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3 From the End of the 11th Century to the First Quarter of the 13th: Part 1
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In Volume 5: Poetry of the Pre-Mongol Period

previous chapter: Part 3

The present chapter carries the history of Persian poetry down to the time of the Mongol invasion. For general chronological orientation we have taken the Lubāb al-albāb of ʿAufī (completed before 625/1228) and the Kitāb al-muʿjam of Shams i Qais (after 628/1230–1). Between them ʿAufī and Shams quote virtually all of the significant Persian poets of the pre-Mongol period.1 Other poets are included only if there is a fairly strong reason to assume that they flourished prior to the date of these two authorities. Anonymous narrative poems that have been ascribed to pre-Mongol times are described in appendix i.

The marginal additions in manuscript ‘nūn’ of Asadī’s Lughat i furs do not quote any authors who can be dated later than the 6th/12th century. I have thus included in this chapter all of the names that are cited at least twice in those marginalia (in so far as they have not already appeared in Chapter ii), as well as those quoted once, if they are mentioned also in some other source. But I thought it imprudent to perpetuate names mentioned only once, and not otherwise confirmed.

A doubtless important source which I regret not having been able to use at first hand is the Nuz’hat al-majālis, a large collection of rubāʿīs put together by Jamāl al-dīn Khalīl al-Sharwānī around the middle of the 7th/13th century. An edition of this work was published a few years ago in Tehran, but my efforts to locate a copy of it remained for a long time unsuccessful and I had to content myself in the first instance with the table of contents published by Dānish-pazhūh in 1973.2 [See now appendix iii].

Of the later tadhkirahs the only ones consistently excerpted for this chapter are those by Mustaufī, Daulat-shāh, Rāzī—who is quoted by volume and page number of the (abysmal) Tehran edition, as well as by the running numbers in Ethé’s summary, which in many cases conveys a more accurate picture of what Rāzī actually wrote—and Hidāyat. The general historical sources have, of course, been exploited whenever I have been aware of them; Rāwandī’s history of the Seljuqs has proved particularly valuable. Among those works that have not to my knowledge previously been consulted by historians of Persian literature one might mention in particular the Taʾrīkh al-mustabṣir of Ibn al-Mujāwir, written not long after 626/1228.3

§ 157. Ḍiyāʾ al-dīn ʿAbd al-Rāfīʿ b. Abī l-Fatḥ al-Harawī is represented by a number of poems in ʿAufī’s anthology, from which we learn that he served successively the last Ghaznavid Khusrau-Malik (555/1160 to 582/1186) and the Ghorid Muʿizz al-dīn Muḥammad b. Sām (558/1163 to 599/1203). ʿAufī also tells us that he excelled in medicine and the funūn i lughat. (See also no. 206, ad Ḥusain al-Ḥājib).

ʿAufī ii pp. 327–34, 413; Daqāʾiq al-ashʿār (Oxford Elliot 37 fol. 5a, 197a = Ethé 1333); Rāzī ii p. 144 (no. 628); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 336–7; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 715–8; Khaiyām-pūr p. 376; EIr s.v. ‘ʿAbd al-Rāfeʿ’ (Z̤. Sajjādī).

§ 158. ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ b. ʿAbd al-Jāmiʿ al-Jabalī al-Shāʿir4 was a native of the jabal Harāt. Samʿānī says that he learnt traditions from him in Herat and that he heard some of his poems in Marw.5 He is mentioned also by al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī in the unpublished section of his Kharīdat al-qaṣr among the (Arabic) poets of Herat, apparently with the information that he died ‘after 540’ i.e. after 1145–6. ʿAufī says that he was an accomplished poet in Arabic and Persian (he quotes, among other things, two poems with alternating Arabic and Persian verses). His Persian dīwān has come down to us in a number of manuscripts, the oldest being the Dublin codex from the end of the 13th century.6

This dīwān consists largely of panegyrics to the Seljuq sultan Sanjar (511/1118 to 552/1157) and to various persons of his entourage, notably his son-in-law, the vassal ruler of Sīstān Tāj al-dīn Naṣr (ii) b. Khalaf. Other identifiable patrons include Ṭoghıl-Tegīn b. Ekinchī, who ruled briefly in Khwārazm in 490/1097, the Seljuq ruler of Kirmān Arslān-shāh (i) b. Kirmān-shāh (495/1101 to 537/1142), the Mazyadid ruler of Iraq Dubais (ii) b. Ṣadaqah (501/1108 to 529/1135), and the ruler of Ṭabas Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad Gīlakī, who is known to have been alive in 493/1099–1100. If we assume that ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ was at least twenty when he praised Ṭoghıl-Tegīn, then the date of his birth cannot be put later than 470/1077–8. Samʿānī was born in 506/1113 and is unlikely to have travelled to Herat to study with ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ much before 526/1132, by which time the latter would have been at the least well into his 50s and possibly a good deal older. By then he had perhaps already retired as a court-poet and devoted himself to religious studies. Taqī Kāshī gives the date of his death as 555/1160.

According to Daulat-shāh our poet was a native of Gharchistān, emigrated from there to Herat and then to Ghaznah, where he entered the service of Bahrām-shāh, but defected to Sanjar when the latter captured Ghaznah (i.e. in 530/1135). Ṣafā7 includes Bahrām-shāh in his list of Jabalī’s patrons, repeating in this context Daulat-shāh’s story, but I have been unable to find any poems in the published dīwān mentioning Bahrām-shāh by name; thus the ‘information’ given by Daulat-shāh seems most questionable. Daulat-shāh goes on to reject (in a rare fit of good judgement) the story told by Mustaufī according to which ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ began life as an illiterate countryman who attracted the attention of a rich patron with some extemporised verses that he addressed to a group of camels. This is hardly a likely background for the teacher of Islamic traditions that we know ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ to have been.

Mss.: Dublin Beatty 103/ii (Ms. completed Dhū l-ḥijjah 699/1300. Beginning missing); Oxford Whinfield 54 (Beeston 2662/9. Dated 9 Rajab 1012/1603. Selections); Ouseley 23 (Ethé 538. Has seal dated ⟨1⟩ 179/1765–6); Ouseley Add. 19 (Ethé 539. Owner’s note dated 1127/1715); Elliot 116 (Ethé 540); London Or. 3320 (Rieu Suppt. 217. Dated 23 Rabīʿ i 1016/1607); Halle D.M.G. 19 (Dated 1016/1607–8); Leningrad Salemann 253; Romaskewicz 7; Tashkent Acad. 160/vi (Semenov 801. Dated 1269/1852–3); Acad. 238/x (Semenov 802. Ms. Dated 1270/1853–4); Istanbul Topkapı, Hazine 796 fol. 187b sqq. (Karatay 887. The Ms. is dated Rabīʿ i 810/1407 and contains pictures); Lâlâ İsmail 463 (See Ṣafā’s edition i pp. iii–iv. Dated Rabīʿ ii 980/1572); Hekimoğlu Ali Paşa 669/2 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i pp. 420–1 and Ṣafā’s edition i p. vi); Tehran Bayānī 56/4 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 15. Dated 995/1587); Majlis 4841/5 (Munz. 24576. Dated Rabīʿ ii 996/1588); Sipah-sālār ii 393 (16th century? End missing); Majlis iii 1024 (Dated 1001/1592–3); Malik 5307/6 (Munz. 24581. 17th century?); Majlis iii 1025 (17th century? Incomplete at both ends); Peshawar Islāmīyah 1823(4) (Dated 1134/1721–2); Calcutta Ivanow 448 (Dated 1224/1809). Cf. Munz. iii 24572–97; Munz. Pak. vii p. 60 (4 Mss.).

Editions: Lahore 1862; Tehran 1339–41sh./1960–2 (ed. Dh. Ṣafā. Two volumes, with biography in vol. ii pp. 683–721).

Samʿānī (new edition) iii p. 191; al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī, Kharīdat al-qaṣr (see Leyden Cat. ii p. 236); ʿAufī ii pp. 104–10; Shams p. 358; Ibn al-Fuwaṭī, al-Juzʾ al-rābiʿ min talkhīṣ majmaʿ al-ādāb fī muʿjam al-alqāb, ed. M. Jawād, Damascus 1962–7, no. 2558; Mustaufī pp. 740–1; Daqāʾiq al-ashʿār (Oxford Elliot 37 = Ethé 1333, fol. 92a, 133b, 251a); Jājarmī i pp. 109–12, 120–3; Daulat-shāh pp. 73–5; Rāzī ii pp. 118–23 (no. 608); Taqī (see London Or. 3506 fol. 396a sqq. = Rieu Suppt. 105); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 185–92; Browne, History ii pp. 341–2; ʿA. al-Ḥ. Nawāʾī, ‘Chand nuktah rājiʿ ba aḥwāl i ʿAbdu l-Wāsiʿ i Jabalī’, Yādgār i/8, pp. 44–6; ln s.v. ‘Jabalī’ pp. 211–2; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 650–6; Khaiyām-pūr p. 127; ei2 s.v. ‘ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ’ (Huart/Massé); EIr s.v. ‘ʿAbd-al-Vāseʿ Jabalī’ (Dh. Ṣafā).

§ 159. Abū l-ʿAlāʾ Ganjaʾī8 is remembered mainly on account of the scurrilous attack on him which Khāqānī included in his Tuḥfat al-ʿirāqain.9 Here he is accused not only of the moral defects that one expects to find mentioned in polemics of this sort, but also of being an atheist and an adherent of the Ismāʿīlī leader Ḥasan b. al-Ṣabbāḥ. The biographical information that we have about him appears largely to have developed out the exegesis of these verses. Mustaufī, who says that Abū l-ʿAlāʾ was Khāqānī’s teacher, quotes three verses in which the former claims to have committed sodomy with his pupil and another poem of nine verses retracting this claim and offering his apologies to Khāqānī. The second poem can be found (together with two more qiṭʿahs) in the old anthology published by Yaghmāʾī (where it has one additional verse); here the author calls himself the ‘master’ (ōstād) and ‘father-in-law’ (pidar-khwāndah) of Khāqānī, says that he had reached the age of 60 and that at the age of 16 (variant: ‘around 40’) he had come from Arrān10 to Sharwān. Daulat-shāh says that Abū l-ʿAlāʾ was the master both of Khāqānī and of Falakī and claims (with explicit reference to Mustaufī’s Tārīkh i guzīdah, though in fact Mustaufī says nothing of the sort) that he married his daughter to Khāqānī after first having promised her to Falakī. He then quotes eight verses with the same metre and rhyme as the nine quoted by Mustaufī and in Yaghmāʾī’s anthology, but not one of his verses agrees with any of those quoted by them.11 Rāzī quotes the poem in a form which combines verses from Mustaufī’s and Daulatshāh’s versions, as well as some more poetry, including a substantial qaṣīdah to the Sharwān-shāh Manūchihr (ii), who was Khāqānī’s first patron and who ruled from 516/1122 at the earliest until some time between 555/1160 and 566/1170.12 Here Abū l-ʿAlāʾ gives his own age as 55, speaks of Sanāʾī and ʿImādī as having already died and defends himself against the accusation of having treacherously divulged the king’s secrets to an un-named enemy. We shall return to this poem in the discussion of ʿImādī’s vital statistics.

Khāqānī, Tuḥfat al-ʿirāqain, ed. Qarīb, pp. 235–7; Mustaufī pp. 722–3 (also in jras 1900, pp. 741–2, with variants); Yaghmāʾī pp. 190–1; Daulat-shāh pp. 70–1; Rāzī iii pp. 299–303 (no. 1397); Ādhar i pp. 204–5; Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 81; N. Khanikov, ja 6ème série, tome iv, 1864, pp. 149–62 (translation of and commentary on Khāqānī’s invective); Browne, History ii pp. 392–3; Hādī Ḥasan, Falakī-i-Shirwānī, London 1929, pp. 55, 95–6 (‘Abū ’l-ʿAlā’s Qaṣīdah’); Ṣhujāʿ al-mulk Shīrāzī, ‘Abū l-ʿAlāʾ i Ganjawī’, Armaghān xiv, 1312sh. /1933, pp. 705–13; Khaiyāmpūr p. 20; EIr s.v. ‘Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Ganjavī’ (Ḍ. Sajjādī).

§ 160. Saiyid Abū ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain al-Marwazī is included in ʿAufī’s chapter on the poets of Khurāsān after the time of Sanjar, where two of his qaṣīdahs are quoted: one dedicated to an un-named dignitary, the other to ‘Sulṭān Iskandar’, the name by which ʿAufī designates the Khwārazm-shāh ʿAlāʾ al-dīn Muḥammad b. Tekish (596/1200 to 617/1220).13

ʿAufī ii pp. 339–45; Rāzī ii p. 16 (no. 520);14 Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 82; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 844–5; Khaiyām-pūr p. 20.

