i Nabī: see Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ above.
(33)
Tuḥfah i Rasūlīyah, a mat̲h̲nawī on the Prophet, by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Qaṣūrī. Editions: Lahore 1847°, 1877†, 1881†, 1884†, 1891†, 1906†.
(34)
Wafāt-nāmah i fārisī, in verse. Edition: Delhi 1889†.

2.2.2 Untitled Works

(1)
Biography of Muḥammad divided according to the events (wāqāʾiʿ, wāqiʿah) of the particular years: Berlin 549 (defective at both ends).
(2)
Detailed history of Muḥammad divided into fuṣūl: Ethé 136 (large portion ending with Faṣl 30 (ah 3). N.d.).
(3)
Legends of Muḥammad, his mother Āminah and other members of his family (beginning ʿAndalībān i būstān i g̲h̲arāʾib i ḥikāyāt): Berlin 46 (5).

next chapter: 2.3 The Early Caliphs and the Imāms

Notes

^ Back to text1. It was recently reported that a copy existed at Fez.

^ Back to text2. For a translation of a part of Ibn Saʿd’s Ṭabaqāt by the same maulawī see § 214 infra.

^ Back to text3. That this is a translation of a part of the Kitāb al-Maghāzī (presumably from the Bibliotheca Indica text) seems probable.

^ Back to text4. K̲h̲argūs̲h̲ is said to be the name of a street in Nīs̲h̲āpūr.

^ Back to text5. According to the Asʿad Efendī catalogue the translator was S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Maḥmūd b. M. b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī, i.e. presumably Zain al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. M. b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī, a calligraphist and poet, who was the maternal uncle of Najm al-Dīn Abū Bakr M. b. ʿAlī b. Sulaimān al-Rāwandī, the author of the history of the Saljūqs entitled Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, a work begun in 599/1202. On the other hand Blochet, following apparently a title-page inscription or a colophon or the like, calls the translator (imām i ʿālim i rabbānī i bāriʿ i nāsik i mutawarriʿ) Najm al-Dīn Maḥmūd [sic, not Muḥammad] b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī and identifies him with the author of the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr (whose name does not seem to be open to doubt since he mentions it repeatedly in the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr). The Bāyazīd catalogue says nothing about the translator. In 577/1181 Zain al-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Rāwandī was employed by the Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ril as his instructor in calligraphy and in 585/1189 he was sent from al-ʿIrāq to Māzandarān as an envoy to the king of that country (see the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, ed. M. Iqbal, g.m.s. 1921, pp. xvi–xvii).

^ Back to text6. There is some disagreement among S̲h̲īʿite scholars concerning the particular Ṭabarsī who wrote this work.

^ Back to text7. This is perhaps a corruption of al-Andarastānī. Andarastān is given as the name of a village one day’s journey from Gurgānj.

^ Back to text8. The Persian translator in his preface calls the Arabic original Mustaqṣā dar s̲h̲arḥ i Mujtalā. “The Mujtalā, a previous work of the same author, contained nearly the same matter in a more condensed form” (Rieu).

^ Back to text9. Ḥajjī K̲h̲alīfah has confounded this work with ʿAzīz b. M. al-Nasafī’s Maqṣad i aqṣā, a compendium of Ṣūfism, for which see Berlin p. 1053, Blochet i, 99, i 150 (8), Bodleian 1250, 1298, Browne Suppt. 1235, 1595, Gotha 6 (11), Hamburg 149 ii, Ivanow 1179 (2), 1180, Leyden v p. 42, nos. 2305–7, Rieu ii 834 etc.

^ Back to text10. The author’s son ʿAfīf [al-Dīn] in the colophon to his Persian translation of his father’s life of Muḥammad calls his father Saʿīd b. Masʿūd. This is not, of course, inconsistent with Saʿīd al-Dīn M. b. Masʿūd, a form in which the name occurs elsewhere. The Berlin Catalogue gives the name as Saʿīd b. M. b. Masʿūd.

^ Back to text11. H.K̲h̲.’s statements concerning the author and his works are not free from confusion (see ʿAbdul Muqtadir’s remarks in the Bānkīpūr Catalogue vi pp. 83–4).

^ Back to text12. Ḥ.K̲h̲. ascribes to ʿAfīf b. Saʿīd three other works, Arbaʿīn i Kāzarūnī, S̲h̲arḥ i Buk̲h̲ārī completed at S̲h̲īrāz in Rabīʿ i 766/1364 and S̲h̲ifāʾ al-ṣudūr. As ʿAbdul Muqtadir points out, however, the last is stated in the introduction to the Tarjamah i Maulūd i Muṣṭafā to be a work of Saʿīd b. Masʿūd’s.

^ Back to text13. In the Catalogue of the Browne Collection the translator’s name is given as Uwais b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn b. Ḥasan b. Ismāʿīl Mūminābādī, but the opening words agree with those of ʿAfīf b. Saʿīd’s translation.

^ Back to text14. According to Fagnan the Arabic translation is divided into the following bābs: (1) al-ṭahārah, (2) al-ṣalāt, (3) al-ṣiyām, (4) al-ḥajj, (5) al-ad̲h̲kār, (6) al-salām wa-’l-ādāb.

^ Back to text15. This information concerning the identity and date of the translator comes from a note on fol. 1a of the Algiers manuscript.

^ Back to text16. This is the title by which ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq designates the commentary in his own list of his works (see Rieu iii 1077b).

