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2.3 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: The Early Caliphs and the Imāms
(8,433 words)

In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 261. Abū M. Aḥmad1 Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī, who died circ. ah 314/926–72 according to Fraehn’s Indications bibliographiques (p. 16), wrote in Arabic a popular and romantic history of the early Caliphs from the accession of Abū Bakr to that of Yazīd3 and especially of the Muḥammadan conquests made in that period. The work does not seem to be mentioned by Arabic historians, and it is not certain that any copy of the Arabic original has been preserved, since the Gotha ms. (Pertsch Die arabischen Handschriften etc. iii p. 219, no. 1592 (containing only the Caliphates of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿUt̲h̲mān)), even if really a copy of Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am’s work, may be a retranslation from the Persian.

In 596/1199–1200, or soon after, M. b. Aḥmad4 al-Mustaufī al-Harawī undertook a Persian translation of the work at the request of his patron, a wazīr whose name he does not mention but whom he calls Muʾaiyid al-Mulk Qiwām al-Daulah wa-’l-Dīn Tāj al-Islām wa-’l-muslimīn … Iftik̲h̲ār i akābir i K̲h̲wārazm u K̲h̲urāsān5 and who at the time was staying at the Madrasah of Tāyabād [? = Tāyābād, near Būs̲h̲anj]. After finishing the greater part of Abū Bakr’s Caliphate M. al-Mustaufī died, and the translation was completed by M. b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Kātib al-Mābarnābādī. [This information comes from Bodleian 124, which, however, seems to differ from other copies, in which no such statement occurs.]

Futūḥ i Ibn i Aʿt̲h̲am, Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 385, Ivanow 47 (defective at beginning. ah 977/1569–70), 48 (ah 1113/1701–2), Rieu i 151a (16th cent.), 152a (defective. 16th cent.), 152a (17th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 493 (16th cent.), Lālā Ismāʿīl 331 = Tauer 285 (ah 1009/1600), Ethé 131 (ah 1013/1604), 132 (ah 1098/1687 or 1099/1688), 133 (ah 1103/1692), 2830 (n.d.), i.o. D.P. 750 (18th cent.), Blochet i 367–8 (ah 1026/1617. Pictures (later) (see Revue des bibliothèques 1898 p. 21), 369 (16th cent.), Lindesiana p. 189 no. 183 (before ah 1059/1649), no. 831 (circ. ad 1650), no. 184 (circ. ad 1730), Būhār 16 (ah 1074/1663–4), Leyden v p. 200 no. 2613 (ah 1111/1699–1700), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3064 = Tauer 286 (ah 1154/1741), r.a.s. P. 21 = Morley 8 (ah 1242/1826–7), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 76 (ah 1296/1879), Āṣafīyah i p. 232 no. 769, Berlin 431 (“nicht neu”), 432 (modern), Bodleian 124 (lacunæ), 125, 126 (defective), Browne Suppt. 890 (King’s 105), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 11, Edinburgh 192 (old), 193 (not later than 1168/1755), Madras, Salemann-Rosen p. 17 nos. 127, 137 (“vol. i”), 279, 280, 581.

Editions: Bombay 1300/1882–3 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 115, Geuthner’s Ephéméride 124, no. 12464), 1305/1887°.

Extracts with English translations: W. Ouseley Oriental Collections i 63–9 (History of the Conquest of Zoos tr. B. Gerrans), i 160–5 (The Flight and Murder of Yesdejherd tr. b.g.), i 333–6 (The Invasion of Nubia). The same extracts are given in F. Wilken’s Institutiones ad fundamenta linguae persicae cum Chrestomathia etc., Leipzig 1805, pp. 152–61 and a Latin translation of them in his Auctarium ad Chrestomathiam suam persicam, Leipzig 1805, pp. 31–7.

[Ency. Isl. ii 364.]

§ 262. Abū Jaʿfar M. b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain b. Mūsā Ibn Bābawaih al-Qummī, called al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Ṣadūq, is famous as the author of the Kitāb man lā yaḥḍuruhu ’l-faqīh, one of the four canonical collections of S̲h̲īʿite traditions. He died at Raiy in 381/991 (see Ency. Isl. under Ibn Bābūyah, Brockelmann i 187, Majālis al-muʾminīn 195–200, Raudāt al-jannāt 557–60 etc.).

ʿUyūn ak̲h̲bār al-Riḍā, an Arabic work on the life and sayings of the Imām ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Riḍā: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv 8380, Ahlwardt 9663, Aumer Arab. Cat. 456, Bānkīpūr Arab. Cat. xv no. 1050, Cureton-Rieu 1619, Loth 146, Majlis 550, Mas̲h̲had i 4, mss., pp. 57–60, de Slane 2018 (1).

Edition: [Persia,] 1275/1859° (see Fulton-Ellis, col. 641).

Persian translations:

(1)
Tuḥfah i Malakī,6 written by ʿAlī b. Ṭaifūr al-Bisṭāmī7 in the reign of ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh (ah 1035/1626–1083/1672): i.ḥ. 561, Bānkīpūr vi 507 (apparently defective. ah 1110/1698), Ivanow 1108 (18th cent.). A copy dated ah 1069/1659 was offered for sale in Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 405 (1926) p. 70 no. 893.

Abridgment of this Persian translation: Muntak̲h̲ab al-ḥasanāt by Ḥasan ʿAlī surnamed S̲h̲ams al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān: Ivanow 1109 (defective at end. 18th cent.).

(2)
Kās̲h̲if al-niqāb (a translation and commentary), by M. Taqī b. M. Bāqir.

Edition: [Persia] 1297/1880°.

No. 894 in Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 405 (1926) is an edition of the ʿUyūn ak̲h̲bār al-Riḍā published at Ṭihrān in 1317/1899–1900. It is included among the Persian works, but nothing is said about the name of the translator.

§ 263. Bahāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā b. Fak̲h̲r al-Din Abī ’l-Fatḥ al-Irbilī, called Ibn al-Fak̲h̲r, served for a time at least in the Diwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Bag̲h̲dād. He died ah 692/1293, leaving a large fortune. He was the author of a dīwān and other works, of which the most famous and perhaps the only one extant is the Arabic

Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲ummah fī maʿrifat al-Aʾimmah, lives of Muḥammad, Faṭimah and the Twelve Imāms, completed in Ramaḍān 687/1288: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 211 no. 10726 (inaccurate), i.ḥ. 2641, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1552 no. 21, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3381, Bānkīpūr Arab. Cat. xv no. 1053, Mas̲h̲had i 4, mss., pp. 76–7.

Edition: [Ṭihran?] 1294°.

Persian translations: (1) Tarjamat al-manāqib, written in 938/1531–2 for the Amīr Qiwām al-Dīn Muḥammad by ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan al-Zawārī (for whom see p. 11 supra): Mas̲h̲had i 4 p. 20 (ah 992/1584), Bānkīpūr vi 509 (Pt. ii only, Fāṭimah to M. al-Mahdī. 17th cent.), Aberystwyth 19 (1) (small fragment only). (2) A translation (of Pt. i only) apparently different from the preceding (beginning Bugs̲h̲ā ba-t̲h̲anā i Ḥaq zabān-rā): Majlis 553 (ah 945/1538–9). (3) Iksīr al-tawārīk̲h̲ wa-siyar al-Aʾimmah, an abridged translation, preceded by a short life of the Prophet by the publisher Mīrzā M. Malik al-Kuttāb. Edition: Bombay 1308/1891°.

[Fawāt al-Wafayāt ii 83–6; Amal al-āmil 54; Rauḍāt al-jannāt 396.]

§ 264. The date of M. b. Abī Zaid b. ʿArab-S̲h̲āh b. Abī Zaid al-Ḥusainī al-ʿAlawī al-Warāmīnī does not seem to be known, but, since Dorn 312 is dated ah 837/1433, he cannot have lived later than the fifteenth century.

Aḥsan al-kibār fī maʿrifat al-Aʾimmat al-aṭhār, a large work on the Twelve Imāms: i.ḥ. 110, Dorn 312 (ah 837/1433. Pictures), 313 (Pictures), i.o. D.P. 573.

Abridgment (with additions and alterations): Lawāmiʿ al-anwār [ilā maʿrifat al-Aʾimmat al-aṭhār, acc. to the Rauḍāt al-jannāt], by ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan al-Zawārī (see p. 11 supra), written in 950/1543 by order of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp i: Rauḍāt al-jannāt 407, Būhār 27 (ah 1244/1828).

§ 265. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. ʿUmar Daulatābādī died in or before 849/1445 (see p. 8 above).