§ 161. Dih-khudāy Abū l-Maʿālī al-Rāzī is quoted by ʿAufī in his chapter on the poets of Iraq during the Seljuq period as the author of two substantial qaṣīdahs, the second of which addresses a certain ‘Abū l-Fatḥ Muẓaffar’; a different ode praising this same person is quoted by Jājarmī. These three poems are quoted also by Hidāyat, who identifies the poet’s patron as the Seljuq Abū l-Fatḥ Masʿūd b. Muḥammad b. Malik-shāh (529/1134 to 547/1152) and adds that Abū l-Maʿālī died in 541/1146–7. See also the next entry.

ʿArūḍī p. 28 (and Qazwīnī’s notes p. 155); Waṭwāṭ p. 34, 35, 56; ʿAufī ii pp. 228–36; Shams pp. 265, 354, 383; Jājarmī ii pp. 495–7; Rāzī iii pp. 39–42 (no. 1075; same poems as ʿAufī); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 79–80; ln s.v. ‘Abū l-Maʿālī’ p. 850; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 600–4; Khaiyām-pūr p. 24 (‘Abū l-Maʿālī i Rāzī’) and 211 (‘Dih-khudāy i Rāzī’).

§ 162. Abū l-Maʿālī Naḥḥās is the author of a poem of four verses, quoted by Rāwandī (and after him by Rashīd al-dīn), in Rāwandī’s source the Saljūq-nāmah of Ẓahīr Naisābūrī,15 and (in Arabic translation) by al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī, lamenting the rapid coming and going of ministers after the death of Niẓām al-mulk (in 485/1092). Juwainī calls him Abū l-Maʿālī Naḥḥās Rāzī and says that he composed poems in praise of Ḥabashī b. Altun-tāq, who was the governor of Khurāsān during the reign of Berk-yāruq and was killed by Sanjar in 493/1110.16 If he was indeed a native of Rai then it is not unlikely that he is identical with the subject of the preceding entry.

By contrast, Rāzī (followed by Hidāyat) makes him a native of Isfahan, says that he served Berk-yāruq as ʿāriḍ i lashkar, and quotes a few of his poems. Hidāyat adds that he died in 512/1118–9.

A qaṣīdah of 16 verses quoted in the Nuz’hat-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī is ascribed in one of the old manuscripts to Abū l-Maʿālī Naḥḥās, but other copies quote it anonymously. It has been published, from a manuscript of the Nuz’hat-nāmah, as the work of Rōdakī in Nafīsī’s book on the latter poet,17 but there is no good authority for this attribution.

Shahmardān b. Abī l-Khair, Nuz’hat-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī, ed. F. Jahānpūr, Tehran 1362sh./1983, pp. 26–8; Zubdat al-nuṣrah wa nukhbat al-ʿuṣrah, abridged by al-Bundārī from the original of al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī, ed. M.Th. Houtsma (his Recueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjoucides ii), Leyden 1889, p. 63; Ẓahīr al-dīn Naisābūrī, Saljūq-nāmah, Tehran 1332sh./1953, p. 34; Rāwandī, Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, ed. M. Iqbāl, p. 136; Juwainī ii p. 2 (and Qazwīnī’s note); Sharwānī, Nuz’hat al-majālis (see below, appendix iii); Rāzī ii pp. 358–9 (no. 864; name garbled in the edition); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 78–9; Browne, History ii p. 186; Qazwīnī, Yād-dāsht-hā vii pp. 107–8; Khaiyām-pūr p. 597.

§ 163.Abū Manṣūr i Bā Yūsuf’ is mentioned by ʿArūḍī as one of the poets at the court of Ṭughān-shāh b. Alp-Arslān (who was still alive in 476/1083–4). ʿArūḍī adds that he met Abū Manṣūr in Herat in 509/1115–6 on which occasion he heard from the latter an anecdote about Ṭughān-shāh and Azraqī. This Abū Manṣūr is doubtless identical with the poet whom ʿAufī calls Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Rashīd b. Aḥmad b. Abī Yūsuf al-Harawī (omit the second ‘ibn’?). ʿAufī quotes the maṭlaʿ of a qaṣīdah and a rubāʿī by this poet; however, he includes him in his chapter on the early Ghaznavid poets, evidently in error.

ʿArūḍī pp. 43, 44 (and Qazwīnī ad loc.); lf ed. Iqbāl p. 249 (one verse in Ms. nūn in marg.); ʿAufī ii p. 61; ln s.v. ‘Abū Manṣūr’ pp. 869–70; Khaiyāmpūr p. 24.

§ 164. Abū Naṣr Aḥmad b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-Nāmakī (al-Namaqī) al-Jāmī, called Aḥmad i Jām, or Zhandah-pīl, the famous mystic, is said to have been born in 441/1049–50 and to have died in 536/1141–2. A dīwān is ascribed to him in a number of manuscripts, almost all of them of Indian provenance, and none older than the 17th century, though one rubāʿī attributed to him in the 13th-century Nuz’hat al-majālis. See also pl i § 1266, fn.

Mss. of his dīwān: London i.o. 2863 (Dated Ramaḍān 1069/1659. Contains on fol. 56b–68a a collection of poems by his sons and descendants); i.o. 4803a (Dated 22 Rabīʾ i 1100/1689); Or. 269 i (Rieu p. 551. 18th century); Or. 5599 fol. 53a–106b (Meredith-Owens p. 50. Dated 1231/1815. Pictures); i.o. 910; Cambridge Or. 1556 (2nd Suppt. 344. 17th century?); Leningrad Acad. B 2307 fol. 1b–28a (Index 1355. Dated 1125/1713–4); Acad. B 128 (Index 1354); Tehran Malik 6053/15 (Munz. 22086. 17th century?); Lahore Univ. i/2 p. 142 (Dated 1109/1697–8); Bombay Brelvi p. xxiv no. 9 (Dated 1076/1656–7); Lucknow Sprenger 88 (Dated 1080/1669–70); Bankipore i 23 (17th century?); Hyderabad Āṣafīyah i p. 716 no. 451; Calcutta Ivanow 436 (modern); Ivanow Curzon 191 (Dated 5 Jumādā ii 1224/1809). Cf. Munz. iii 22085–9; Munz. Pak. vii pp. 36–8.

Editions: Cawnpore 1879; 1881; 1885; 1898; Lucknow 1923.

Sharwānī, Nuz’hat al-majālis (see appendix iii); Rāzī ii pp. 177–9 (no. 667); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 67–8; id., Riyāḍ pp. 51–3; ei2 s.v. ‘Aḥmad-i Djām’ (F. Meier); EIr s.v. ‘Aḥmad-e Jām’ (H. Moayyad).

§ 165. al-Shaikh Aḥmad b. Muḥammad—the name is followed in the defective manuscript by a word that looks like ‘al-mīm’ and then by a lacuna—is credited in ʿAufī’s chapter on the poets of Ghaznah and Lahore after the time of Sanjar (i.e. after 552/1157) with a single poem which ʿAufī says is ‘in the manner of Mukhtārī’. In fact it is clearly inspired by the ode in Mukhtārī’s dīwān, ed. Humāʾī, pp. 512–5. Rāzī quotes the same poem, but, for the reason given below (no. 199, ad Ḥamīd al-dīn) wrongly ascribes it to another poet.

ʿAufī ii pp. 412–3; ln s.v. ‘Aḥmad’ p. 1356; Khaiyām-pūr p. 30.

§ 166. Majd al-dīn ʿAiyūq is represented by one ghazal in ʿAufī’s chapter on the poets of Khurāsān after the time of Sanjar (i.e. after 552/1157). See also above, p. 26 n. 40. ʿAufī ii pp. 354–5; Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 541; Khaiyām-pūr p. 413.

§ 167. ʿAjabī Khujandī is credited by ʿAufī with a qaṣīdah in praise of Sharaf al-dīn Ḥusām al-Nasafī.18

ʿAufī ii pp. 389–90; Rāzī iii pp. 458–9 (no. 1526; ‘ʿAjībī’); Khaiyām-pūr p. 384.

§ 168. ʿAjībī Jūzjānī19 is mentioned in ʿAufī’s chapter on the poets of Khurāsān after the time of Sanjar, where we find two qaṣīdahs, both of which mention as the poet’s patron Bahāʾ al-dīn Sām b. Ḥusain, the Ghorid, who reigned for a few months in 544/1149.

ʿAufī ii pp. 352–4; mf p. 278 (verse by ‘ʿAjībī Gurgānī’); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 337–8; Khaiyām-pūr p. 385.

§ 169. Shihāb al-dīn ʿAmʿaq (thus the conventional reading, but perhaps better Ghamghaq?)20 al-Bukhārī was a panegyrist of the Qarakhanids of Samarqand. His dīwān has not come down to us as such, but a good number of his poems are quoted in the tadhkirahs (notably, it seems, by Taqī Kāshī) and these have been collected by Nafīsī (unfortunately without indication of the sources for the individual poems, so that for many of them the question of their authenticity remains in abeyance). Of the qaṣīdahs dedicated to identifiable patrons the great majority invoke Nāṣir al-ḥaqq wa l-dīn Shams al-mulk Abū l-Ḥasan Naṣr b. Ibrāhīm (460/1068 to 472/1080). We have also one poem21 (or possibly two22) to his brother and successor Khiḍr b. Ibrāhīm (who appears to have ruled only for a year or so). ʿArūḍī tells us that Amīr ʿAmʿaq was the poet-laureate at the court of Khiḍr, with other poets under him, and narrates an elaborate story of his rivalry with Rashīdī for the king’s favour. But the account that ʿArūḍī gives of the splendour of Khiḍr’s court is not confirmed by the historical sources, who have nothing to say about his short-lived and uneventful reign. It is thus possible that ʿArūḍī, who is notoriously lax with regard to historical details, has confused Khiḍr with his more famous brother Naṣr. There is also one poem23 to Naṣr’s father-in-law, the Seljuq Alp-Arslān (455/1067 to 465/1072). The poem printed by Nafīsī on pp. 179–83 is not by ʿAmʿaq, but (according to ʿAufī) by ʿAṭāʾ i Yaʿqūb (below, no. 174); the ‘Bū l-Muẓaffar Ibrāhīm’ mentioned therein is thus not the Qarakhanid Ibrāhīm ii (who ruled for a short time from 526/1132 onwards), but his Ghaznavid namesake.

ʿAmʿaq’s datable qaṣīdahs thus all belong to the third quarter of the 5th/11th century. However, Daulat-shāh, on the authority of the supposed Tārīkh i āl i Saljūq of Abū Ṭāhir Khātūnī,24 says that when Sanjar’s daughter Māh i Mulk Khātūn died (which, according to Ibn al-Athīr,25 was in 524/1130), he commissioned ʿAmʿaq, who was then ‘old, weak and blind’, to write an elegy for her. Although it is not impossible that ʿAmʿaq lived until this date, we ought to have a more reliable informant than Daulat-shāh before accepting this possibility as a fact. Taqī has our poet live another two decades until 543/1148–9.

Selections from his poems are found in: Berlin Sprenger 1378 fol. 374b sq. (Pertsch 681. Dated 28 Rabīʿ ii 1270/1854. Apparently copied from the Calcutta Ms.); Tehran Majlis viii 2326 pp. 183–9 (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow 927 fol. 6 (Modern). Cf. Munz. iii 24876–9.

Collections of poems and fragments: Tabriz 1307sh./1928; Tehran 1339sh./1961 (Dīwān i ʿAmʿaq i Bukhārī, ed. S. Nafīsī, with an extensive introduction containing references to all the available sources).

lf ed. Iqbāl pp. 13, 19–20 (‘ʿAmʿāq’), 44 (‘ʿAmʿāq’), 399, 400, 504–5, 508 (all verses in Ms. nūn in marg.); ʿArūḍī pp. 28, 46–7; Waṭwāṭ pp. 44–5; ʿAufī ii pp. 181–91; Shams p. 322; Jājarmī ii pp. 499–500; Daulat-shāh pp. 64–5; Rāzī iii pp. 409–20 (no. 1474); Taqī (London Or. 3506 fol. 279b sqq. = Rieu Suppt. 105; Paris Supplément 799 fol. 3r sqq. = Blochet 1242); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 345–50; Qazwīnī, Yād-dāsht-hā vi pp. 58–9; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 535–47; Khaiyām-pūr p. 307; ei2 Suppl. s.v. ‘ʿAmʿaḳ’ (J.T.P. de Bruijn); EIr. s.v. ‘ʿAmʿaq’ (J Matīnī).

§ 170. Auḥad al-dīn Anwarī26 was the most famous panegyrist in the generation after Muʿizzī. The wealth of anecdotal information in the late mediaeval tadhkirahs obscures his biography rather than elucidating it. The following is a digest of what can actually be deduced from his poems and from early historical sources.