^ Back to text17. He is sometimes called M. b. al-Ḥasan.

^ Back to text18. al-Kaidarī is the form of his nisbah which, rightly or wrongly, prevailed among S̲h̲īʿite scholars, Kaidar being, it is alleged, a village in the district of Baihaq, but some authorities call him al-Kundurī.

^ Back to text19. According to an authority quoted in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt a contemporary note at the end of a copy of his commentary on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah stated that it was completed in S̲h̲aʿbān 576/1181.

^ Back to text20. According to i.ḥ. 222 al-Iṣbāḥ is the title of his commentary on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah.

^ Back to text21. Ḥadāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq fī s̲h̲arḥ kalimāt kalām Allāh al-nāṭiq is given in i.ḥ. 998 as the title of a commentary on the Nahj al-balāghah by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Gulistānah.

^ Back to text22. i.ḥ. 3141 gives the title as Manāhij al-manhaj. Other variations occur.

^ Back to text23. Or Abū ’l-Faḍl Kamāl al-Dīn acc. to fol. 1a of the Būhār ms.

^ Back to text24. “Ḥairatī” will reappear in the section Poetry.

^ Back to text25. So Tauer. The Āṣafīyah catalogue calls the author (translator) Bahāʾ al-Dīn Kāzarānī [sic] and the work Siyar al-Muṣṭafā tarjamah i D̲h̲irwat al-ʿulyā. The Lālā Ismāʿīl catalogue (probably through a misuse of Ḥ.K̲h̲.) calls the author Ẓahīr al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Kāzarūnī and gives the date of his death as 694 [cf. Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 635, where Ẓahīr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. M. al-Kāzarūnī is mentioned as the author of a life of Muḥammad (title not stated)].

^ Back to text26. Died at S̲h̲irāz ah 833/1429. See Brockelmann ii 201–3, Ency. Isl. under Ibn al-D̲j̲azarī and Rieu’s Suppt. to the Cat. of the Arabic MSS. in the B.M. No. 515, where a life of Muḥammad by Ibn al-Jazarī is described. This may be the work in question, but Ibn al-Jazarī wrote more than one work on the subject.

^ Back to text27. Juzʾ 3 of the third volume of the Ḥabīb al-siyar, in which he is described as still alive, was completed in D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 929/1523.

^ Back to text28. Some, if not all, copies of Maqṣad ii end with ʿAlī’s return from the Battle of the Camel, ah 36.

^ Back to text29. The author’s intention (expressed in his preface) of devoting Maqṣad ii to the Ṣaḥābah ((1) men (2) women) and Maqṣad iii to (1) the Tābiʿūn, (2) the Tubbaʿ al-Tābi‘īn, (3) the Imāms of the subsequent period was evidently abandoned.

^ Back to text30. According to K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū and others. The Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲araʾib gives the date 991/1583. The statement of Raḥmān ʿAlī that he was born in 978/1570–1 is clearly incorrect.

^ Back to text31. According to Edwards vol. iii may have been published at Tabrīz. A vol. ii dated 1241/1826 and belonging no doubt to this edition is in the India Office. As in the case of the 1240–60 edition, the third volume of the 1261–84 edition is not uniform, being a lithograph, whereas vols. i and ii are printed. It is also without place of publication. In such cases there is difficulty in ascertaining whether the three volumes should be regarded as forming a single edition, but it is interesting to see that the volumes of 1261, 1267 and 1284 apparently occur together not only in the India Office but also in the Āṣafīyah Library.

^ Back to text32. In the Luʾluʾatā ’l-Baḥrain it is ascribed to M. Bāqir Majlisī, in the Riyāḍ al-ʿulamāʾ (by Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh, a pupil of M. Bāqir Majlisī) to an unnamed contemporary of his, in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt to M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī Lāhījī (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 120).

^ Back to text33. Cf. Bānkīpūr viii p. 140.

^ Back to text34. Pertsch annotates “Islāmābād, in Kašmīr” without giving his authority for this identification. There is an Islāmābād in Kas̲h̲mīr, but other towns also were so called, e.g. Chittagong in Eastern Bengal.

^ Back to text35. This work occurs in the section Siyar i fārisī in the Āṣafīyah catalogue, but its precise subject is not stated.

^ Back to text36. The British Museum catalogue identifies ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Ṣafīpūrī with the “Maulaví Abd-ur-Rahím, Arabic Professor Calcutta Madrasah” who edited the Bāds̲h̲āh-nāmah (Calcutta 1867–8) and the first two volumes of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ (Calcutta 1888 and 1890) for the Bibliotheca Indica, but it seems improbable that a man who was editing texts in 1812 can have been still engaged on the same kind of work in 1890.

^ Back to text37. So according to Āṣafīyah ii p. 876.

^ Back to text38. This title does not occur in the text.

^ Back to text39. For the Arabic accounts of Muḥammad’s birth by more than one Barzanjī see Ellis.

^ Back to text40. There exists a short tract (S̲h̲arḥ i Miʿrāj or Risālah dar Miʿrāj) ascribed to Ibn Sīnā (Rieu ii 438b, 815b, Ivanow Curzon 487, Bodleian 1422 (4), i.o. d.p. 1193 (a) (Bilg. 1043)) in which the experience is explained as a vision, but it is added that this explanation is not meant for the vulgar.

Cite this page
“2.2 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: Muḥammad”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 20 July 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_10202020>
First published online: 2021



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