Manāqīb al-sādāt, on the merits and prerogatives of the descendants of the Prophet: Āṣafīyah i p. 686 no. 577 (ah 1091/1680), ii p. 882 no. 71 (n.d.), no. 76 (n.d.), Bānkīpūr xiv 1187 (19th cent.), 1188, Būhār 18 (ad 1889), i.o. D.P. 109 (ah 1194/1779), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (“S̲h̲araf al-sādāt.” ah 1229/1814. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 62).

[See p. 8 above.]

§ 266. Maḥmūd b. M. al-Ījī called Najīb seems to have lived about the middle of the 9th/15th century.

A history of Muḥammad and the Caliphs to the end of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate of Bag̲h̲dād: Rieu Suppt. 43 (ah 883/1478), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3088 = Tauer 287 (ah 952/1545).

§ 267. Amīr Jamāl [al-Dīn] ʿAṭāʾ Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh al-Ḥusainī died in 926/1520 (see p. 148 supra).

(1)
Rauḍat al-aḥbāb fī siyar al-Nabī wa-’l-Āl wa-’l-aṣḥāb: see p. 148 supra.
(2)
Tuḥfat al-aḥibbāʾ fī manāqib Āl al-ʿAbāʾ: see p. 150 supra.

§ 268. Ḥusain b. ʿAlī Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī d. 910/1504–5 (see p. 10 supra, where the Christian date should be corrected).

Rauḍat al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ, lives of Muḥammad, ʿAlī, Fāṭimah, Ḥasan, Ḥusain and others in ten bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah, composed apparently in 908/1502–3: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 6648, Āyā Ṣūfīyah 3222–3 = Tauer 272 (ah 925/1519), 3221 = Tauer 273 (ah 933/1527), 3220 = Tauer 276 (ah 938/1531), 3223 (1) = Tauer (ah 940/1534), 3219 = Tauer 279 (11th/17th cent.), Fātiḥ 4368 = Tauer 274 (ah 934/1527–8), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3302 = Tauer 275 (ah 937/1530 (?)), 3301 (1) = Tauer 278 (ah 1058/1648), Blochet i 386 (ah 962/1554), 387 (ah 969/1561), 388 (ah 970/1562), 389–393, Browne Suppt. 719 (ah 973/1565–6), Pers. Cat. 65 (def.), Bānkīpūr vi 498 (ah 976/1568–9), 499, Berlin 569 (ah 1016/1607), 570–1, 572 (Pictures), 573 (extracts), Bodleian 134 (ah 1133/1720), 135 (ah 1034/1625), 1964 (ah 1229/1814), Lindesiana p. 154 no. 376 (ah 1049/1639–40), Ivanow 59 (ah 1076/1665–6), 60, Curzon 14 (def. 19th cent.), i.o. d.p. 651A (ah 1094/1683), 651B (ah 1133/1721), Ethé 158 (defective at end), Rehatsek p. 201 no. 50 (ah 1125/1713), Rieu i 152b–153b (6 copies, mostly 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 240 nos. 245, 989, i p. 438 no. 190/1 (all of these early 19th cent.), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1229/1814. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926), p. 61, Būhār 25 (ah 1290/1873), Glasgow (j.r.a.s. 1906, p. 596, no. 4), Cairo pp. 503–4 (n.d.), Ethé 158 (def. at end), 159 (n.d.), Peshawar 1469.

Editions: Lahore 1287/1870°*, 1873*, 1331/1913*, Lucknow 1873°*, Bombay 1301/1883°, Cawnpore 1891°.

Abridgments, etc.: (1) Muntak̲h̲ab i Rauḍat al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ, Ethé 160 (ah 996/1588), 161 (def. at end), (2) Blochet i 394 (partly ah 1040/1630–1), (3) Dah majlis, i.o. D.P. 1201 (b) (defective. ah 1197/1782), (4) Dah majlis, Bodleian 136 (similar to, but not identical with, Ethé 160. ah 1118/1706), (5) Bodleian 137 (a similar work. ah 1058/1649), (6) Dah majlis (identical with no. 3 ?), Lindesiana p. 130 no. 146 (circ. ad 1700), (7) Fātiḥ 4342 = Tauer 281 (ah 974/1567), (8) Wahbī Efendī 1240 = Tauer 282 (11th/17th cent.), (9) K̲h̲āliṣ Efendī 2345 = Tauer 283 (circ. ah 1100/1688–9), (10) Dah majlis, Browne Suppt. 492 (Corpus 194), 493 (King’s 185), Būhār 35, Ivanow 1106, Ivanow Curzon 373, Rieu i 155b.

Turkish translation (with additions): Ḥadīqat al-suʿadāʾ, by “Fuḍūlī” (d. 963/1555–6 or 970/1562–3, see Ency. Isl. ii 124), Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 4456, Flügel ii 1216 (ah 1000/1591–2), Upsala 305 (ah 1000/1592), Leyden v p. 232 no. 2643 (ah 1002/1593–4).

Editions: Būlāq 1253/1837 (see Flügel ii p. 379), 1261/1845 (see G. i. P. ii 360), Istanbul 1273/1856–7 (see G. i. P. ibid.).

Metrical paraphrase in Dakhanī: Rauḍat al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ by “Walī” composed ah 1130/1718, Blumhardt, i.o. Hindustani Cat. 112, 122 iii (cf. Ethé 162). Editions: Bombay 1875, 1879.

Description: Browne Lit. Hist. iii 441.

For a collection of anecdotes on “la vie mystique” and “la morale religieuse” bearing on the first page the title Manāqib al-auliyāʾ and an ascription to Ḥusain Wāʿiẓ see Blochet i 142.

§ 269. An author whose name does not occur in the only recorded manuscript, which is defective at the beginning, composed, or at any rate began, in 937/1531, his

Manāqib al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ wa-tuḥfat al-suʿadāʾ, a short treatise on the Sunnite tradition concerning the first four Caliphs and ʿĀʾis̲h̲ah in four faṣls, a takmilah and a k̲h̲ātimah, the last dealing with the punishments prepared in the future life for S̲h̲īʿites and K̲h̲ārijites: Ivanow 995 (ah 1086/1675–6).

§ 270. Waḥīd al-Dīn M. known as (mas̲h̲hūr bi-) Mīr K̲h̲ān b. Zain al-Dīn al-Jāmī al-SFRG̲H̲ābādī [?] says that in 907/1501–2 there arose in Bag̲h̲dād a body of men who abused the Aṣḥāb and persecuted the Sunnīs. This lasted for a number of years and extended to K̲h̲urāsān. In 944/1537–8, therefore, he composed his Rauḍat al-aṣḥāb with a view to making the merits of Sunnism known.

Rauḍat al-asḥāb, on the history and merits of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUt̲h̲mān and ʿAlī: Būhār 26 (18th cent.).

§ 271. Abū D̲h̲arr Salmān b. Aḥmad S̲h̲arīf Fālī had long cherished the idea of writing a Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah in Persian, when he received from one of his friends an Arabic work on the subject. This he translated into Persian in the year 946/1539–40 in the reign of a Niẓām-S̲h̲āh, who must have been Burhān (i) Niẓām-S̲h̲āh, an uncompromising S̲h̲īʿite (Ruler of Aḥmadnagar ah 914/1508–961/1553).

Muk̲h̲tar-nāmah: Bānkīpūr vi 504 (see also pp. 211–12. ah 947/1540).

§ 272. Ḥusain b. Ḥasan “Fārig̲h̲” Gīlānī wrote his poem on the life of ʿAlī in 1000/1591–2, the year in which Gīlān was conquered by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās i, who is eulogised at the beginning of the poem.

Kitāb i Fārig̲h̲ i Gīlānī, a poem on the (legendary) life of ʿAlī: Rieu ii 669b (defective at end. 17th cent.).

Edition: [Persia] 1274/1858° (cf. Sprenger p. 397).

§ 273. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī died ah 1052/1642–3 (see p. 152 supra).

Faḍāʾil i Aʾimmah i It̲h̲nā-ʿas̲h̲ar: Peshawar 1462 (2), i.o. D.P. 661 (a) (Aḥwāl i Aʾimmah i It̲h̲nā-ʿas̲h̲ar).

§ 274. Mīr M. Ṣāliḥ “Kas̲h̲fi” Ḥusainī Tirmid̲h̲ī was the son of the poet and calligraphist of Akbar’s time, Mīr ʿAbd Allāh “Waṣfī” Tirmid̲h̲ī entitled Mus̲h̲kīn-Qalam,8 and was himself a skilled calligraphist. In 1056/1646 he was appointed dārōg̲h̲ah of S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s library. As a “Hindi” poet he used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Subḥānī”. He died ah 1061/16519 and, according to Beale, lies buried at Āgrah. Of his Majmūʿah i rāz, a Ṣūfistic tarjīʿ-band composed in 1030/1620–1, an edition was lithographed at Lucknow (Masīḥāʾī Press) without date (see Sprenger p. 456 and for mss. Rieu ii 737a, iii 1090a).