Anwarī was born in (or near) Abīward in the Dasht i Khāwarān. In one poem he indicates that his father had been a courtier in the service of some Seljuq princess. Anwarī himself attended the court of Sanjar during the second half of his long reign. According to Juwainī, he accompanied Sanjar when, in 542/1147, the latter besieged the Khwārazm-shāh Atsız in Hazār-asp, Anwarī’s contribution to the war effort being to write poems mocking the enemy, which Sanjar’s archers then shot into the besieged fortress. Atsız retaliated by doing the same with verses by his court poet, Waṭwāṭ. When Sanjar was defeated and captured by the Ghuzz in 548/1153 Anwarī composed a well-known poem lamenting these events.27 After the death of his patron he appears to have lived for a while in Balkh, where he wrote poems in praise of local princes and of the qāḍī al-quḍāt Ḥamīd al-dīn, whose Maqāmāt i Ḥamīdī (written in 551/1156–7) are mentioned. He also addressed some odes to the atabeg Quṭb al-dīn Maudūd b. Zangī, who ruled in Mosul from 544/1149 onwards, and the Seljuq sultan Sulaimān b. Muḥammad, who ruled from 555/1160 to 556/1161. The most recent date that can be extracted from the dīwān is that of the festival of Bahmanjanah in ‘the year 533 of the dating of the Persians’, i.e. 1 December 1164, which he mentions in one poem.28

There exist a number of versions of an anecdote linking him with some catastrophic but unfulfilled prognoses in connection with a conjunction of the stars in 582/1186, but it is not clear whether Anwarī is supposed to have lived until then, or whether he made his predictions some years in advance. The tadhkirahs give a wild array of dates for his death and the question has been much debated by modern scholars, but the poems themselves would suggest, as has been seen, a date not long after 560/1164–5.

Apart from his qaṣīdahs—many critics have regarded him as the foremost practitioner of panegyric poetry in Persian—and his ghazals, Anwarī has left a large number of invectives of a ferocity which, though not unique, is nonetheless astonishing.

The only more or less critical edition of his dīwān is that by Mudarris i Riḍawī, who at least consulted the oldest dated copy (London Or. 3713)29 and two of the old Istanbul manuscripts and recorded variants from a number of others. However the edition is not complete, since the editor has omitted some poems that he considers obscene; for these the older edition by Nafīsī can be consulted.

Mss.: Dublin Beatty 103/x (Copied jointly by Muḥammad-Shāh b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd Iṣfahānī—the scribe responsible for the oldest London copy—and by Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Yamānī and dated 23 Dhū l-ḥijjah 699/1300); Manchester Lindesiana 111 (16th century?); Lindesiana 839 (Dated 1023/1614); Lindesiana 277 (17th century?); Lindesiana 524 (Dated ad 1859); Oxford Laud 133 (Ethé 543. Owner’s mark dated 941/1534–5); Whinfield 54 (Beeston 2662/1. Dated 9 Rajab 1012/1603. Selections); Ouseley 13 (Ethé 544. Dated 1 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1015/1607); Elliot 40 (Ethé 545. Completed 16 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1018/1610); Elliot 113 (Ethé 546. Dated 1019/1610–1); Ouseley 1,2 (Ethé 555. Dated 1082/1671–2. qaṣīdahs only); Elliot 39 (Ethé 547. 17th century?); Ouseley 36 (Ethé 548. 17th century?); Ouseley 123 (Ethé 549. 17th–18th century?); Elliot 41 (Ethé 550); Elliot 42 (Ethé 551); Elliot 43 (Ethé 552); Fraser 64 (Ethé 553); Ouseley Add. 135 (Ethé 554); Walker 98 (Ethé 556); London Or. 3713/v (Rieu Suppt. 211; M-R’s tāʾ Copied by Muḥammad-Shāh b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd Iṣfahānī and dated 6 Rabīʿ ii 692/1293); Or. 3486/i (Rieu Suppt. 220. Dated 841/1437–8. With preface); i.o. 939 (Dated Rabīʿ i 987/1579. Two different collections); i.o. 2864 (Dated 18 Ramaḍān 1009/1601); Add. 7732 (Rieu p. 555. ca. 1011/1603; a number of folios were replaced in 1200/1785–6); Or. 4514/v fol. 78b–116b (Rieu Suppt. 215. Completed 14 Rabīʿ ii 1023/1614); 1.0. 946 (=Robinson 146–51. Ms. dated 12 Jumādā ii 1038/1629. ‘Intikhāb i dīwān’, with 2 extraneous pictures); i.o. 2865 (Dated 1 Ramaḍān 1038/1629); i.o. 935 (Dated 7 Muḥarram 1061/1650); Add. 25,019 (Rieu pp. 554–5. Dated Shawwāl 1083/1672); Add. 5617 (Rieu p. 555. Dated Dhū l-qaʿdah 1087/1677); i.o. 944 (Dated 1 Dhū l-qaʿdah 1094 /1683. Qaṣāʾid); Add. 22,381 (Rieu p. 555. 17th century? Various leaves missing); i.o. 945 (Dated 1120/1708–9. Qaṣāʾid); Add. 16,763 (Rieu pp. 555–6. Dated 1129/1717. Contains only the qaṣīdahs, among them several that are manifestly spurious); Or. 3233 (Rieu Suppt. no. 218. Dated 20 Rajab 1154/1741);30 s.o.a.s. 44585 (18th century?); s.o.a.s. 24943 (18th century?); Or. 11956 (Meredith-Owens p. 64. 18th–19th century); i.o. 936–938; i.o. 940–943; Cambridge Oo. 6. 31. (Browne Cat. ccvi. 15th or 16th century?); Add. 213 in marg. (Browne Cat. ccxxxiii. 15th or 16th century? qaṣīdahs only); Oo. 6. 27. (Browne Cat. ccv. 16th century?); Or. 1687 (2nd Suppt. 435. 16th century?); Oo. 6. 34. (Browne Cat. ccvii. Dated 15 Shaʿbān 1124/1712); for other undated copies see Browne Suppt. 507–511, 952, 1052–1055, Browne Coll. V.30; Edinburgh New Coll. Or. 40; Paris Supplément 823 fol. 1 sqq. (Blochet 1968. 13th century? Fragment); Supplément 519 (Blochet 1223. Dated 857/1453); Supplément 518 (Blochet 1224. Dated 931/1524–5); Supplément 514 (Blochet 1228. Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 1035 /1526); Supplément 783 fol. 58v sqq. (Blochet 1981. 16th century? Selections); Supplément 515 (Blochet 1225. Dated 23 Jumādā i 1010/1601); Supplément 516–7 (Blochet 1226–7. Dated Dhū l-qaʿdah 1027/1618); Supplément 1895 (Blochet 1229. 19th century); Rome Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Ms. Caetani 72 (Piemontese 285. Copied by Muḥammad ʿAlī and dated 10 Ṣafar ⟨1⟩ 104/1692); Munich (Aumer Ergänzungsheft 352. Dated 931/1524–5); 170 Quatr. (Aumer 20. Dated 1234/1818–9); Berlin Ms. or. fol 148 (Pertsch 713. Dated 4 Muḥarram 993/1585); Sprenger 1375 (Pertsch 714. Dated 7 Muḥarram 34th year [of Aurangzēb] = 1102/1691, altered to ‘1115’); Petermann 193 (Pertsch 714a. ‘Nicht ganz neu’); Sprenger 1376 (Pertsch 715. Dated 1227/1812); Petermann 716/2 (Pertsch 682. Selections); Ms. or. fol. 3012 (Heinz 111); Gotha 49 (Dated Dhū l-qaʿdah 1027/1618); Vienna Krafft clxxxvii (Dated 1013/1604–5); Flügel 511 (has an owner’s note dated 1081/1670–1); Uppsala Zetterstéen 420 (Dated Shaʿbān 1249/1833–4); Leningrad Dorn cccxxxv (Copied by Ibn Muḥammad Qāsim al-Kirmānī and dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 1003/1595); Acad. C 1658 (Index 1390. Dated 1015/1606–7. Selections only); Dorn cccxxxvi (Dated Rabīʿ ii 1022/1613); Acad. C 56 (Index 1388. Dated 1050/1640–1); Acad. A 17 (Index 1383); Acad. B 123 (Index 1384); Acad. B 124 (Index 1385); Acad. A 125 (Index 1386); Acad. C 819 (Index 1389. qaṣīdahs only); Istanbul Fatih 3784 (Ritter-Reinert p. 119; Mudarris i Riḍawī’s lām. Copied by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-Ḥāfiẓ and dated Shawwāl 708/1309); Fatih 3786 (Ritter-Reinert p. 120; Mudarris i Riḍawī’s ʿain. ‘Probably’ by the same scribe as the preceding); Ayasofya 2051/5 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i pp. 409–10. Ms. apparently dated Shawwāl 730/1330. ‘qaṣāʾid’); Lâlâ İsmail 487/7 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i p. 500. Selected poems in a Ms. dated 741/1340–1); Üniversite fy 496/2 (Ateş 68. Copied by al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad al-Madīnī and dated 21 Jumādā i 759/1358); ‘Ḥarāj-chī-oghlu’ (sic) 925 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i p. 88. Dated 1 Muḥarram 838/1434); Fatih 3781 (Ritter-Reinert p. 120. 15th century? Seal of Bayezid ii); Fatih 3783 (Ritter-Reinert p. 121. ‘Schwesterhandschrift der vorigen’); Üniversite fy 254 (olim Rıza Paşa 393. Ateş 69. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 358 (olim Rıza Paşa 498. Ateş 70. Copied by Muḥammad b. Naṣr ʿAlī and dated 1026/1617); Üniversite fy 534/2 (Ateş 71. Dated 15 Jumādā ii 1048/1638); Üniversite fy 9 (Ateş 72; Edhem/Stchoukine xxxviii. Copied by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Muḥammad Bihbihānī and dated 26 Rabīʿ i 1079/1668); Fatih 3782 (Ritter-Reinert p. 121. Copied by Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Bihbihānī and dated 19 Ṣafar 1082/1671); Topkapı, Revan 1013 (Karatay 394. 18th century? ‘qaṣāʾid’); Üniversite fy 77 (Ateş 75. 18th century? ‘qasāʾid’); Hekimoğlu Ali Paşa 669/1 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i pp. 420–1. Apparently old); Cairo 153 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī i 624. Selected poems in Ms. dated 823/1420); 93 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī i 623. Dated 13 Ṣafar 1103/1691); 4 adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī i 621); 123 adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī i 622); 103 adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī i 625); 70 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī ii 1815); Madinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 38 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 484. Dated 993/1585); Najaf 1373 (Munz. 21730. 17th century?); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. apparently dated 6 Shawwāl 1017/1609); same collection (Nuskhah-hā v p. 343. Dated 1062/1652); Tehran Sipah-sālār ii 1164 (13th century? Beginning and end missing); Malik 5267 (13th century? Munz. 17451; apparently M-R’s kāf); Bayānī 54/2 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 15, dated there 768/1366–7; apparently M-R’s dāl, though he gives its date as 753/1352); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 420/ii (Ms. dated 862/1457–8. Selection of qaṣīdahs); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 465/i (14th–15th century? Selections); Millī i p. 476 (15th century? incomplete); Univ. xii 3983 (15th–16th century?); Adabīyāt ii p. 16 (Dated 977/1569–70); Univ. x 2685/1 (Ms. copied by Niẓām Dihlawī and dated Muḥarram 985/1577); Majlis 8890 (Munz. 21674. Dated 988/1580); Gulistān/Ātābāy i 44 (Copied by Khān-Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ghanī Quraishī and dated Shaʿbān 989/1581); Bayānī 56/2 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 15. Dated 995/1587); Univ. ix 2487/2 (Dated 1 Rabīʿ i 1001/1592); Sipah-sālār ii 1166 (Dated 1005/1596–7); Gulistān/Ātābāy i 43 (Dated 1 Rabīʿ ii 1015/1606); Gulistān/Ātābāy i 42; Gulistān/Ātābāy i 45; Gulistān/Ātābāy i 46; etc.; Mashhad ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Maulawī (Nuskhah-hā v p. 28. 15th–16th century? End missing. Pictures); Riḍawī vii 363 (Dated 25 Ramaḍān 1008/1599); Riḍawī vii 357 (M.R.’s ‘alif’. Dated Rabīʿ i 1023/1614); Ridawī vii 358 (M.R.’s ‘p’. Dated 23 Dhū l-qaʿdah 1058/1648); Riḍawī vii 360/1 (17th century?); Riḍawī vii 361 (17th century?); Riḍawī vii 356 (17th century?); Riḍawī vii 354 (18th century?); Riḍawī vii 359 (18th century?); Riḍawī vii 355 (Dated 1236/1820–1); Dushanbe Acad. ii 366–368; Peshawar Islamīyah 1792; Lahore (Numerous Mss. from the 15th century and later are listed in Munz. Pak. vii pp. 41–4); Bombay Rehatsek p. 162 no. 124 (Dated 989/1581); Univ. 106; Navsari Meherji Rana p. 93 no. 82; Aligarh Subḥ. p. 35 no. 59; Kapurthala (For a Ms. dated 1016/1607–8 see ocm iii/4, 1927, p. 19); Hyderabad Āṣafīyah i p. 742 no. 597; Lucknow Sprenger 99 (Dated 692/1293); Bankipore i 25 (’Dated’ 700/1300–1, ‘but the appearance of the ms. shows that it belongs to the 15th century A.D.’); i 26 (Dated Shaʿbān 992/1584); i 27 (16th century?); Madras ii 586 (Dated 1104/1692–3); i 67; Calcutta Ivanow 450 (16th century?); Ivanow 451 (Copied by Muḥammad Qazwīnī Jausaqī and dated 1008/1599–1600); Būhār 290 (Dated Jumādā i 1012/1603. Lacunae); Ivanow 453 (Dated 14th year of Aurangzēb/1671); Ivanow 452 (17th century?); Ivanow 454 (18th century?); Cambridge (Mass.) Houghton Pers. 8.5 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 4. 15th–16th century? Pictures); Houghton Pers. 10 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 4. Dated 1059/1649). Cf. Munz. iii 17451–5 (‘Kullīyāt’), 21656–797 (ʿDīwān’). Further Mss. in private collections are listed in the introductions to the editions by Nafīsī (pp. 1–lii) and Mudarris i Riḍawī (i pp. 17–19).