(1)
Manāqib i Murtaḍawī, an account of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and his merits in twelve chapters: Bānkīpūr vi 494 (ah 1076/1665–6), 495 (ah 1108/1696–7), Ivanow Curzon 375 (17th cent.), 749 (defective. 19th cent.), Ivanow 68 (ah 1197/1783), Lindesiana p. 196 no. 484 (circ. ad 1790), i.o. D.P. 725 (18th cent.), i.o. 4425, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1558 nos. 39 (ah 1245/1829–30), 41 (ah 1231/1816), Būhār 28 (ah 1277/1860–1), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 61), r.a.s. P. 20 = Morley 7.
(2)
Iʿjāz i Muṣṭafawī a history of the Prophet, the early Caliphs and the Imāms in mixed prose and verse left unfinished by “Kas̲h̲fī” at his death and completed ah 1157/1744–5 by Mīr ʿAbd Allāh “Wāṣifī” b. Mīr Hās̲h̲im S̲h̲āh-Niʿmat-Allāhī Ḥusainī apparently in K̲h̲urāsān: Rieu i 154a (18th cent.).

[ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Padis̲h̲āh-nāmah ii 505 etc.; ʿAmal i ṣāliḥ (see also Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 123); Mirʾāt al-ʿālam (b.m. Add. 7657), fol. 462; Tad̲h̲kirah i k̲h̲wus̲h̲-nawīsān p. 101; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii 350; Beale Oriental Biographical Dictionary under Kashfī.]

§ 275. A certain Sikandar composed ah 1050/1640–1 in Berar

Mirʾāt al-mad̲h̲āhib fī kas̲h̲f al-manāqib, on the merits of ʿAlī: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 93 (ah 1111/1699–1700. Wājid Ḥusain, Lucknow).

§ 276. To ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh (reigned ah 1035/1626–1083/1672) an unknown author who had come to Muḥammad-ābād, his capital, and had eventually been appointed one of his ministers, dedicated

A work on the Imāms, divided into a muqaddimah (in 2 uṣūl), a bāb (in 12 fuṣūl) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Dresden 382 (defective at end).

§ 277. Yūsuf b. Āqā Bēg Dihk̲h̲wāraqānī composed in 1069/1658–9 for S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās ii his

Nauḥat al-aḥzān, on the martyrdoms: Mas̲h̲had i 4 (mss.), p. 100 (ah 1071/1660–1).

§ 278. M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī Majlisī, who has already been mentioned (pp. 154–155 supra) as the author of the Ḥayāt al-qulūb (lives of the Prophets etc. completed in 1087/1676) and of the Jilāʾ al-ʿuyūn (lives of Muḥammad, Fāṭimah and the Imāms completed in 1089/1678), had compiled before these works a large collection of S̲h̲īʿite traditions entitled Biḥār al-anwār, which has been lithographed more than once in Persia (cf. Ellis i col. 325 and Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 405 (1926), nos. 52–4, 430 (1931) no. 667). Parts of this work are of historical or biographical interest and of these the following Persian translations exist:—

(1)
Tarjamah i mujallad i duwāzdahum i Biḥār al-anwār, on ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Riḍā (etc.?), a translation made in 1308/1890–1 by Ismāʿīl b. S.M. Taqī Mūsawī Zanjānī:10 Majlis 537.
(2)
Kas̲h̲f̱ al-anwār, a series of traditions chiefly concerning Muḥammad, ʿAlī and the Imāms translated by M. Taqī b. M. Bāqir.

Edition: [Persia] 1295–1878°.

§ 279. In the preface to the Tuḥfat al-majālis the author calls himself Ibn Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan Sulṭān Muḥammad, which is a Persian way of saying Sulṭān Muḥammad b. Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan.11 The British Museum Catalogue of Persian printed books, no doubt on the authority of one or both of the editions there described, appends to the name the words “called Fāẓil Hindī”. If this identification is correct,12 the author is a well-known S̲h̲īʿite scholar, who in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt (p. 548 bis = vol. iv p. 109) is called Bahāʾ al-Dīn M. b. Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan b. M. al-Iṣfahānī al-mulaqqab bi-’l-Fāḍil al-Hindī. He was born in 1062/1652 at or near Iṣfahān, was taken to India as a child and having spent a number of years there became known as al-Fāḍil al-Hindī on his return. He was a precocious boy and began to write books in his twelfth year. His works (mainly commentaries or super-commentaries, it seems) deal inter alia with grammar and rhetoric as well as law and theology. Among them were Munyat al-ḥarīṣ ʿalā fahm S̲h̲arḥ al-Talk̲h̲īṣ (i.ḥ. 3197), which he wrote in his nineteenth year having previously written more than ten works, Kas̲h̲f al-lit̲h̲ām ʿan Qawāʿid al-aḥkām (i.ḥ. 2628, where it is called Kas̲h̲f al-ibhām fī s̲h̲arḥ Qawāʿid al-aḥkām), al-Manāhij al-sawīyah fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Rauḍat al-bahīyah s̲h̲arḥ al-Lumʿat al-Dimas̲h̲qīyah (i.ḥ. 3140) and a large Persian commentary on the Qurʾān entitled al-Baḥr al-mawwāj. He died at Iṣfahān on 25 Ramaḍān 113713/1725.

Tuḥfat al-majālis, an account of the miracles performed by Muḥammad and the Imāms.

Editions: [Persia,] 1274/1858°, 1275/1859‡, 1297/1880*, Tabrīz 1278/1861–2°.

[Rauḍāt al-jannāt pp. 548 bis–550bis = vol. iv pp. 109–111; Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 243–4.]

§ 280. It was by desire of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam Bahādur-S̲h̲āh (reigned 1118/1707–1124/1712) that S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd Muḥammadī al-Akbarābādī compiled his

Tad̲h̲kirat al-sādāt, on the names, kunyahs, laqabs, dates of birth and death and similar matters connected with the Prophet, Fāṭimah and the Twelve Imāms, together with genealogical information concerning their descendants, including some of those who came to India.

Edition: Allahabad 1880*.

§ 281. In 1125/1713 an anonymous author wrote and dedicated to S̲h̲āh Sulṭān Ḥusain his

Jannāt al-k̲h̲ulūd (a chronogram), a small book (35 foll.) on traditions relating to the Imāms, festivals, the ascertainment of latitude and longitude and other matters: Majlis 539 (ah 1261/1845).

§ 282. Mīrzā M. Ṣādiq “Āzād”, a Ṭihrānī, it appears, by origin, was evidently resident in Kas̲h̲mīr when he completed his Dil-gus̲h̲ā-nāmah. This work he began in Ṣafar 1131/1719–20 and it took him six years to complete. He died in 1159/1746. He is the author of a continuation of “Bād̲h̲il’s” Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, written after the Dil-gus̲h̲ā-nāmah at the request of “Bād̲h̲il’s” cousin M. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn (see pp. 156–157 supra).

Dil-gus̲h̲ā-nāmah, or Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī giving an account of al-Muk̲h̲tār: Sprenger 147, Bānkīpūr iii 373 (ah 1159/1746), Rieu ii 719b (18th cent.).

[Bānkīpūr vi 373 (where it is shown that Rieu was mistaken about the identity of the author).]

§ 283. Muḥibb ʿAlī K̲h̲an “Ḥikmat” was one of those who wrote continuations to the unfinished Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī of “Bād̲h̲il”. His continuation, the Ṣaulat i Ṣafdarī, was composed in 1143/1730 (see p. 157 supra). Subsequently he began but left unfinished a poem on the life of Fāṭimah. This was completed by M. Kāẓim “Ḥād̲h̲iq”, whose Aḥsan al-siyar, composed in 1114/1702, has already been mentioned (p. 199), and who gave his continuation, four times as long as the original poem, the title of Faraḥ-nāmah i Fāṭimī.

Faraḥ-nāmah i Fātimī, a S̲h̲īʿite poem on the life of Fāṭimah: Sprenger 314, Rieu ii 708 (preceded by “Ḥikmat’s” untitled fragment. 18th cent.).

§ 284. M. Nādir refers to the Takmīl al-īmān of ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī, and he consequently cannot have written earlier than the 17th century.

Tad̲h̲kirat al-maʿṣūmīn, lives of Muḥammad, the Twelve Imāms and the fourteen martyrs of Karbalāʾ in 15 chapters: Būhār 39 (19th cent.).

§ 285. Walī Allāh Dihlawī, who died ah 1176/1762–3, has already been mentioned as author of the Fatḥ al-Raḥmān and of al-Fauz al-kabīr (pp. 17–18 supra), and of the translation Surūr al-maḥzūn (p. 140 supra).

Qurrat al-ʿainain fī tafḍīl al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ain, on the merits of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿUt̲h̲mān: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1352 no. 316, Būhār 128 (19th cent.), i.o. D.P. 702.d.p. 82a (Bilg. 1396).

Edition: Delhi 1310/1892°.

§ 286. M. Naqī, called also ʿAlī Naqī b. Aḥmad Burūjirdī, wrote his ʿAin al-bukāʾ at Kās̲h̲ān in 999/1590–1 (according to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir) or in 1199/1784–5 (according to Ivanow, who describes the earlier date as wrong).

(1)
ʿAin al-bukāʾ, accounts of the martyrs of Karbalāʾ and other descendants of the Prophet. Possibly Ivanow Curzon 380 (1) (32 majālis14 only. ah 1248/1832–3) is a (defective ?) copy of this work.
(2)
Lubb i ʿAin al-bukāʾ, an abridgment of the preceding in 73 (or 74) majālis intended for recitation in Muḥarram: Bānkīpūr vi 506 (ah 1241/1825), Ivanow Curzon 380 (2) (63 majālis, the last incomplete. ah 1254/1838).

§ 287. Mahdī b. Abī D̲h̲arr al-Kās̲h̲ānī al-Nirāqī15 was born at Nirāq, lived at Kās̲h̲ān and retired to Najaf, where he was buried. He was a pupil of M. Bāqir al-Bihbahānī (b. ah 1117/1705–6 or 1118/1706–7, d. circ. 1208/1793–4), of Yūsuf b. Aḥmad al-Baḥrānī (b. 1107/1695–6, d. 1186/1772) and of other distinguished scholars. The date of his death is not mentioned in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt or the Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ, but according to the Mas̲h̲had catalogue (i, 4 (mss.), p. 91) it occurred in 1209/1794–5. Several works of his are mentioned in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt, all of them apparently unknown to Iʿjāz Ḥusain. His son Aḥmad Nirāqī (d. 1244/1828–9) was also a scholar of note (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv 411).

Muḥarriq al-qulūb, a S̲h̲īʿite history of the martyrs of the Prophet’s family in two muqaddimahs and twenty majālis: Mas̲h̲had i 4, p. 91 (ah 1240), Berlin 567 (ah 1245/1829–30), 568 (lacks first fol. ah 1233/1818), Āṣafīyah i p. 252 no. 518 (ah 1264/1848).

Edition: Tabrīz [?] 1248/1833 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868) p. 516 and Dorn Asiat. Mus. p. 88, the latter of which gives Ṭihrān as the place of publication).

[Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv 136–7; Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 105–7.]

§ 288. M. Mubīn b. Muḥibb Allāh b. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Lakhnawī Ḥanafī Anṣārī died at Lucknow on 2 Rabīʿ ii 1225/7 May 1810. His best-known work is the Mirʾāt al-s̲h̲urūḥ, an Arabic commentary on Muḥibb Allāh al-Bihārī’s Sullam al-ʿulūm, an Arabic treatise on logic (For editions (Lucknow 1871, 1882, 1904 (this last edition, on the margin of Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq’s similar commentary, contains the first part (taṣawwurāt) only), Cawnpore 1311/1893, 1896) see Ellis and Fulton-Ellis.) He wrote also an Arabic commentary on the Musallam al-t̲h̲ubūt, an Arabic work on the principles of Muḥammadan law, also by Muḥibb Allāh al-Bihārī, Arabic annotations on Mīr M. Zāhid’s commentary on Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Risālah fī ’l-taṣawwur wa-’l-taṣdīq and other works (several of which are mentioned by Raḥmān ʿAlī).

Wasīlat al-najāt, lives of the Twelve Imāms.

Edition: Lucknow 1895° (with marginal Urdu translation by M. Ḥādī ʿAlī K̲h̲ān).

[Raḥmān ʿAlī 211.]

§ 289. M. ʿAlīm b. M. Mūsā Yaḥyā’ī Afḍalī Ilāhābādī was the grandson of a well-known Ṣūfī, K̲h̲ūb Allāh (properly M. Yaḥyā) Ilāhābādī (d. 1144/1731, see Raḥmān ʿAlī 58).

G̲h̲āyat al-himmah fī d̲h̲ikr al-ṣaḥābah wa-’l-aʾimmah or Risālah i Muḥammadīyah, written originally ah 1206/1792, completed after revision ah 1209/1795, a history of the Prophet, the early Caliphs and the Imāms: Bānkīpūr vi 508 (defective at end. Early 19th cent.).

§ 290. M. ʿAlī b. M. Fāḍil wrote in 1218/1803–4

Maʿdin al-ṣulaḥāʾ dar bayān i Saiyid al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 no. 45.

§ 291. Muftī Ikrām al-Dīn, a great grandson of ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (for whom see p. 152 supra), composed in 1220/1805–6

Saʿādat al-kaunain fī bayān faḍāʾil al-Ḥasanain, a legendary account of the deaths of al-Ḥasan, al-Ḥusain and the martyrs of Karbalāʾ: Būhār 33 (19th cent.), i.o. d.p. 676 (ah 1239/1823).

Edition: Delhi 1893† (presumably, since it was registered on 2.1.1894).

§ 292. Mullā Bamūn ʿAlī “Rājī” Kirmānī was a Zoroastrian convert to Islām according to Sprenger, who was told that he died at Bombay “not many years ago” (Sprenger’s Oudh Catalogue was printed in 1854).

(1)
Ḥamlah i Ḥaidarī, a mat̲h̲nawī on the life of ʿAlī written ah 1220/1805–6 by order of the S̲h̲āhzādah Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān: Sprenger no. 461, Berlin 558 (about the first half of the poem).

Editions: Bombay 1244/1828–9 (see Sprenger no. 461), 1264/1848*, [place ?] 1266/1849–50 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 876 no. 113), Ṭihrān 1270/1854°, [Persia, probably Ṭihrān,] 1283/1866°, [place ?] 1276/1859–60 (Āṣafīyah i p. 238 no. 467).

(2)
Dāstān i g̲h̲azwah i Ḥunain. Edition: Bombay 1848*.

[Sprenger no. 461, Rieu ii 7046.]

§ 293. Faḍl i ʿAlī b. Āqā Maḥmūd b. Āqā Aḥmad al-Iṣfahānī began in 1208/1793–4 and completed in 1222/1807–8 his Muḥīṭ al-g̲h̲abrāʾ ’,16 on the martyrdom of the Imāms, divided into 20 baḥrs: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 940 (early 19th cent.).

§ 294. M. Ḥasan b. al-Ḥājj Maʿṣūm al-Qazwīnī was a pupil of the distinguished S̲h̲īʿite theologian Āqā M. Bāqir b. M. Akmal Bihbahānī, who died in 1205/1790–1 or 1208/1793–4.17 It was to Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā, third son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and Governor of Fārs ah 1214/1799–1800–1250/1834–5, that he dedicated his

Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲ahādah fī d̲h̲ikr maṣaʾib al-Sādah, completed ah 1227/1812, a history of Muḥammad and the Imāms divided usually into three volumes consisting respectively of four, eighteen and eight majālis: Rieu i 155b (vol. ii (18 majālis relating to al-Ḥusain, his relatives etc. and al-Muk̲h̲tār). 19th cent.), Suppt. 45 (vol. i (4 majālis relating to Muḥammad, Fāṭimah, ʿAlī and al-Ḥasan). ah 1228/1813), 46 (vol. ii (18 majālis as above). ah 1238/1823), 47 (vol. iii (8 majālis relating to the Imāms from Zain al-ʿĀbidīn to al-Mahdī). Early 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 503 (vol. ii (18 majālis as above)), Princeton 458 (ah 1262/1846).

Edition: [Bombay?] 1273–4/1857–8*.

§ 295. M. Ḥusain al-S̲h̲arīf b. M. ʿAlī Kirmānī was over fifty years of age when he began the compilation of his Rauḍat al-Ḥusainīyah, which he dedicated to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (ah 1211/1797–1250/1834) probably towards the end of his reign.

Rauḍat al-Ḥusainīyah, on the martyrdoms of the Imāms, their miracles etc., in 72 majālis and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ivanow 1st Suppt. 824 (probably shortly before ah 1246/1830).

§ 296. Qurbān b. Ramaḍān “Bīdil” al-Bādas̲h̲tī al-Rūdbārī al-Qazwīnī wrote in 1248/1832–3 his

Mātam-kadah, on the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain and others.