Editions: Tabriz 1260/1844; 1266/1849–50; Delhi 1296/1878 (‘Qaṣāʾid’ 770 pp.); Lucknow 1297/1880 (‘Kullīyāt i naẓm’); 1306/1889 (same title); 1897 (same title); Bombay 1937 (‘Qaṣāʾid’); Tehran 1337sh./1958 (ed. S. Nafīsī, with extensive introduction); 1337–40sh./1959–61 (ed. M.T. Mudarris i Riḍawī. 2 volumes with continuous pagination, with a biography at the beginning of Vol. 2); reprinted 1364sh./1986.

Commentaries:

(1)
Sharḥ i qaṣāʾid (or: dīwān) i Anwarī by Muḥammad b. Dāʾūd b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd ʿAlawī Shādī-ābādī31 and dedicated to the sultan of Mālwah, Nāṣir al-dīn Khaljī (regn. 906/1500 to 916/1510). Mss.: London i.o. 947 (Dated 24 Muḥarram 1056/1646); i.o. Delhi 1291 (Dated 1080/1669–70); Or. 362 (Rieu p. 556. 17th century?); Add. 25,820 (Rieu p. 556. Dated Shaʿbān 1232/1817); Paris Supplément 1383 (Blochet 1230. Dated 25 Jumādā i 1036/1627); Bankipore i 28 (18th century?); i 29 (18th century?); Lahore (Munz. Pak. vii pp. 44–5: five copies); Hyderabad Āṣafīyah iii p. 514 no. 165; Calcutta Madrasah cxxxvi (17th century?);
(2)
Sharḥ i (abyāt i) qaṣāʾid i Anwarī of Mīr Abū l-Ḥasan Ḥusainī Farāhānī. According to Naṣrābādī (who wrote around 1083/1672–3) he had recently been put to death in Shīrāz. See Naṣrābādī p. 276; Khwushgō (Ethé’s summary) no. 642. Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 43 fol. 72–161 (Ethé 557. 17th century?); London i.o. 948/i (Ms. dated 19 Ramaḍān of the 19th year of ʿĀlam-gīr/1087/1676); Or. 361 (Rieu pp. 556–7. 17th century?); s.o.a.s. 46676 (Dated 29 Rabīʿ i 1135/1722); i.o. 949; i.o. Delhi 1241/2; Paris Supplément 1524 (Blochet 1231. Dated Rabīʿ ii 1072/1661. Autograph?); Leningrad Acad. B 126 (Index 2406); Acad. B 127 fol. 1a–53a (Index 2407. Incomplete); Istanbul Üniversite fy 547 (Ateş 76. Dated 1164/1750–1); Tehran Majlis iii 1105 (Dated 1028/1619); Majlis iii 1106 (Dated 1230/1815); Majlis ii 409 (Dated 1240/1824–5); Majlis ii 410; Mashhad Riḍawī iii/vx Ms. 63 (Apparently an autograph); Riḍawī vii 701/1 (Dated Rabīʿ ii 1022/1613); Pakistan (Munz. Pak. vii pp. 45–6: seven copies in Lahore—the oldest dated 1041/1632—and Karachi); Lucknow Sprenger 100; Bankipore i 30 (Dated 1211/1796–7); Calcutta Ivanow 455/i (Dated 1118/1706–7); Ivanow Curzon 193 (18th century?); Ivanow Curzon 194/i (18th–19th century?).

Edition: Tehran 1340sh./1961 (Sharḥ i mushkilāt i dīwān i Anwarī, ed. Mudarris i Riḍawī).

(3)
The same author’s commentary on the muqaṭṭaʿāt. Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 43 fol. 162a–199 (Ethé 557. 17th century?); Bodl. 371 (Ethé 558. Fragment); London i.o. 948/ii (Ms. dated 19 Ramaḍān of the 19th year of ʿĀlamgīr/1087/1676); Or. 3312 (Rieu Suppt. 219. Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah ‘132’, i.e. perhaps 1132/1720); i.o. Delhi 1241/3; Leningrad Acad. B 2242 (Index 2408. Dated 1054/1644–5); Acad. D 2 (Index 2409); Tehran Majlis iii 1105 (Dated 1028/1619); Majlis iii 1106 (Dated 1230 /1815); Majlis ii 409 (Dated 1240/1824–5); Majlis ii 410; Mashhad Riḍawī iii/vx, Ms. 63/ii (Apparently an autograph); Riḍawī vii 701/2 (Dated Rabīʿ ii 1022/1613); Riḍawī iii/vx Ms. 70 (Dated 1055/1645); Bankipore i 30 (Dated 1211/1796–7); Lucknow Sprenger 100; Calcutta Ivanow 455/ii (Dated 1118/1706–7); Ivanow Curzon 194/ii (18th–19th century?).
(4)
Unidentified commentaries: Madras i 266; Bombay Rehatsek p. 135 no. 28 (Dated 21 Shaʿbān 1112/1701).

Modern commentary: Saiyid Jaʿfar Shahīdī, Sharḥ i lughāt u mushkilāt i dīwān i Anwarī i Abīwardī, [Tehran] 1358sh./1979–80, reprinted 1364sh./1986.

Rāwandī, Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, ed. M. Iqbāl, passim; ʿAufī ii pp. 125–38; Shams passim; Juwainī ii p. 8; Zakarīyāʾ al-Qazwīnī, Āthār al-bilād, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 242; Mustaufī pp. 712–4; Daqāʾiq al-ashʿār (Oxford Elliot 37 passim = Ethé 1333); Jājarmī passim; Daulat-shāh pp. 83–6; Rāzī iii pp. 25–8 (no. 528); Taqī (see London Or. 3506 fol. 512a sqq. = Rieu Suppt. 105); W. Kirkpatrick, ‘The tears of Khorassan: an elegiac epistle, from Anveri’, The Asiatic miscellany (Calcutta) i, 1785, pp. 286–310; Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 152–67; id., Riyāḍ pp. 171–3; V.A. Zhukovskiy, Али Aухадэддинь Энвери. Матерiалы для его бiографiи и харакеристики, St. Petersburg 1883; H. Ferté, ‘Notice sur le poète Enveri suivie d’un extrait de ses odes’, ja série 9, tome 5, 1895, pp. 235–68; Browne, History ii pp. 365–84 (with a detailed summary of Zhukovskiy’s monograph); M. Qazwīnī, ‘Rājiʿ ba wafāt i Anwarī’, in his Bīst maqālah ii, Tehran 1332sh./1953, pp. 359–69; id., Yād-dāsht-hā i pp. 126–34; M. Mīnuwī, ‘Ijtimāʿ i kawākib dar sāl i 528’, mdat ii/4, 1334sh./1955, pp. 16–53 (see also his comments in the Beatty catalogue i pp. 8–10); Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 656–8; Khaiyām-pūr pp. 67–8; K.B. Nasim, The life and works of Hakim Auhad-ud-din Anwari, Lahore n.d. (foreword dated 1967); M.R. Shafīʿī-Kadkanī, Muflis i kīmiyā-furūsh, Naqd wa taḥlīl i shiʿr i Anwarī, 2nd ed., Tehran 1374sh./1995 (an annotated anthology with extensive introduction); P. Orsatti, ‘The name of the mamdūḥ in the dīvān of Anvarī’, Proceedings of the third European conference of Iranian studies (Cambridge, 1995) ii, Wiesbaden 1999, pp. 57–72; ei2 s.v. ‘Anwarī’ (R. Levy); EIr s.v. ‘Anwarī’ (J.T.P. de Bruijn).

§ 171. Aḥmad b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī al-Niẓāmī al-ʿArūḍī al-Samarqandī32 was a minor poet at the court of the Ghorids and a major prose writer, the author of the already frequently cited Chahār maqālah. What we know of his life derives entirely from that book. He was born in Samarqand and reached the age of reason before 504/1110–1, the earliest date which he mentions in connection with his own activities. He was in Balkh in 506/1112–3 and Herat in 509/1115–6. He met Muʿizzī for the first time outside Tōs in 510/1116–7. He evidently spent some time in Naisābūr (he mentions being there in 512/1118–9, 514/1120–1 and 530/1135–6) but was outside Herat with the Ghorid ʿAlāʾ al-dīn Ḥusain in 547/1152. The Chahār maqālah were almost certainly written in, or shortly before, 552/1157 and dedicated to the Ghorid prince Ḥusām al-dīn ʿAlī b. Masʿūd. Of his further life we know nothing.

Apart from the five verses of which ʿArūḍī himself says (p. 53) that he improvised them in the presence of one the Ghorids we have only a few fragments, largely of satirical content, quoted by ʿAufī and his successors.

ʿAufī ii pp. 7, 207–8; Mustaufī p. 753; Daulat-shāh pp. 60–1; Rāzī iii pp. 352–4 (no. 1426); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 635; Qazwīnī’s introduction to his edition of the Chahār maqālah (summarised in Browne’s English introduction); Khaiyāmpūr p. 609; ei2 s.v. ‘Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī Samarḳandī’ (H. Massé).

§ 172. al-Saiyid al-ajall Ashrafī al-Samarqandī is included by ʿAufī in his chapter on the poets of Transoxania after the time of Sanjar (i.e. after 552/1157) where we find, along with some other poems, verses from two odes to an unspecified Khwārazm-shāh and a rubāʿī which ʿAufī tells us was composed in Bukhārā in the year 597/1200–1; this contradicts Taqī’s claim that Ashrafī died in 595/1198–9.33 The later anthologists ascribe to him a good number of poems, hardly any of which overlap with ʿAufī’s selection. Among those quoted by Hidāyat is a short piece mentioning khudāwand i gētī, malik Arslān * panāh i hamah mulk i Afrāsiyāb, evidently one of the Qarakhanids; but is it really his?

A selection of poems by ‘Saiyid Ḥasan Ashrafī’ is contained in Oxford Whinfield 54 (Beeston 2662/7. Dated 9 Rajab 1012/1603); it remains to be examined whether these do not in fact belong to Saiyid Ḥasan Ghaznawī (alias Ashraf), despite the fact that the latter is represented (under his usual name) by a separate selection in the same manuscript.

ʿAufī ii pp. 390–2; Shams p. 389; Rāzī iii pp. 362–8 (no. 1431); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 101–2; id., Riyāḍ pp. 168–9; Khaiyām-pūr p. 44.

§ 173. Aṣīl al-dīn b. al-Najīb al-Samarqandī was still alive at the time that ʿAufī composed his anthology. ʿAufī quotes only four of his verses, two of them a rubāʿī mocking Saʿd Najjārī (see below, no. 254).

ʿAufī ii p. 396; Khaiyām-pūr p. 45.

§ 174. Abū l-ʿAlāʾ ʿAṭāʾ b. Yaʿqūb al-Kātib, al-maʿrūf bi Nā-kūk,34 i.e. ‘out of tune’, was a secretary in the service of the Ghaznavid Ibrāhīm Masʿūd (450/1059 to 492/1099). ʿAufī gives the date of his death as 491/1098,35 says that he left dīwāns in Persian and Arabic and that he was imprisoned in Lahore for eight years by the order of Ibrāhīm. The dīwān of Masʿūd i Saʿd contains two elegies on the death of ‘ʿAṭā i Yaʿqūb’ and another poem addressed to him during his lifetime. ʿAufī quotes several of his Persian poems. For the Burzō-nāmah wrongly attributed to him see below no. 317.

Bākharzī no. 350; Masʿūd i Saʿd, Dīwān, ed. Yāsimī, pp. 50, 367, 603–4; al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī, Kharīdat al-qaṣr (Leyden Cat. ii p. 240); ʿAufī ī pp. 72–5; Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 342–3 (ʿAṭāʾ i Rāzī); Qazwīnī/Browne, jras 1906, pp. 42–4; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 477–83; C.E. Bosworth, The later Ghaznavids, Edinburgh 1977, p. 76; Khaiyām-pūr p. 395 (ʿAṭā i Rāzī), 396 (ʿAṭā i Nā-kūk); EIr s.v. ‘Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ ʿAṭāʾ (C.E. Bosworth).