Editions: [Ṭihrān] 1274/1858° [this is given as the date of vol. ii, the only one in the b.m.], Ṭihrān 1277/1860 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868), p. 516).

§ 297. Maulawī M. Ṣibg̲h̲at Allāh b. M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ entitled Muftī Badr al-Daulah ʿAẓīm-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Bahādur Muʿtamad-Jang ʿUmdat al-ʿulamāʾ (presumably an official at one time in the employ of the Nawwāb of the Carnatic ʿAẓīm al-Daulah (d. 1819) or his successor ʿAẓim-Jāh (d. 1825)) wrote his Dāstān i g̲h̲am in 1250/1834–5.

Dāstān i g̲h̲am, a Sunnite (prose) account of al-Ḥusain and his martyrdom based on an Arabic work by the same author. Edition: Madras 1258–9/1843*.

§ 298. In 1250/1834–5 a Madrāsī poet dedicated to M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, the last titular Nawwāb of the Carnatic (born 1239/1824, died 1855),18 his

Baḥr i g̲h̲am (a chronogram), a metrical account of the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain and his associates: Ivanow Curzon 313 (ah 1262/1846).

§ 299. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Walī Allāh Dihlawī, whose Fatḥ al-ʿAzīz or Tafsīr i ʿAzīzī has already been mentioned (p. 19 supra), was born in 1159/1746 and died in 1239/1824.

Sirr al-s̲h̲ahādatain, an Arabic account of the martyrdom of al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain. Editions: Lucknow 1257/1841*, 1873°*, Delhi 1285/1868–9*, Sahāranpūr 1296/1879°*.

Persian commentary: Taḥrīr al-s̲h̲ahādatain, by M. Salāmat Allāh “Kas̲h̲fī” b. S̲h̲. Barakat Allāh Badāyūnī Kānpūrī, who died at Cawnpore in 1281/1864 (see Raḥmān ʿAlī 77–80).

Editions: Lucknow 1844*, 1874*, 1882°.

Persian translation: Iẓhār al-saʿādah fī tarjamat Asrār al-s̲h̲ahādah completed in 1251/1835 at G̲h̲āzīpūr by Maulawī ʿAlī Kabīr commonly called (maʿrūf bah) M. Mīran-jān b. S. Jaʿfar (Muḥammadī Junaidī Ḥanafī) Ilāhābādī. Edition: Calcutta 1253/1837* (with the Arabic text).

§ 300. Hājjī M. Ṣāliḥ al-Burg̲h̲ānī completed in S̲h̲awwāl 1256/1840 his

Mak̲h̲zan al-bukāʾ fī muṣībat Saiyid al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ, on al-Ḥusain’s martyrdom. Edition: [Persia,] 1273/1856–7 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868), p. 515).

§ 301. S. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī Mūsawī Riḍawī Jahāngīnagarī wrote in 1263/1847 his

Ḥamlah i Ḥusainī, a mat̲h̲nawī on the battle of Karbalāʾ: Bānkīpūr iii 439 (19th cent.).

§ 302. Qurbān-ʿAlī (mulaqqab wa-mutak̲h̲alliṣ bi-) “Kāmyāb” b. M. Rafīʿ Pāzawārī Māzandarānī himself gave Dorn a copy of his ʿUmmān al-bukāʾ at Bārfurūs̲h̲, no doubt in 1860 when Dorn visited the town. “Mirza Kamyab,” says Dorn, “est regardé comme un des premiers savants du Mazandéran.”

ʿUmmān al-bukāʾ, on the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain and others. Edition: Ṭihrān 1276/1859–60 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868), p. 516).

§ 303. Riḍā-Qulī k̲h̲ān “Hidāyat” died ah 1288/1871 (see p. 118 supra).

Maẓāhir al-anwār fī manāqib al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār. Edition: [Tabrīz,] 1280/1863°.

§ 304. M. ʿAlī b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar b. Maḥmūd b. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī al-Najafī al-Asadī al-Kāẓimī came to Bombay in 1252/1836–7 after making a pilgrimage to Mecca and to the shrines of the Imāms. Subsequently he travelled much and visited among other places Lucknow and London. He was the author of (1) Ḥuzn al-muʾminīn, S̲h̲īʿite elegies [Edition: place ?19 1260/1844, see Āṣafīyah i p. 238 no. 425], (2) Lisān al-wāʿiẓīn, in praise of the family of ʿAlī, and (3) Surūr al-muʾminīn, a history of ʿAlī and his family to the death of al-Muk̲h̲tār, written in 1281/1864 for S. Ḥasan S̲h̲āh Āqā K̲h̲ān and divided into 31 majālis and a k̲h̲ātimah: Berlin 575.

§ 305. S. Ṣadr al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Karīm al-Dīn Aḥmad ‘Alawī Mūsawī Ḥanafī Qādirī Būhārī Bardawānī was born in 1259/1843 at Būhār in the Bardwān District of Bengal. His great-grandfather Muns̲h̲ī S. Ṣadr al-Dīn b. S.M. Ṣādiq (d. 1211/1797) was Mīr Muns̲h̲ī and subsequently Madār al-mahāmm to Mīr Jaʿfar, Nawwāb of Murs̲h̲idābād, assisted Warren Hastings in the settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and founded the Jalālīyah Madrasah with ʿAbd al-ʿAlī “Baḥr al-ʿulūm” as principal. To this madrasah Muns̲h̲ī Ṣadr al-Dīn attached the library which his great-grandson greatly augmented and which in 1904 he presented to the Government of India. This library, designated the Būhār Library, is preserved in the Imperial Library at Calcutta and its contents are known to Orientalists through the catalogues of Persian and Arabic manuscripts published in 1921 and 1923 respectively. Maulawī Ṣadr al-Dīn died in 1905.

Rawāʾiḥ al-Muṣṭafā min azhār al-Murtaḍā, a large work on the Imāms, some of their descendants and various saints begun ah 1302/1885 and completed ah 1303/1886: Bānkīpūr viii 724–5 (ah 1304/1886, autograph).

Edition: Cawnpore 1305/1889°.

[Rawāʾiḥ al-Muṣṭafā, vol. ii, at end; Catalogue of the Persian manuscripts in the Bûhâr Library, Calcutta 1921, preface; Calcutta Review n.s. vol. iv, no. 3 (Sept. 1922); Bānkīpūr viii 724.]

§ 306. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled Ṣanīʿ al-Daulāh and afterwards Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, died at Ṭihrān in 1896 (see p. 120 supra).

Ḥujjat al-saʿādah fī ḥijjat al-s̲h̲ahādah, an account of the martyrs of Karbalāʾ, followed by a summary of the events of ah 61 throughout the world. Editions: [Ṭihrān,] 1304/1887°, Tabrīz 1310/1893°.

§ 307. Abū ’l-Ḥasan “K̲h̲urram” S̲h̲īrāzī, entitled Ṣadr al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, was a poet of the time of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Qājār.

S̲h̲ajāʿat al-Ḥusainī, a poem on the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain and his companions.

Editions: Bombay 1309/1891° (containing also the same author’s Manāqib al-Aʾimmah, poems in praise of the Imāms, and Maṭlaʿ al-anwār, poems in praise of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh and the royal family of Persia, etc.), 1328/1910°* (containing also the same author’s Maulūd-nāmah, a poem on the Twelfth Imām, Manāqib al-Aʾimmah, Maṭlaʿ al-anwār and Bahār i K̲h̲urram or Ḥadīqah i dānis̲h̲, on prosody).

§ 308. M. ʿAbbās “Rifʿat” S̲h̲īrwānī was the son of Aḥmad b. M. al-Yamanī al-S̲h̲irwānī.20 He settled at Bhopal and is described by Ṣiddīq Ḥasan in the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman (1875) as Muhtamm i maḥkamah i tartīb i dastūr al-ʿamal i riʾāsat, no doubt a temporary employment. A work of his entitled Qalāʾid al-jawāhir fī aḥwāl al-Bawāhir composed in 1287/1870–1 and published in 1301/1883–4 is mentioned in the Āṣafīyah Catalogue (i, p. 248). Other works written by him were the Sulṭān-nāmah, a short history of the Ottoman Sulṭans ending with a brief account of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 written in 1304/1886–7 (Editions: Bombay 1304/1887°*, 1307/1890°), and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Qaiṣar i Rūm (Edition: Cawnpore 1281/1864°), a translation of Ibrāhīm Efendī’s Miṣbāḥ al-sārī, an Arabic history of the Sulṭāns of Turkey.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Āl i amjād, an account of Muḥammad and some of his descendants and successors: Edition: Delhi 1312/1895°.

[S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 182.]