§ 175. Athīr al-dīn Abū l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī Ṭāhir al-Akhsīkatī36 (or Akhsīkathī),37 was a native of Akhsīkat(h), the capital of Farghānah,38 who emigrated to Western Persia and attached himself to the courts of the Seljuq sultans and their (nominal) subjects, the atabegs of Azerbaijan. The only three kings who are unambiguously (and repeatedly) mentioned in his panegyrics are the Seljuq Arslān b. Ṭoghrıl (556/1161 to 571/1176), whose death is commemorated in an elegy,39 the atabeg Muẓaffar al-dīn Qızıl Arslān b. Ēldügüz (582/1186 to 587/1191) and one ʿAlāʾ al-daulah Fakhr al-dīn ʿArab-shāh, whom the poet apostrophises as shāh i Quhistān, meaning presumably not the Quhistān in Eastern Iran, but Media/al-Jibāl,40 i.e. one of the local dynasts in the mountains around Hamadān. For the identification of the other rulers praised in his poems the rubrics in the manuscripts of the dīwān (and in the printed edition) are of no use, as these are almost always fallacious. There is, however, at least one poem praising one Ghiyāth al-dīn, with the title malik al-mulūk,41 presumably Arslān’s predecessor, Ghiyāth al-dīn Sulaimān (555/1160 to 556/1161), and at least one praising a certain Rukn al-dīn,42 probably Arslān’s successor Ṭoghrıl iii (571/1176 to 590/1194). The editor’s attempts to discover other Seljuqs and atabegs in the poems are either inconclusive or definitely wrong; there is in particular no evidence for his contention that Athīr had already reached the Seljuq court at the time of Muḥammad ii.

Athīr also praised a number of ministers and at least one (and probably several) of the Āl i Khujandī, the leaders of the Shāfiʿī religious faction in Isfahan, though here again it is difficult to know exactly which members of that family are intended. The editor has included no fewer that eleven Khujandīs (several of them fictitious) in his long list of Athīr’s patrons, but the only one unambiguously named in the poems, namely Jamāl al-dīn Masʿūd, is absent from his list.43

Daulat-shāh says that Athīr fled from Khurāsān to the West at the time of the rebellion of the Ghuzz against Sanjar (i.e. ca. 548/1153), and although this seems possible from a chronological point of view, it is perhaps merely a deduction. Taqī puts his death in 608/1211–244 and says that only with great difficulty did he find a copy of his dīwān containing about 10 000 verses.45

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 38 (Ethé 620); London i.o. 1029 (Ms. copied by ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-ʿAlawī al-Kāshī in 713–4/1314–5. Pictures. Humāyūn-Farrukh’s sīn);46 Or. 268 (Rieu pp. 563–4. 15th century?); Or. 10912 (Meredith-Owens p. 59. 17th century?); Cambridge Or. 1388 (2nd Suppt. 183. 17th century?); Naples Bibl. Nazionale Ms. iii. F.25 (Piemontese 222. 16th century?); Istanbul Ayasofya 2051/13 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i pp. 409–10. Ms. apparently dated Shawwāl 730/1330); Hekimoǧlu Ali Paşa 669/11 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i p. 421); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 465/2 (14th–15th century? Four qaṣīdahs); Majlis 4841/7 (Munz. 21433. Dated 996/1588); Majlis iii 1183/1 (Ms. dated 1003/1594–5); Malik 4733 (Munz. 21435. Dated 26 Shaʿbān 1005/1596. Humāyūn-Farrukh’s mīm); Univ. xiv 4676 (Dated Ṣafar 1013/1604); Millī (Nuskhah-hā vi p. 198. Dated 1020/1611–2); Majlis viii 2372 (Ms. contains the date 1081/1670–1); Malik 5307/15 (Munz. 21440. 17th century?); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 965/1 (Ms. dated 1041/1631–2); Riḍawī vii 342 (17th century?); Lucknow Sprenger 120; Calcutta Būhār 297 (16th century?); Princeton 10 (Dated 920/1514–5). Cf. Munz. iii 21431–48.

Edition: Tehran 1337sh./1958 (ed. Rukn al-dīn Humāyūn-Farrukh).

Rāwandī, Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, ed. M. Iqbāl, pp. 301, 327–30; ʿAufī ii pp. 224–8; Shams pp. 273–4, 285; Mustaufī pp. 715–6; Daqāʾiq al-ashʿār passim (Oxford Elliot 37 = Ethé 1333); Jājarmī i pp. 7–9, ii p. 877; Daulatshāh pp. 121–2; Rāzī iii pp. 459–66 (no. 1528); Taqī (his biography is printed in Humāyūn-Farrukh’s introduction pp. xx–xxvi); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 102–5; id., Riyāḍ, p. 168; Khaiyām-pūr p. 26; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 707–15; EIr. s.v. ‘At̲īr Ak̲sīkatī’ (Z. Safa).

§ 176. Farīd al-dīn ʿAṭṭār was the principal religious poet during the second half of the 12th century, the generation between Sanāʾī and Rūmī. The contents of this article are the following:47 Biography [p. 271]; ‘Major’ works: (1) Khusrau-nāmah [p. 276]; (2) Asrār-nāmah [p. 278]; (3) Manṭiq al-ṭair [p. 281]; (4) Muṣībat-nāmah [p. 288]; (5) Ilāhī-nāmah [p. 291]; (6) Dīwān [p. 294]; (7) Mukhtār-nāmah [p. 296]; ‘Minor’, spurious and doubtful works (alphabetically by title) [p. 297]; Literature [p. 318].

Biography: ʿAṭṭār’s contemporary ʿAufī includes him in the chapter devoted to the poets of Khurāsān after the time of Sanjar, calls him Farīd al-dīn Abū Ḥāmid Abū Bakr al-ʿAṭṭār al-Naisābūrī and speaks of him in the present tense, from which fact one might conclude that he was still alive when ʿAufī composed his work in about 618/1221, or at least that ʿAufī had not yet heard of his death. Another contemporary, Shams i Qais, quotes a single verse (not apparently in the dīwān) by ‘Farīd i ʿAṭṭār’ mentioning the Khwārazm-shāh Muḥammad b. Tekish (596/1200 to 617/1220). Our next source, Ibn al-Fuwaṭī, calls him Farīd al-dīn Saʿīd b. Yusuf b. ʿAlī al-Naisābūrī,48 known as al-ʿAṭṭār, and quotes Naṣīr al-dīn Ṭūsī (who was born in 597/1200 and was Ibn al-Fuwaṭīs teacher) as saying that he met ʿAṭṭār in Naisābūr, that he was an eloquent and learned old man and that ‘he was martyred in Naisābūr at the hands of the Tatars’, i.e. evidently during the sack of Naisābūr in 617/1220. Ṭūsī was only twenty at that time and must therefore have been very young when he met the poet. The statement that ʿAṭṭār was killed by the Mongols is repeated (and elaborated) by a number of later authorities, though other, earlier or later, dates for his death have also been offered.

Any attempt at reconstruction of his biography is inexorably entwined with the question of which of the many works that have come down to us under his name are really his. Early attempts (notably by Qazwīnī in his introduction to Nicholson’s edition of ʿAṭṭār’s Tadhkirat al-auliyāʾ) have lent heavily on the apparent auto-biographical and auto-bibliographical statements in the poems Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib and Lisān al-ghaib, with their account of the poet’s conversion from Sunnism to Shiism, of the persecution that he suffered on this account in his homeland, of his extensive journeys in India, Turkestan etc. and his flight to Mecca, where he wrote Lisān al-ghaib. To be sure, it has long been noted that the style and religious content of these poems differ markedly from ʿAṭṭār’s supposedly early works, but it was assumed that his manner and outlook had evolved during his career. However, the intensive study of the ʿAṭṭār corpus, first by Shērānī49 and then by Nafīsī50 and (most systematically) by Ritter51 has led to the conclusion that these two works are forgeries from around the middle of the 9th/15th century. More precisely, they are the work of a Shiite poet from Tūn who on the one hand calls himself ‘the second ʿAṭṭār’ or ‘the ʿAṭṭār of the age’—and thus in effect admits that he is not the original ʿAṭṭār—and who alludes more than once to poets of the Mongol period like Rūmī, Ḥāfiẓ and Qāsim i Anwār, but who on the other hand puts verses into his poems stating that they were composed in the 6th/12th century and claiming as his own the authentic works of ʿAṭṭār.

But once these two forged works have been rejected we are left with very little material for a biography. ʿAṭṭār tells us virtually nothing about himself, his poems contain hardly any allusions to contemporary persons or political events and revolve very much in a timeless world of mysticism. We do, however, possess his introductions to the Mukhtār-nāmah and the Khusrau-nāmah which give us the information that he was indeed a druggist (ʿaṭṭār) by profession and that he wrote at least some of his poems while working in his pharmacy. They also supply us with an approximate chronology of his poems. The prose preface to the Mukhtār-nāmah52 mentions (twice, and both times in the same order) five previous works: (1) Khusrau-nāmah,—i.e. the first, apparently lost, version of the same—(2) Asrār-nāmah, (3) Manṭiq al-ṭair, (4) Muṣībat-nāmah and (5) Dīwān; he also mentions two poems that he had by then already destroyed: Jawāhir-nāmah and Sharḥ al-qalb. Some friends, he says, complained of the difficulty of finding their way in his huge collection of shorter poems, whereupon he extracted his rubāʿīyāt from the dīwān, destroyed some of them and rearranged the others in the present (6) Mukhtār-nāmah. In the verse preface to the surviving revised version of the Khusrau-nāmah53 the author mentions the same six titles and adds (7) the Ilāhī-nāmah. He refers further to an unnamed friend who had objected that the original Khusrau-nāmah was too long and that, moreover, the author had repeated part of that poem in his Asrār-nāmah (this confirms the order of the first two books as given above); thereupon ʿAṭṭār reworked and abridged the former poem. The abridged Khusrau-nāmah is the last poem that is now generally accepted as the work of ʿAṭṭār.

It is, however, possible that some of the remaining works in the corpus are his as well, namely those belonging to Ritter’s ‘Group ii’, of which the most important are the Ushtur-nāmah, the Jauhar al-dhāt and the Hailāj-nāmah. Nafīsī ascribed these to the 15th-century author of the above-mentioned forged works, ʿAṭṭār Tūnī, but Ritter54 has shown that they are already attested in manuscripts of the 14th55 and early 15th centuries and also that their content differs significantly from the works of the Shiite forger. If they are not by ʿAṭṭār then they must be the works of an earlier pseudepigraphist who (like the poet from Tūn) laid claim to ʿAṭṭār’s authentic works. If authentic, the Ushtur-nāmah must be ʿAṭṭār’s poem number (8), for in the prologue56 the author mentions only the five indubitably authentic mathnawīs; if it is a forgery it must in any case have been forged at a time when the other works of Pseudo-ʿAṭṭār had not yet come into existence. It is followed by (9) Jauhar al-dhāt, the author of which mentions the Ushtur-nāmah and the Muṣībat-nāmah and says that he is still working on the Hailāj-nāmah. This (10) Hailāj-nāmah, in turn, refers back to the Jauhar al-dhāt. However, since the works in ‘Group ii’ have not as yet been studied in detail we have thought it more prudent to leave them, for the while, amongst the the ‘doubtful’ writings.

ʿAṭṭār’s two earliest poems (Khusrau-nāmah and Asrār-nāmah) are strikingly similar not only in title but also in their general character to Niẓāmī’s first two books, Makhzan al-asrār and Khusrau-Shīrīn. In the absence of an absolute chronology of ʿAṭṭār’s works it is difficult to say who influenced whom. Niẓāmī in any event admits in the preface to his first poem to familiarity with Sanāʾī’s Ḥadīqah but gives no hint of knowing anything of ʿAṭṭār.

The mathnawīs by, or ascribed to, ʿAṭṭār are mostly found in collective manuscripts, generally with the title Kullīyāt i ʿAṭṭār. These differ in their contents one from the other and the works contained in them have been catalogued separately (and selectively)57 in what follows. A large number of Mss. of ʿAṭṭār’s ‘Kulliyāt’ and of collective Mss. containing one or more of his poetic works together with works of other authors are listed by Ritter, Oriens xi pp. 8–62, and a smaller selection is in Munz. iii 17876–911.

Edition of the ‘Kullīyāt’: Lucknow 1872.