§ 309. Mīrzā ʿAbbās-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Sipihr” b. M. Taqī Lisān al-Mulk Kāshānī,21 the author of the Tad̲h̲kirah i Nāṣirī, verse and prose eulogies of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh and the events of his reign ([Ṭihrān] 1304/1887°), wrote also

(1)
Aḥwāl i ḥaḍrat i Bāqir, a life of the Imām M. al-Bāqir, completed in 1323/1905–6: Majlis 563 (Supplement to vol. ii only ?).

Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1323–4/1905–6°.

(2)
Ṭirāz al-mud̲h̲ahhab, a life of Zainab, written ah 1314/1896–7.

Editions: Bombay 1322/1904–5 (“Ṭirāz al-mud̲h̲ahhab i Muẓaffarī.” See Āṣafīyah i p. 246), Ṭihrān 1323/1905–6 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 137).

§ 310. Mullā ʿAbbās “Ṭūṭī” b. Mullā M. As̲h̲rafī Māzandarānī wrote in 1332/1913–14 his

Naẓm al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ, metrical account of the martyrdoms: Mas̲h̲had i 4, p. 101 (autograph).

§ 311. Appendix

2.3.1 Titled or Quasi-Titled Works

(1)
Ansāb i Ṭālibīyīn: see Baḥr al-ansāb below.
(2)
Anwār al-s̲h̲ahādah, a collection of traditions relating to the events of Karbalāʾ, by Ḥasan b. ʿAlī Yazdī KT̲H̲NWĪ: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1294/1877. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 62, where it is stated that a printed edition exists).22
(3)
Asās al-īmān, on the lives and attributes of the Twelve Imāms in 12 sections, by “Wālih”:23 Browne Suppt. 45 (ah 1128/1716).
(4)
Asrār al-s̲h̲ahādah (fī bayān aḥwāl S̲h̲uhadā’ Karbalāʾ), by ʿAbbās ʿAlī. Edition: Persia 1277/1860–1 (see Cairo p. 498).
(5)
Asrār al-s̲h̲ahādah, an account in mixed prose and verse of the life and martyrdom of ʿAlī and his family followed by elegies, by Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān “Sarbāz” Burūjirdī. Edition: [Ṭihrān ?] 1284/1867°, Persia 1296/1879 (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 430, no. 879).
(6)
Ātas̲h̲-kadah (?), a detailed legendary account of the martyrs of Karbalāʾ in mixed prose and verse, by “Jauharī”,24 who cannot have lived earlier than the 17th century, since he quotes M. Bāqir Majlisī: Būhār 41 (defective at both ends, opening with the 10th s̲h̲uʿlah of the fifth ātas̲h̲-kadah. 19th cent.).
(7)
Badr i mus̲h̲aʿs̲h̲aʿ, on the descendants of Mūsā al-Mubarqaʿ, son of M. al-Taqī, the 9th Imām, by Mīrzā Ḥusain Nūrī Ṭabarsī. Editions: [Bombay,] 1308/1890°, 1893†.
(8)
Baḥr al-ansāb, an Arabic work.25 Persian translation: Kitāb dar bayān i ansāb i Ṭālibīyīn, by K̲h̲wājah Mīr b. ʿImād al-Dīn M. b. Amīr S. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī, a detailed genealogy of the descendants of Abū Ṭālib in three bābs ((1) ʿAlī’s offspring, (2) Jaʿfar’s offspring, (3) ʿAqīl’s offspring): Ethé 168 (ah 1081/1671).
(9)
Baḥr al-ansāb: see Kanz al-ansāb below.
(10)
Baḥr al-manāqib: see Durr Baḥr al-manāqib below.
(11)
Bait al-aḥzān, on the martyrdoms of ʿAlī and his family, by ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliq b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Yazdī (al-aṣl) Mas̲h̲hadī (al-maskin). Edition: Tabrīz 1275/1859° (cf. Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868), p. 515).
(12)
Dāstān i Karbalāʾ: Velyaminov-Zernov p. 863 no. 6.
(13)
D̲h̲ak̲h̲īrat al-ʿuqbā fī faḍāʾil aʾimmat al-hudā, by ʿĀs̲h̲iq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556, no. 54 (ah 1253/1837–8, probably a printed book though described as a ms.). Edition: Calcutta 1253/1837*.
(14)
Durr baḥr al-manāqib fī faḍl ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, by ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm surnamed Darwīs̲h̲ Burhān Bag̲h̲dādī, an abridgment of the author’s Arabic work Baḥr al-manāqib: Majlis 542 (ah 984/1576–7), 543 (defective. Old), 544, Berlin 564 (def. at end. Old), Ivanow Curzon 379 (ah 1218/1803), Rieu ii 857a (ah 1230/1815), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 no. 47.
(15)
Faḍāʾil al-aʾimmah, by M. Taqī Iṣfāhānī known as Āqā Najafī. Edition: place ? 1305/1887–8 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 20).
(16)
Faḍāʾil al-ʿārifīn: see S̲h̲ams al-ḍuḥā below.
(17)
Ḥikāyat i Muḥammad i Ḥanafīyah, “history of Muhammad, son of the Ḥanafiyyah, from the time when the tidings of his brother Ḥusain’s death reach him to the time when he releases the latter’s son, Zain ul-ʿĀbidīn, from captivity, and finds the charred body of the accursed Yazīd at the bottom of a well.” Apparently this and no. (51) infra are “detached portions of a late composition exhibiting the Shīʿah legend in its most exuberant growth”: Rieu ii 819a (ad 1721).
(18)
Jang-nāmah, a versified account of the life and wars of Muḥammad, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, by Aḥmad K̲h̲ān “Ṣūfī”: Lucknow 1299/1882°.
(19)
Jang-nāmah i Ḥusainī, a life of al-Ḥusain preceded by a short notice of al-Ḥasan: Būhār 42 (Bengali Samwat 1252/ad 1844).
(20–23)
Kanz al-ansāb wa-baḥr al-muṣāb (so Āṣafīyah ii 1778 no. 127, while the title-page of the 1316 edition has Kanz al-ansāb maʿrūf bah Baḥr al-ansāb), genealogies of the Twelve Imāms and their descendants ascribed in the Āṣafīyah catalogue to Abū Mik̲h̲naf (for whom see Brockelmann i 65 and Ency. Isl.), a work written originally in Arabic, brought to Persia ah 653/1255 by a certain S. Abū Ṭālib, who died a few years later at Sabzawār (see Rieu iii 1061b, 1081a, where the work is called Ansāb-nāmah), and translated into Persian by a writer of the same century, S. Murtaḍā ʿAlam al-Hudā,26 best known as the author of the Tabṣirat al-ʿawāmm, an account of religions and sects, mainly those of Islām (see Rieu i 140, iii 1081a): Āṣafīyah ii p. 1778 no. 117, Rieu iii 1061b (extracts only). Probably identical with this is “Abu Michnaf b. Lût b. Jahja Chusaiy’s” Baḥr al-ansāb preserved in the Asiatic Museum at Leningrad (see Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863), p. 54).

Editions: Bombay 1302/1884 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1778 no. 127), 1316/1898°.27