Authentic works:

(1)
Khusrau-nāmah, also called Khusrau u Gul, Gul u Khusrau or Gul u Hurmuzd (inc. ba nām i ān-kih ganj i jism u jān sākht * ṭilism i ganj i jān har du jahān sākht), is a romantic story of the son of the king of the Byzantines and the daughter of the ruler of Khūzistān. The author says that it is based on a prose work by one Badr Ahwāzī. The verse introduction (for which see above, ‘biography’) indicates that ʿAṭṭār reworked and shortened his original version of the book. Ritter remarked that all the Mss. known to him contain this introduction; it is thus uncertain whether any trace of the older version has survived (despite the claims of various cataloguers to the contrary). See Ritter, Der Islam xxv, pp. 114–52, and, for a detailed summary of the story, ibid. pp. 160–72.

Mss.:58 Dublin Beatty 117/v (Dated 821/1418); Beatty 288 (19th century? Pic­tures); Oxford Ouseley 371/4 (Ethé 626. 16th century?); Ouseley 353/1 (Ethé 627. Ms. has a note dated ‘13’ which Ethé interprets as 1013/1604–5); Elliot 206/6 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/4 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 208/4 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/6 (Ethé 625); Elliot 204/3 (Ethé 625); London Or. 2888/ii (Rieu Suppt. 237. Dated Rabīʿ ii 893/1488); i.o. 1032/8 (Dated 1025/1616); Add. 16,787/v (Rieu p. 576. Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); i.o. 1031/2; i.o. 1033/6; i.o. 1035/3; Cambridge Add. 817 (Browne Cat. ccxix. Dated 1177/1763–4); Paris Supplément 1434 (Blochet 1294. Dated Shawwāl 696/1297, some leaves restored in 19th century. Blochet claims that it ‘contient une rédaction du poème beaucoup plus étendue que celle qui se lit dans le manuscrit 1291’); Supplé­ment 811 fol. 521v sqq. and 554v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605. Apparently contains two different versions of the poem); Leningrad Kokand Collection 38 fol. 406–512 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātusht-nāmah p. x. Dated 1064/1653–4); Istanbul Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Dated 22 Rabīʿ ii 816/1413); Üniversite fy 538/4 (Ateş 119. Dated 826/1423); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/4 (Karatay 484; Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Nuruosmaniye 4199/5 (Oriens xi p. 13. Ms. dated 13 Rajab 847/1443); Üniversite fy 1315/5 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848/1444); Halet 234/8 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Üniversite fy 473/3 (Ateş 121; Oriens xi p. 19. Dated 24 Shawwāl 900/1495); Topkapı, Revan 1044 (Karatay 500; Der Islam xxv p. 173. Copied by Aḥmad b. Sulṭān ʿAlī in 981/1573–4. According to Karatay the Ms. contains Jauhar al-dhāt, but Ritter says it is Khusrau-nāmah. Pictures); Fatih 4052/7 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 213–214/3. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 10 Shawwāl 1058/1648); Lâleli 2010/8 (Mīkrūfīlm-hā i 403); Madinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 30 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 484. Ms. dated 859/1455. Presumably this poem; the catalogue has ‘Khusrau u Shīrīn’); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. dated 28 Shawwāl 831/1428); Tehran Majlis iii 1147/5 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Aṣghar Mahdawī (Nuskhah-hā iii pp. 483–4. Dated 1 Shaʿbān 884/1479); Malik 5228 (Munz. 33345. Dated Muḥarram 905/1499); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 6, ‘Gul u Khusrau’, and no. 10, ‘Gul u Hurmuz’, of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Calcutta Ivanow 477/2 and /11 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8. Two copies of different versions of the poem); Būhār 300/i (18th century?); Cambridge (Mass) Hofer Collection (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 11. Ms. dated 827/1424).

Editions: Lucknow 1878–9 (with marginal glosses); Tehran 1340sh./1961 (ed. A. Suhailī-Khwānsarī).

(2)
Asrār-nāmah, a collection of edifying anecdotes which, unlike those in ʿAṭṭār’s later works, are not bound together by a frame-story. The beginning occurs in two different forms (inc. i: ba nām i ān kih jān rā nūr i dīn dād * khirad rā dar khudā-dānī yaqīn dād; inc. ii: ba nām i ān kih az khāk ādam-ē kard * zi kafk-ē u zi dūd-ē ʿālam-ē kard). Summary in Ritter, Meer, pp. 30–1.

Mss.:59 Dublin Beatty 117/iv (Ms. completed 821/1418); Beatty 321/iii (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Beatty 324/ii (Copied by Ḥājjī Aḥmad b. Sālūk al-Tūlamī in 846/1442–3); Beatty 153 fol. 271b sqq. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Oxford Elliot 207/14 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/3 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 208/9 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/16 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1034/2 (Copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and dated 20 Rajab 807/1405); Or. 11325 fol. 70b–137b (Meredith-Owens p. 72. With a colophon in Uighur script dated 862/1457–8. Pictures); Or. 4151/iii (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472. Pictures); Or. 2747/v (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485); Or. 332/iii (Rieu p. 578. Dated 1000 to 1004/1591–2 to 1595–6); Add. 16,787/iii (Rieu p. 576. Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); i.o. 1031/12; i.o. 1033/3 (incomplete); Cambridge Or. 1698/7 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Paris Supplément 1398 fol. 70v–173v (Blochet 1970. Dated 861/1456–7); Ancien fonds 256/i (Blochet 1295/Richard. Contains a note dated 889/1484. First 2 folios restored); Supplément 1429 fol. 10sqq. in marg. (Blochet 1308. 13th century?); Supplément 1526 in marg. (Blochet 1296. Dated 905/1499–1500); Supplément 658 (Blochet 1306. Dated Ramaḍān 1008/1600. Incomplete); Leyden 310(1) (Cat. ii dcl. Dated 786/1384); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Ms. completed in Muḥarram 828/1424); Florence Bibl. Nazionale Centrale Ms. Cl. iii. 10 (Piemontese 147. Apparently dated 17 Rajab 844/1440); Gotha 52; Vienna Flügel 516/3 (Copied 2 Ṣafar 902/1496 from an original dated 642/1244–5); Leningrad Acad. C1102 fol. 221a–226a (Index 133. Dated 708/308–9); Acad. D 436 fol. 205b–234b (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3);60 Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1734/2 (Ateş 46; Oriens xi pp. 8–9. Copied by Ibrāhīm b. ʿIwaḍ al-Marāghī and dated 19 Rajab 656/1258); Mevlâna Müzesi 91/2 (Ateş 46; Oriens xi p. 9. Copied by the same scribe and dated 5 Dhū l-ḥijjah 676/1278);61 Istanbul Üniversite fy 446 (Oriens xi p. 61. Copied by ʿAlī b. Dōst i Khudā al-Rifāʿī al-Anqarī al-Khalāṭī and dated 27 Dhū l-ḥijjah 725/1325); Halet İlâve 56 (Oriens xi p. 61. Copied by Khwājah b. ʿUmar al-Qunawī and dated 23 Dhū l-ḥijjah 735/1335); Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 816/1413); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 2044/17 (Oriens xi p. 61. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Ayasofya 4792/25 (Oriens xi p. 61. Dated 816/1413–4); Atıf Efendi 2241/15 (Oriens xi pp. 31–3. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Nuruosmaniye 4199/2 (Oriens xi p. 13. Ms. dated 13 Rajab 847/1443); Üniversite fy 1315/1 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848/1444); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 1992/1 (olim Nuruosmaniye 3786. Oriens xi pp. 12–3. From the library of Shāhrukh, d. 850/1447. Pictures); Hamidiye 627 (Oriens xi p. 61. Dated Rabīʿ i 887/1482); Halet 234/7 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Süleymaniye, Murad Buharî 213/4 (Oriens xi pp. 10–1. Ms. dated 9 Shaʿbān 989/1581); Üniversite fy 213–214/14. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Fatih 4052/4 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Afyun Karahısar 1788/1 (Oriens xi p. 10. Copied by ʿAlī b. Rōzbihān and dated 824/1421); Cairo Taṣawwuf fārisī 23/8 (Oriens xi pp. 34–5. Ms. dated 1 Muḥarram 852/1448); 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/4. Ms. dated 20 Muḥarram 858/1454); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Tabriz Millī 3634/1 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. dated 28 Shawwāl 831/1428); Shiraz Wiṣāl (Nuskhah-hā p. 293 no. 34. Ms. dated 892/1487); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/ii (Ms. copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331); Malik 5974/3 (Munz. 27290. Dated Rajab 808/1405–6); Malik 5955/1 (Munz. 17880. Ms. dated 819/1416–7); Majlis iii 1147/4 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/iv (Ms. dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Aṣghar Mahdawī (Nuskhah-hā iii pp. 483–4. Ms. dated 884 /1479–80); Bayānī 55/i (Nuskhah-hā i p. 15. Copied by Amr Allāh b. Shaikh Uwais Nakhjawānī and dated 901/1495–6); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 324 (Copied by Shāh Maḥmūd al-Nīshābūrī in 970/1562–3); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 770/1 (Ms. dated 10 Rajab 911/1505); Riḍawī vii 769/5 (Has a note dated 1052/1642–3); Tashkent Acad. ii 855/6 (Dated Jumādā i 827/1424); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 12 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Lucknow Sprenger 140; Bankipore i 51 in marg. (14th century?); i 47/ii (Dated 13 Ṣafar 1123/1711); Calcutta Ivanow 477/6 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 478/2 (17th century?); Ivanow 479/3 (17th century? Calls itself ‘Intikhāb i A.N.’); Ivanow 484 (17th century?); Ivanow Curzon 204/5 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Būhār 300/iii (18th century?); Cambridge (Mass) Hofer Collection (Nuskhahhā iv p. 11. Ms. dated 827/1424).

Editions: Tehran 1298/1880; 1356/1937; 1318sh./1939–40; 1338sh./1959 (Ṣ. Gauharīn. Corrections in Rāh-nimā i Kitāb xxv, 1338sh./1959. pp. 716–24).

Translation (Turkish): by Ḥuḍūrī, at the time of Selim I. See Oriens xi p. 62.

Translation (French): Le livre des secrets, tr. Chr. Tortel, Paris 1985.

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Manṭiq al-ṭair or Maqāmāt al-ṭuyūr (inc. āfrīn jān-āfrīn i pāk rā * ān-kih jān bakhshīd musht-ē khāk rā). According to the verses at the end of some of the manuscripts, the poem was completed on Tuesday, the 20th of Ramaḍān (māh i khudā), 573/Tuesday 14 March 1178.62 But in other Mss. (including the oldest) the khātimah is missing altogether. The poem is based on the Risālat al-ṭair, extant in Arabic and Persian prose versions attributed to Muḥammad (or Aḥmad) al-Ghazālī,63 and tells the allegorical story of the search of the birds for a king. The frame-story is interspersed with many interesting sub-stories. Summary in Ritter, Meer, pp. 8–18.