(24)
Karbalā i muʿallā, a metrical account of the martyrdoms at Karbalāʾ, by Muẓaffar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Asīr”. Editions: Lucknow 1880°, Cawnpore 1899†.
(25)
K̲h̲aṣāʾiṣ al-Ḥusainīyah, by Jaʿfar b. Ḥusain S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī. Edition: Bombay 1313/1895°.
(26)
Lisān al-d̲h̲ākirīn, lives of the Imāms with some account of events in the life of Muḥammad etc., by M. Hādī Nāʾīnī. Edition: Ṭihrān 1296/1879°.
(27)
Majālis al-aḥzān, on the deaths of Muḥammad, Fāṭimah, ʿAlī, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain in 10 majālis dedicated to Prince M. Buland-Ak̲h̲tar: Ivanow Curzon 377 (18th cent.).
(28)
Majālis i Saiyid al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 no. 50 (from 4th to 10th majlis. ah 1231/1816).
(29)
Majmaʿ al-manāqib, lives of Muḥammad and the Imāms written by ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar Iṣfahānī in India at the age of fifty: Būhār 36 (18th cent.), 37 (ah 1274/1858).
(30)
Manāqib i dabīrīyah: see S̲h̲ams al-ḍuḥā below.
(31)
Mufarriḥ al-qulūb: see Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah below (no. 40).
(32)
Muhaiyij al-aḥzān, by Ḥasan b. M. ʿAlī al-Yazdī (aṣlan) al-Ḥāʾirī (maskinan), an account of al-Ḥusain’s martyrdom. Editions: [Ṭihrān?] 1271–2/1854–6°, [Persia,] 1277/1860–1 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868), p. 516).
(33)
Muʿjizāt wa-ḥikāyāt MaulāyaAmīr al-Muʾminīn, on ʿAlī, his miracles etc. Edition: [Persia,] 1305/1887°.
(34)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, in 24 majālis beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhBi-dān kih tasallī i dil wa-rāḥat i jān i S̲h̲īʿiyān i muk̲h̲liṣ (cf. no. 41): Berlin 4 (27) (ten majālis only. ah 1027/1618), 4 (29) (Majālis 14–16).
(35)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah or Qiṣṣah i Muk̲h̲tār, in 23 majālis beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi Rabb al-ʿālamīnammā baʿd tasallī i dil i mūminān u rāḥat (cf. no. 41 infra): Rieu i 156 (ah 927/1521).
(36)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, in 14 majālis: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 939 (ah 1220/1805).
(37)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, in 18 majālis beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāh Rabb al-ʿālamīn … ammā baʿd k̲h̲udāwand i ak̲h̲bār …: Ivanow Curzon 378 (ah 1059/1649), Bānkīpūr vi 505 (18th cent.).
(38)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah: i.o. 3716.
(39)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah: Lindesiana p. 198 (circ. ad 1750).
(40)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, or Mufarriḥ al-qulūb, in eleven majālis beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāh allad̲h̲ī s̲h̲araḥa ṣudūranā …: Berlin 577 (ah 1233/1817).
(41)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, in 21 majālis beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāh Rabb al-ʿālamīn wa-l-ʿāqibatu li-l-muttaqīn … ammā baʿd tasallī i dil i mūminīn wa-rāḥat i jān i majrūḥān i muk̲h̲liṣ qiṣṣah i Muk̲h̲tār ast: Berlin 576 (i) (ah 1225/1810).
(42)
Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah: see Surūr al-muʾminīn below.
(43)
Muk̲h̲taṣar (beg. al-Ḥ. l. Rabb al-ʿā. wa-’l-ṣ. wa-’l-s. ʿalā k̲h̲air k̲h̲alqih M. wa-ālih war-aulādih wa-aʾimmah i it̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲ar ʿalaihim al-s. ajmaʿīn), a history of the Twelve Imāms and their descendants literally translated by a certain “S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ḥuffāẓ” from an Arabic original: Berlin 563 (1) (ah 1149/1737).
(44)
Muṣībat-nāmah, by M. Baqā Wārit̲h̲: Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 106.
(45)
(Muṣībat-nāmah): Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 941 (defective at both ends. Early 19th cent.).
(46)
(Muṣībat-nāmah): Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 942 (defective at both ends. Mid. 19th cent.).
(47)
Nasab-nāmah i aʾmmah i maʿṣūmīn: Browne Suppt. 719 (ah 973/1565–6).
(48)
Nihāyat al-suʾūl fī manāqib raiḥānat al-Rasūl, by ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ S̲h̲āfiʿī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1558 no. 8 (ah 1238/1822–3).
(49)
Nūr al-abṣār fī ak̲h̲d̲h̲ al-t̲h̲ār, by S.M. Ibrāhīm b. M. Taqī, Mujtahid, of Lucknow. Edition: place ? date ? (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 no. 149).
(50)
Nūr al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ,28 by S. Nūr al-aṣfiyāʾ: Āṣafīyah i p. 258 no. 381.
(51)
Qiṣṣah i Amīr al-muʾminīn Ḥasan u Ḥusain, a legendary history apparently extracted from some late work: Rieu ii 819a (ad 1721).
(52)
Qiṣṣah i Muk̲h̲tār: see Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah.
(53)
Qiṣṣah i S̲h̲īr i mardān ʿAlī i Murtaḍā, fabulous narratives relating to ʿAlī: Rieu ii 856a (18th cent.).
(54)
Rauḍat al-aʾimmah, lives of the Twelve Imāms, by S. ʿlzzat ʿAlī Riḍawī. Edition: place ? 1271 /1854–5 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 240 no. 433 and cf. Peshawar 1452).
(55)
Rauḍat al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ,1 by Ḥusain b. Ismāʿīl al-BRHARĪ [?]: Āṣafīyah i p. 240 no. 372 (defective at beginning. ah 1112/1700–1).
(56)
Rauḍat al-mujāhidīn or Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, by ʿAṭāʾ Allāh b. Ḥusām al-Wāʿiẓ. Edition: Ṭihrān 1261 /1845°.
(57)
al-Risālat al-ansābīyah, on the fortunes of those ʿAlids who were banished by the Marwānids 115 years after the death of Musaiyib b. K̲h̲uzāʿī and who then migrated to Tālis̲h̲istān and Dailamān in Gīlān: Berlin 563 (2) (ah 1149/1737).
(58)
Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ, an account of the rebellion of al-Muk̲h̲tār in four faṣls, beginning al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi llad̲h̲ī ablā auliyāʾahu bi-’l-miḥan wa-’l–maṣā’ib: Ross and Browne 232 (2) (ah 1281/1864).
(59)
Saiyid al-sādāt, a metrical account of ʿAlī, Fāṭimah, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain, by Maẓhar al-Ḥaqq: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1230/1815. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 62).
(60)
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah, on Mūsā al-Kāẓim and his descendants with special reference to the Ṣafawids, by M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān called Nawwāb i Daulah. Edition: Farruk̲h̲ābād 1314/1896°.
(61)
S̲h̲ams al-ḍuḥā, or Manāqib i dabīrīyah or Faḍāʾil al-ʿārifīn, on the merits of the Imāms, by Maulawī Ṣafdar Ḥusain. Edition: Lucknow 1298/1881°.
(62)
S̲h̲aukat i ʿArab, a historical poem by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān “K̲h̲abīr” K̲h̲aṭak written in opposition to the S̲h̲āh-nāmah to celebrate the conquest of Persia by Saʿd b. [Abī] Waqqāṣ. Edition: Lucknow 1875°*.
(63)
Surūr al-mu’minīn or Muk̲h̲tār-nāmah, by Mullā M. Ḥusain Nāʾīnī. Editions: [place ?] 1270/1853–4 (see Berlin p. 545), [Persia] 1281 /1864–5 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868) p. 526, no. 106).
(64)
Tārīk̲h̲ i futūḥ i S̲h̲ām, translation of an Arabic history of the conquest of Syria: Ethé 134.
(65)
Tārīk̲h̲ i ʿUmarī, a history of the Caliph ʿUmar said to have been written in Arabic for Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲id and translated into Persian by M. Ḥusain b. ʿAbd al-Salām for Maḥmūd b. Subuktigīn: Rieu iii 1041b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).
(66)
Ṭūfān al-bukāʾ, lives of Muḥammad, Fāṭimah, ʿAlī and the Imāms, by M. Ibrāhīm “Jauharī” b. M. Bāqir al-Marwī. Editions: Ṭihrān 1259/1843 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 246 no. 443), 1263/1847°, Tabrīz 1274/1857–8 (see Mas̲h̲had i 4 (printed books) p. 18), place ? 1294/1877 (ibid.), Persia n.d. (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868) p. 516).
(67)
Tuḥfat al-ak̲h̲awain fī manāqib al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ain, on the merits of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUt̲h̲mān, Muʿāwiyah and some of the Aṣḥāb, divided into a muqaddimah, four faṣls, a k̲h̲ātimah and a tabṣirah: Bodleian 1796.
(68)
Tuḥfat al-d̲h̲ākirīn, on the life of al-Ḥusain and other members of the Prophet’s family, by “Bīdil” [identified in the b.m. catalogue with the well-known poet ʿAbd al-Qādir “Bīdil”, b. at Patna ah 1054/1644–5, died at Delhi ah 1133/1720, but this is probably incorrect]. Edition: Ṭihrān 1280–1/1863–4° (3 vols.).
(69)
Tuḥfat al-Riḍawīyah, a life of [ʿAlī b. ?] Mūsā al-Riḍā, by Naurūz ʿAlī b. M. Bāqir Bisṭāmī.29 Edition: Tabrīz 1281/1865°.
(70)
Wasīlat al-najāt, on the death of al-Ḥusain and other martyrs, by M. Ḥusain b. M. Riḍā. Edition: [/?/ihrān,] 1284/1867°.
(71)
Wasīlat al-najāt, on the events of ʿĀs̲h̲ūrāʾ, by Naurūz ʿAlī b. M. Bāqir al-Bisṭāmī:30 Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926), p. 62). Edition: [Persia,] 1300/1883°.31