Mss.:64 Dublin Beatty 117/ii (Dated 819/1416–7); Beatty 321/ii (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Beatty 124 vol. ii no. vii (Ms. completed Ṣafar 840/1436); Beatty 324/i (Copied by Ḥājjī Aḥmad b. Sālūk al-Tūlamī in 847/1443–4); Beatty 153 fol. 2b sqq. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Beatty 160 (signed by Sulṭān ʿAlī al-Mashhadī, who died in 919/1513); Manchester Lindesiana 540 (Dated 1007/1598–9); Oxford Pers. d. 71 fol. 1–137a in marg. (Beeston 2564. Ms. completed 16 Ramaḍān 874/1470. Several leaves missing); Elliot 246 (Ethé 628; Robinson 501–7. Dated 19 Jumādā i 898/1493. Pictures); Ouseley Add. 105 (Ethé 629. Dated 3d year of Akbar/1557–8); Ouseley 63 (Ethé 630. 16th century?); Elliot 207/13 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/11 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/18 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/17 (Ethé 625); Seld. Sup. 25 (Ethé 631); Whinfield 67 (Beeston 2565. Imperfect at both ends); Eton 123; London Add. 27,261/xiv (Rieu pp. 868–71. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 814/1411. Beginning only); Or. 12003 (Meredith-Owens p. 74. Dated 848/1444–5); Or. 11325 fol. lb–70a (Meredith-Owens p. 72. With a colophon in Uighur script dated 862/1457–8. Pictures); Or. 4151/ii (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472. Pictures); Or. 2747/iii (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485); i.o. 2875 (Dated 985/1577–8); Add. 7735 (Rieu pp. 577–8. 16th century?); Or. 1227 (Rieu p. 578. 16th century? Several leaves missing at both ends); i.o. 1032/6 (Dated 1025/1616); Add. 7737/ii (Rieu p. 816. Dated Rabīʿ ii 1033/1624); Add. 16,788 (Rieu p. 578. Dated Muḥarram 1051/1641); i.o. 1036/1 (Dated 17 Shaʿbān 1105/1694); Add. 16,787/i (Rieu p. 576 Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); Harleian 3285 (Rieu p. 578. 18th century?); Or. 5010 (Meredith-Owens p. 65. Dated 1288/1871–2. Pictures); i.o. 1031/5; i.o. 1035/1; i.o. 1043–1045; Cambridge Or. 1698/5 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Or. 195 (Browne Suppt. 1263. Dated 852/1448–9); Or. 264 (Browne Suppt. 1264. Dated 900/1494–5); Or. 190 (Browne Suppt. 1262. Dated 925/1519); Corpus, No. 231 (Browne Suppt. 1266. Dated 1239/1823–4); Dd. 11. 17. (Browne Cat. ccxxiii); Paris Supplément 1777 fol. 1v sqq. in marg. (Blochet 1645. Ms. dated 852/1448); Supplément 781A fol. 359r sqq. (Blochet 1972. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 892/1487. End missing); Ancien fonds 348 (Blochet 1298/Richard. Dated 9 Jumādā ii 897/1492. Pictures); Ancien fonds 318/i (Blochet 1300/Richard. 15th century? End missing. Pictures); Supplément 657/i (Blochet 1466. Copied by Maḥmūd b. Murshid b. ʿAlī al-Naqīb, 15th century?); Supplément 1906 (Blochet 1299. 16th century? First pages restored); Supplément 2025 (Blochet 2457. 16th century?); Supplément 811 fol. 294v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Supplément 656 (Blochet 1301. Dated Rajab 1045/1635); Supplément 655 (Blochet 1302. 17th century?); Supplé­ment 1682 fol. 58v sqq. (Blochet 2187. Dated 1215/1800–1); Supplément 1709 (Blochet 1303. 19th century?); Supplément 1710 (Blochet 1305. 19th century?); Supplément 1907 (Blochet 1304. 19th century?); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Dated Muḥarram 828/1424); Turin Bibl. Reale Ms. Or. 40 (Piemontese 338. Copied by Nāṣir b. Ḥasan al-Makkī and dated Ṣafar 857/1453. Pictures);65 Parma Bibl. Palatina Ms. 1975 (Piemontese 238. 16th century?); Rome Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Ms. Caetani 35 (Piemontese 284. 18th century?); Hamburg Orient. 209 (Brockelmann 161); Tübingen Cd. 1858 (Ewald p. 15. Dated 887/1482–3); Munich Cod. or. 284 (Aumer 33. Dated 900/1494–5); 169 Quatr. (Aumer 34. Dated 973/1565–6); 187 Quatr. (Aumer 32); Berlin Ms. or. oct. 2150 in marg. (Heinz 207. The main body of the Ms. was copied by Darwēsh Manṣūr b. Ḥusain Ṭāʾūsī and dated Jumādā ii 800/1398); Ms. or. oct. 268 (Pertsch 753; Stchoukine 3. Copied by ʿAtīq al-Tūnī66 and dated Shaʿbān 860/1456. Pictures); Ms. or. oct. 3581 (Heinz 23. Copied by Niẓām al-dīn Ṭihrānī and dated 1 Muḥarram 963/1555); Sprenger 1382 (Pertsch 758. Has a seal dated 1213/1798–9); Minutoli 143 (Pertsch 757. Dated Ramaḍān 1258 /1842); Petermann i 455 (Pertsch 756; Stchoukine 49. Dated 27 Rabīʿ ii 1259/1843. Pictures); Ms. or. oct. 269 (Pertsch 754); Ms. or. oct. 270 (Pertsch 755); Ms. or. oct. 1532 (Heinz 118. Fragment); Ms. or. oct. 1531 (Heinz 285); Vienna Flügel 516/1 (Dated 20 Muḥarram 902/1496); Flügel 517/1; Uppsala Zetterstéen 423–7; Leningrad Acad. B 152 fol. 2b–147b (Index 4313. Dated 975/1567–80); Acad. D 436 fol. 331b–367b (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Acad. B 151 (Index 4312. Dated 1024/1615); Kokand Collection 38 fol. 246–304 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātushtnāmah p. x. Dated 1063/1653); Acad. A 28 (Index 4308); Acad. A 921 (Index 4310); and others (Acad. Index 4314–21); Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1734/1 (Ateş 45; Oriens xi pp. 8–9. Copied by Ibrāhim b. ʿIwaḍ al-Marāghī and dated 13 Rajab 656/1258); Mevlâna Müzesi 91/1 (Ateş 45; Oriens xi p. 9. Copied by the same scribe and evidently dated 676/1278);67 Mevlâna Müzesi 1698/1 (Oriens xi p. 19. Dated Rabīʿ i 893/1488); Istanbul Süleymaniye, Darülmesnevi 234/5 (Oriens xi pp. 27–8. Dated 14 Rabīʿ i 811/1408); Süleymaniye, Murad Buharî 217 (Oriens xi p. 50. Copied by Muḥammad b. Jamāl al-dīn b. ʿAlī Māzandarānī and dated Muḥarram 813/1410); Ayasofya 4792/24 (Oriens xi p. 51. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 2044/16 (Oriens xi p. 51. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Ayasofya 3875/9 (Oriens xi p. 51. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 816/1413); Süleymaniye, Galibolulu Tahir 36 (Oriens xi p. 51. A second hand has added the date Ramaḍān 821/1418); Nuruosmaniye 4198/3 (Ateş 118. Ms. dated 825/1422); Üniversite fy 538/2 (Ateş 119. Ms. dated 826/1423); Atıf Efendi 2241/17 (Oriens xi pp. 31–33. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Nuruosmaniye 4199/4 (Oriens xi p. 13. Ms. dated 13 Rajab 847/1443); Üniversite fy 1315/4 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848/1444); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 1992/3 (olim Nuruosmaniye 3786. Oriens xi pp. 12–3. From the library of Shāh-rukh, d. 850/1447. Pictures); Ayasofya 4317 (Oriens xi p. 51. Dated 27 Dhū l-qaʿdah 860/1456); Nuruosmaniye 2624 (Ateş 124. Dated 869/1464–5); Halet 234/1 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Dated 888/1483); Ayasofya 4318 (Oriens xi p. 15. Dated Ramaḍān 889/1484); Lâlâ İsmail 227 (Oriens xi p. 51. Dated 10 Ramaḍān 892/1487); Ayasofya 2110 (Oriens xi pp. 19–20. Dated 899/1493–4); Nuruosmaniye 2623 (Ateş 125. 15th century?); Nuruosmaniye 2622 (Ateş 126. 15th century?); Topkapı, Revan 1031 (Karatay 494. 15th century?); Topkapı, Emanet Hazinesi 1511 (Karatay 496. 15th century? Gilded by Shāh-zādah Yūsuf Bahādur Khān); Üniversite fy 1168 (olim Halis Efendi 4059. Ateş 127. Copied by Khair al-dīn b. Ṭāhir and dated 10 Shawwāl 917/1512); Topkapı, Emanet Hazinesi 1512. (Karatay 497. Dated Muḥarram 921/1515); Fatih 4120 (Ritter-Reinert p. 130; Oriens xi pp. 52–3. Dated Rajab 948/1541); Üniversite fy 1193 (olim Halis Efendi 5635. Ateş 128. Copied by ʿAbdī b. Shaikh Maḥmūd in 973/1565–6); Süleymaniye, Murad Buharî 213/2 (Oriens xi pp. 10–1. Dated 9 Shaʿbān 989/1581); Fatih 4052/3 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 202 (Ateş 129. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 614 (olim Halis Efendi 3257. Ateş 130. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 1218 (Ateş 131. 16th century?); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 1527/i (Karatay 495; Oriens xi p. 20. Ms. copied by ʿAbd Allāh al-Samarqandī and dated Rajab 902/1497. With Turkish translation); Üniversite fy 213–214/8. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Üniversite fy 128 (Ateş 132. 17th century?); Topkapı, Hazine 237 (Karatay 498. Copied by Muḥammad Tāj al-dīn al-Gīlānī); Afyun Karahisar 1788/2 (Oriens xi p. 10. Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Rōzbihān and dated 824/1421); Cairo Taṣawwuf fārisī 23/4 (Oriens xi pp. 34–5. Ms. dated 1 Muḥarram 852/1448); 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/2. Ms. dated 20 Muḥarram 858/1454); 9/1 adab fārisī (Oriens xi p. 14. Dated 26 Rajab 877/1472); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 192 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 483. Dated 853/1449); ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 30 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 484. Ms. dated 859/1455); ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 166 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 490. Dated 998/1589–90); Tabriz Millī 3634/2 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. dated 28 Shawwāl 831/1428); Tehran Shūrā i Islāmī i 154 (Supposedly 6th/12th century); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/iii (Ms. copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331); Malik 5974/2 (Munz. 35450. Dated Jumādā i 808/1406); Adabīyāt i p. 502 (Dated Rajab 830/1427); Malik 5955/1 (Munz. 17880. Ms. dated 819/1416–7); Majlis iii 1147/3 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Miftāḥ (Munz. 35468. Dated 19 Shaʿbān 862/1458); Majlis 8981/2 (Munz. 35470. Dated 868/1463–4); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/ii (Ms. dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Aṣghar Mahdawī (Nuskhah-hā iii pp. 483–4. Ms. dated 884/1479–80); Bayānī 15 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 9. 15th century?); Bayānī 16 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 9. 17th century?); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 328 (Dated 30 Muḥarram 1236/1820); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 330 (Dated Rabīʿ i 1257/1841); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 329 (Dated Ramaḍān 1258/1842); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 770/4 (Ms. dated 10 Rajab 911/1505); Riḍawī vii 769/3 (Has a note dated 1052/1642–3); Tashkent Acad. ii 855/2 (Ms. dated 6 Jumādā i 827/1424); Dushanbe Acad. ii 416–422 (multiple copies; the oldest, no. 418, is dated 20 Ṣafar 987/1579); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 11 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bombay Univ. x/2 (Dated 23 Rabīʿ i 1004/1595. Incomplete); Lucknow Sprenger 132 (several copies); Bankipore i 51 (14th century?); i 50 (Dated 7 Jumādā i 842/1438. Pictures); i 46/iii (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow 477/7 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 479/1 (17th century?); Būhār 301 (17th century? Damaged); Ivanow Curzon 205 (Dated 25 Ramadān 1114/1703); Ivanow 480/1 (Dated 49th year of Aurangzēb/1116/1704–5); Būhār 300/iv (18th century?); Cambridge (Mass) Hofer Collection (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 11. Ms. dated 827/1424).

Editions: Paris 1857 (Mantic Uttaïr, ou le langage des oiseaux ed. Garcin de Tassy; ‘sehr fehlerhaft’ according to Ritter), 3rd edition 1860; Bombay 1280/1863; 1297/1880; 1313/1895–6; Lucknow 1871; Cawnpore 1880; 1896; [Tehran?] 1287; Tehran 1337sh./1958–9 (ed. M.J. Mashkūr), reprinted 1341sh./1962, 1365sh./1986; 1342sh./1964 (ed. Ṣ. Gauharīn, with variants); Isfahan 1351/1932–3.

Translations: (Turkish): The Old Anatolian translation by Süleymān Gülshehrī, written in 717/1317–8, has been published (facsimile of the Ms.) in Ankara 1957; see Oriens xi p. 56 (with further literature). Further versions by Kuratovalı Ḍaʿīfī Pīr Meḥmed b. Evrānūs (d. 967/1559–60), Fedāʾī Dede (1045/1635–6), Aḥmad Sīwāsī and Mīr ʿAlī Shēr Nawāʾī (in Chaghatai) are discussed there as well. Modern Turkish translation: Manṭiḳuʾṭ-ṭayr tercemesi, by A. Gölpınarlı, Istanbul 1944.

(Urdu): two translations (one in Dak’hni verse) are mentioned by Ethé ad i.o. 1031/5.

(French prose): Mantic uttaïr ou le langage des oiseaux, poème de philosophie religieuse traduit … par M. Garcin de Tassy, Paris 1863, reprinted 1982.

(English verse): ‘A bird’s-eye view of Faríd-uddín Attar’s bird-Parliament’, in Letters and literary remains of Edward Fitzgerald ii, London 1889, pp. 431–82; The conference of the birds translated with an introduction by Afkham Darbandi and Dick Davis, Harmondsworth 1984 (based on Gauharīn’s edition and complete apart from the introduction and the epilogue).

(English prose): The conference of the birds: a sufi allegory, being an abridged version … by R.P. Masani, London 1924, reprinted New Delhi 1981; The conference of the birds, translated (from Garcin’s French) by C.S. Nott, London 1954, reprinted 1961.

(Swedish): Mantiq-ut-Tayîr, tr. E. Hermelin, 2 volumes, with a reprint of Garcin de Tassy’s Persian text, Stockholm 1929.

(Indonesian prose): Musyawarah burung, translated (at third hand, via Nott’s English and Garcin’s French) by Hartojo Andangdjaja, Jakarta 1983.

(Italian): Il verbo degli uccelli, a cura di Carlo Saccone, Milan 1986.

Epitome: Intikhāb i Manṭiq i Ṭair in 16 maqālahs, written by Muḥammad Badakhshānī for Bayezid ii. Ms.: Istanbul Fatih 3678 (Ritter-Reinert p. 130. Autograph dated 898/1492–3).