2.3.2 Untitled Works

(1)
Account of al-Ḥusain’s martyrdom: Lindesiana p. 152 no. 776 (circ. ad 1770).
(2)
Kitāb dar faḍīlat i ḥaḍrat i ʿAlī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 880 no. 77.
(3)
Legendary history of the death of al-Ḥusain and other martyrs, divided into mis̲h̲kāts subdivided into miṣbāḥs: Berlin 565 (begins in Mis̲h̲kāt vii, Miṣbāḥ 3 and breaks off in Mis̲h̲kāt ix, Miṣbāḥ 2), 566 (begins with Mis̲h̲kāt ix, Miṣbāḥ 3, ends in Mis̲h̲kāt xii).
(4)
Narratives of the martyrdoms of the Imāms divided into majālis: Browne Suppt. 1453 (defective at both ends).
(5)
Popular history of the Imāms and their partisans from the death of al-Ḥusain to the overthrow of the Umaiyads: Browne 1452.
(6)
Risālah dar faḍāʾil i Saiyid al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 no. 40.
(7)
Stories of al-Ḥusain etc.: Upsala Zetterstéen 407.
(8)
Work in prose and verse on the martyrdom of al-Ḥusain, by M. Hādī b. Abī ’l-Ḥasan al-S̲h̲arīf al-Nāʾīnī (presumably identical with the author of the Kitāb i Yūsufīyah mentioned on p. 134 supra): Rieu i 156a (small fragment only. 19th cent.).

next chapter: 3.1 General

Notes

^ Back to text1. His name is so given in the Persian translator’s preface, in the Nigāristān of Aḥmad al-G̲h̲affārī and the Rauḍat al-aḥbāb, both of which often quote the work, in the Majālis al-muʾminīn, in Ḥ.K̲h̲. (ed. Flügel, but not in the Constantinople ed.) iv p. 380 (where he is said to have died ah 1003/1594–5 !). In the Ḥabīb al-siyar (Bombay edition, p. 7) he is called M. b. ʿAlī b. Aʿt̲h̲am, while in Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 385 he is called M. b. ʿAlī known as Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī.

^ Back to text2. According to Abdul Muqtadir he is mentioned in the Tāj al-qiṣaṣ (see p. 124), which was composed ah 475/1082–3.

^ Back to text3. Some copies end with the death of al-Ḥusain.

^ Back to text4. Or Muḥammad.

^ Back to text5. For the titles see Blochet i 367–8.

^ Back to text6. The adjective Malakī is in allusion to a S̲h̲īʿite divine, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Malik Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, at whose request the translation was made. For the form of the nisbah see Wright, Arabic Grammar, i, p. 159.

^ Back to text7. For this author’s Tuḥfah i Quṭb-S̲h̲āhī, advice to princes, see Bodleian 1471. For his translation of the Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāq of al-Ḥasan b. al-Faḍl al-Ṭabarsī see Maḥbūb al-albāb 105 and pp. 12 and 138 supra.

^ Back to text8. A biography of Mus̲h̲kīn-Qalam entitled Fātiḥ al-qulūb is described in Ethé (no. 650).

^ Back to text9. In 1060/1650 according to the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ.

^ Back to text10. For a translation of vol. i (which is not historical) by the same translator entitled Kas̲h̲f al-asrār see Majlis 552.

^ Back to text11. Apparently through an oversight the name appears in the British Museum Catalogue of Persian printed books (col. 256) as Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad (Tāj al-Dīn), called Fāẓil Hindī.

^ Back to text12. There seems to be nothing improbable in the identification, although the Tuḥfat al-majālis is not mentioned in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt among the works of al-Fāḍil al-Hindī. Iʿjāz Ḥusain Kintūrī does not mention the work at all. It is a late production, which quotes, for example, the Biḥār al-anwār [of M. Bāqir al-Majlisī, d. 1110/1698–9 or 1111/1699–1700]. If al-Fāḍil al-Hindī’s name was Sulṭān Muḥammad, he may have dropped the Sulṭān in his Arabic works for the purpose of conforming to Arabic ideas of nomenclature, just as, apparently for this reason, Ṣiddīq Ḥasan b. Aulād Ḥasan b. Aulād ʿAlī (see pp. 21–22 supra) calls himself Ṣiddīq b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī in at least one of his Arabic works.

^ Back to text13. This, according to the Rauḍāt al-jannāt, was the date inscribed on his tombstone. Iʿjāz Ḥusain Kintūrī gives the date 1135/1722–3. Another mentioned in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt is 1131/1718–19.

^ Back to text14. According to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir, the author described his ʿAin al-bukāʾ as consisting of twenty-two chapters.

^ Back to text15. Nirāq “ʿalā wazn ʿIrāq” is in the neighbourhood of Kāshān according to the Rauḍāt al-jannāt.

^ Back to text16. Ivanow writes Muḥīṭ al-g̲h̲irāʾ, which I have ventured to emend as above.

^ Back to text17. For further information see Rauḍāt al-jannāt 123, Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 157–161, Nujūm al-samāʾ 342.

^ Back to text18. For his life see below in the section Biography: Poets, where the tad̲h̲kirahs Ṣubḥ i waṭan and Gulzār i Aʿẓam nominally compiled by him are mentioned.

^ Back to text19. Probably Bombay, of course.

^ Back to text20. There is some biographical information about A. b. M. al-Yamanī al-S̲h̲irwānī (derived mainly from Jawād Sābāṭ’s Arabic work al-Barāhīn al-Sābāṭīyah fī-mā tastaqīmu bihi daʿāʾim al-millat al-Muḥammadīyah, Calcutta 1229/1814) in Maulawī Abdul Wali’s Life and work of Jawad Sabat, an Arab traveller, writer and apologist, together with a review of his romantic career, as a Christian and Muslim, Calcutta and Simla 1925*, pp. 5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 33, 34, 42, 51–3, 80–1. According to Jawād Sābāṭ A. b. M., whom Sābāṭ often calls al-Jurjī, was born at Ḥudaidah, his father, Mīrzā M. Taqī, having come thither from S̲h̲irwān and married the daughter of Saiyid Ḥaidar, a (Jurjī) merchant (dallāl) of Bag̲h̲dād. In 1808 [apparently, see Roebuck, Annals of the College of Fort William, appendix, p. 47] be became attached to the Arabic Department of the College of Fort William and while there he compiled or edited a number of Arabic works for the use of the students, e.g. Nafḥat al-Yaman (1811), Ik̲h̲wān al-ṣafāʾ (1812), Ḥadīqat al-afrāḥ (1813), al-ʿAjab al-ʿujāb (letters, mostly original. 1813), Dīwān al-Mutanabbiʾ (1814), Alf lailah wa-lailah (1814–18), al-Qāmūs (1817), ʿAjāʾib al-maqdūr (1818). In 1235/1820 his panegyric on G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar entitled al-Manāqib al-Ḥaidarīyah was published at Lucknow. Raḥman ʿAlī mentions a work of his entitled S̲h̲ams al-iqbāl fī manāqib Malik Bhōpāl. According to Abdul Wali he died at Poonah in 1256/1840. He was a S̲h̲īʿite. Cf. Brockelmann ii 502, Raḥmān ʿAlī 19, Būhār Arabic Cat. no. 434.

^ Back to text21. For M. Taqī Lisān al-Mulk see p. 119 supra.

^ Back to text22. Perhaps this was the Anwār al-s̲h̲ahādah ascribed to M. Ḥasan published at Lahore in 1885†.

^ Back to text23. Presumably a tak̲h̲alluṣ. The author cannot be ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Wālih” Dāg̲h̲istānī, who was born in 1124/1712.

^ Back to text24. Possibly identical with M. Ibrāhīm “Jauharī” b. M. Bāqir al-Marwī, author of the Ṭūfān al-bukāʾ mentioned below.

^ Back to text25. There are several Arabic works with this title.

^ Back to text26. See Rauḍāt al-jannāt 565 bis (vol. iv p. 126).

^ Back to text27. In the British Museum catalogue this work will be found under ʿAlī ibn ul-Ḥusain ibn Mūsā, i.e. the celebrated al-S̲h̲arīf al-Murtaḍā, a much earlier ʿAlam al-Hudā (for whom see Enc.y. Isl. under Murtaḍā).

^ Back to text28. This work occurs in the section Tārīk̲h̲ i fārisī in the Āṣafīyah catalogue, but its precise subject is not stated.

^ Back to text29. For another work by this author see Wasīlat al-najāt below.

^ Back to text30. For another work by this author see Tuḥfat al-Riḍawīyah above.

^ Back to text31. The British Museum catalogue describes this work as a tract on Moslem rites, whereas according to the Oriental College Magazine it relates to the events of ʿĀs̲h̲ūrāʾ.

Cite this page
“2.3 The Prophets, Early Islam, etc.: The Early Caliphs and the Imāms”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 05 March 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_10202030>
First published online: 2021



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