Commentaries: By Shemʿī (d. ca. 1005/1596–7)68 in Turkish. Ms.: Istanbul Carullah 1716 (Oriens xi p. 55).

Modern Persian prose paraphrase: Ba sūy i Sī-murgh, by Ni‘mat Allāh Qāḍī, called Shakīb, Tehran 1343sh./1964.

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Muṣībat-nāmah, also called Nuz’hat-nāmah or Jawāb-nāmah (inc. ḥamd i pāk az jān i pāk ān pāk rā * kih khilāfat dād musht-ē khāk rā). Summary in Ritter, Meer, pp. 18–30.

Mss.:69 Dublin Beatty 117/iii (Dated 24 Muḥarram 821/1418); Beatty 321/iv (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Beatty 121 (Dated 833/1429–30. Modern pictures); Beatty 153 fol. 345b sqq. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Manchester Lindesiana 45a (=Robinson p. 150. Dated 939/1532–3. Pictures); Lindesiana 259 (Dated 1093/1682); Oxford Elliot 207/12 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/17 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/11 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Ind. Inst. Pers. 47 (Beeston 2566. Dated 16 Jumādā ii 1177/1763); Elliot 204/5 (Ethé 625); Ouseley Add. 132 (Ethé 633); London i.o. 1034/5 (Ms. copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and completed 1 Dhū l-qaʿdah 812/1410); Or. 4151/iv (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472. Pictures); Or. 2747/iv (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485); Or. 332/ii (Rieu p. 578. Dated 1004/1595–6); i.o. 1032/10 (Dated 1025/1616); Add. 7737/iii (Rieu p. 816. Dated Rabīʿ ii 1033/1624); Add. 16,787/iv (Rieu p. 576. Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); i.o. 1031/15; i.o. 1033/1; i.o. Delhi 1271; Cambridge Or. 1698/6 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Paris Supplément 1491 (Blochet 1309. Dated 20 Dhū l-qaʿdah 686/1287. First page restored); Supplément 1429 (Blochet 1308. 13th century? Beginning and end restored. The Ms. contains also extracts from other mathnawīs attributed to ʿAṭṭār); Ancien fonds 256/ii (Blochet 1295/Richard. Contains a note dated 889/1484); Supplément 811 fol. 357v–438 (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Berlin Minutoli 232 (Pertsch 761. Two hands); Petermann 404/1 (Pertsch 46. End missing); Gotha 51; Vienna Flügel 516/2 (Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 901/1495. Second half only; if correctly identified); Uppsala Tornberg clxii; Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 263b–330a (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1734/3 (Ateş 47; Oriens xi pp. 8–9. Ms. copied by Ibrāhīm b. ʿIwaḍ al-Marāghī and dated Rajab 680/1281); Mevlâna Müzesi 91/3 (Ateş 47; Oriens xi p. 9. Copied by the same scribe and evidently dated 26 Muḥarram 693/1293); Mevlâna Müzesi 1704 (Oriens xi p. 57. Dated Ramaḍān 867/1463); Istanbul Nafiz Paşa 455 (Oriens xi p. 57. Dated 5 Dhū l-ḥijjah 740/1340); Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 816/1413); Ayasofya 4792/26 (Oriens xi p. 57. Dated 816/1413–4); Türk İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 2044/15 (Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Nuruosmaniye 4198/1 (Ateş 118. Ms. dated 825/1422); Üniversite fy 538/3 (Ateş 119. Ms. dated 826/1423); Atıf Efendi 2241/2 (Oriens xi pp. 31–33. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Süleymaniye, Murad Buharî 213/1 (Oriens xi pp. 10–1. Copied by Sulaimān b. ʿAlī-shāh b. Dāniyāl and dated 10 Dhū l-ḥijjah 836/1433); Nuruosmaniye 4199/3 (Oriens xi pp. 13. Ms. dated 13 Rajab 847/1443); Üniversite fy 1315/2 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848/1444); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 1992/4 (olim Nuruosmaniye 3786. Oriens xi pp. 12–3. From the library of Shāh-rukh, d. 850/1447. Pictures); Nafiz Paşa 456/1 (Oriens xi p. 14. Dated 28 Ramaḍān 865/1480); Halet 234/4 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/3 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Ms. dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Halet 329 (Oriens xi pp. 57–8. Dated 890/1485); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 1527/2 (Karatay 495; Oriens xi p. 20. Copied by ʿAbd Allāh al-Samarqandī and dated Rajab 902/1497. With Turkish translation); Fatih 4052/5 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 213–214/5. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 15 Jumādā i 1059/1649); Cairo Taṣawwuf fārisī 23/6 (Oriens xi pp. 34–5. Dated 1 Muḥarram 852/1448); 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/3. Ms. dated 20 Muḥarram 858/1454); Tabriz Millī 3634/6 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Dated 3 Dhū l-qaʿdah 830/1427); Shiraz Wiṣāl (Nuskhah-hā p. 293 no. 34. Ms. dated 892/1487); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/iv (Ms. copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331); Malik 5955/1 (Munz. 17880. Ms. dated 819/1416–7); Aṣghar Mahdawī (Nuskhah-hā iii pp. 483–4. Ms. dated 884/1479–80); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/iii (Ms. dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Majlis iii 1147/2 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Malik 5062/9 (Munz. 35981. Dated 952/1545–6); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 770/3 (Ms. dated 10 Rajab 911/1505); Riḍawī vii 769/4 (Has a note dated 1052/1642–3); Tashkent Acad. ii 855/3 (Ms. dated 6 Jumādā i 827/1424); Dushanbe Acad. ii 414 (17th century?); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 5 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Luck-now Sprenger 124 (two copies); Bankipore i 46/v (17th century?); i 47/iv (Dated 17 Rajab 1123/1711); Calcutta Ivanow 477/8 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 478/3 (17th century?); Ivanow 479/2 (17th century?); Ivanow Curzon 204/3 (Followed by a colophon—evidently forged or copied from the original—dated 13 Rajab 699/1300. The Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Cambridge (Mass) Hofer Collection (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 11. Ms. dated 827/1424).

Editions: Tehran 1298/1881; 1354/1935–6; 1338sh./1959 (ed. N. Wiṣāl).

Translations (Turkish): For the translation by Pīr Meḥemmed (for Murad ii) and the abridged Turkish version by Aḥmadī (with the misleading title Asrār-nāmah) see Oriens xi pp. 58–60.

(French prose): Le livre de l’épreuve, trans. Isabelle de Gastines, Paris 1981.

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Ilāhī-nāmah is the story of a king who asks his six sons in turn what they would most desire. They ask for predictable worldly things, the futility of which the king demonstrates with a series of mostly short anecdotes. The beginning exists in three different versions, for which see Ritter’s edition (inc. i: ba nām i kirdigār i haft aflāk * kih paidā kard ādam az kaf-ē khāk; inc. ii: ba nām i ān kih mulk-ash bē zawāl ast * ba waṣf-ash nuṭq i ṣāḥib-ʿāql lāl ast; inc. iii: ilāhī-nāmah rā āghāz kardam * ba nām-at bāb i nāmah bāz kardam). Summary in Ritter, Meer, pp. 4–8.

Mss.:70 Dublin Beatty 117/i (Ms. completed 821/1418); Beatty 153 fol. 116b sqq. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Manchester Lindesiana 225 (Dated 1143/1730–1); Oxford Pers. d. 71 (Beeston 2564. Ms. completed 16 Ramaḍān 874/1470. Several leaves missing); Elliot 207/11 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/5 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 208/8 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/1 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1034/3a–b (Copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and dated 20 Ramaḍān 807/1405); Add. 27,261/xiii (Rieu pp. 868–71. Dated Jumādā ii 814/1411); Or. 4151/i (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472. Pictures); Or. 2747/ii (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485. Incomplete); Or. 332/i (Rieu p. 578. Dated 1000 to 1004/1591–2 to 1595–6); i.o. 1032/2 (Dated 1025/1616); Add. 7089 (Rieu p. 578. 17th century? With additional verses at beginning and end); Add. 16,787/ii (Rieu p. 576. Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); i.o. 1031/14; Cambridge Or. 1698/1 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Or. 1284 (2nd Suppt. 150. 16th century?); Paris Ancien fonds 224 (Blochet 1307/ Richard. 14th century? In the Biliothèque Nationale since 1668); Ancien fonds 256/iii (Blochet 1295/Richard. Contains a note dated 889/1484); Supplément 1526 (Blochet 1296. Dated 905/1499–1500); Supplément 811 fol. 453v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Supplément 1355 fol. 104v sqq. (Blochet 1997. Dated Rabīʿ i 1 ⟨0⟩ 82/1671); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Ms. completed in Muḥarram 828/1424); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 146b–204b (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1703 (Oriens xi p. 47. Dated 20 Muḥarram 833/1429); Istanbul Fatih 3674 (Ritter-Reinert p. 130. Dated 4 Jumādā ii 729/1328. Inc. ii); Süleymaniye, Darülmesnevi 234/2 (Oriens xi pp. 27–8. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 811/1408. Inc. ii); Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Dated Jumādā ii 816/1413); Ayasofya 4792/27 (Oriens xi p. 47. Dated 816/1413–4); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 2044/14 (Oriens xi p. 47. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Üniversite fy 538/1 (Ateş 119. Ms. dated 826/1423); Atıf Efendi 2241/16 (Oriens xi pp. 31–33. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Süleymaniye, Murad Buharî 213/3 (Oriens xi pp. 10–1. Copied by Sulaimān b. ʿAlī-shāh b. Dāniyāl and dated 23 Ramaḍān 837/1434); Nuruosmaniye 4199/1 (Oriens xi p. 13. Ms. dated 13 Rajab 847/1443); Üniversite fy 1315/3 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848/1444); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 1992/2 (olim Nuruosmaniye 3786. Oriens xi pp. 12–3. From the library of Shāh-rukh, d. 850/1447. Pictures); Nafiz Paşa 353/1 (Oriens xi p. 14. Dated 10 Rabīʿ i 856/1452); Halet İlâve 58 (Oriens xi p. 48. Dated Rabīʿ i 862/1458); Fatih 3673 (Ritter-Reinert p. 130. Dated 863/1458–9); Üniversite fy 473/1 (Ateş 121; Oriens xi p. 19. Dated 7 Dhū l-ḥijjah 896/1491); Halet 234/5 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/6 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Dated Shaʿbān 889/1484); Ayasofya 2110/2 (Oriens xi pp. 19–20. Mss. completed 920/1514); Fatih 4052/6 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 213–214/7. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 3 Rajab 1059/1649); Cairo Taṣawwuf fārisī 23/5 (Oriens xi pp. 34–5. Ms. dated 1 Muḥarram 852/1448); 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/1. Ms. dated 20 Muharram 858/1454); Medinah ʿĀrif Hikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 30 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 484. Ms. dated 859/1455); Tabriz Millī 3634/4 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. dated 28 Shawwāl 831/1428); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/v (Ms. copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331); Malik 5974/4 (Munz. 27570. Dated 10 Shaʿbān 808/1406); Malik 5955/1 (Munz. 17880. Ms. dated 819/1416–7); Majlis iii 1147/1 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/i (Ms. dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Aṣghar Mahdawī (Nuskhah-hā iii pp. 483–4. Ms. dated 884/1479–80); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 457/iii (Ms. completed Rabīʿ i 1083/1672); Tash-kent Acad. ii 855/1 (Ms. dated 6 Jumādāl 827/1424); Dushanbe Acad. ii 407 (17th century?); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 13 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Lucknow Sprenger 139; Bankipore i 47/i (Dated 24 Ramaḍān 1133/1721);71 Calcutta Ivanow 477/3 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 478/1 (17th century?); Ivanow Curzon 204/4 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169 /1755–6).

Editions: Lucknow 1872; Tehran 1316/1898–9; 1356/1937–8; 1339sh./1960 (ed. F. Rūḥānī, based mainly on Ritter, but without variants), reprinted 1351sh./1972, 1359sh./1980; Istanbul/Leipzig 1940 (Ilahi-name. Die Gespräche des Königs mit seinen sechs Söhnen, ed. H. Ritter; the only critical edition).72

Translations (Turkish verse): ʿIbret-nümā by Shemsī, dedicated to Murāt iii. Mss.: Leipzig Fleischer cccxxiv (Dated Rabīʿ i 1025/1616); Istanbul Bayezid 3315 (Oriens xi p. 49).

(French prose): Le livre divin, tr. F. Rouhani, Paris 1961, reprinted 1990.

(English prose): The Ilāhī-nāma or Book of God, translated (with copious notes) by J.A. Boyle, Manchester 1976.

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ʿAṭṭār’s Dīwān consists almost entirely of ghazals of pseudoerotic and religious inspiration. For a translation and detailed discussion of a large number of poems see Ritter, Oriens xii pp. 1–83.

Mss.:73 Oxford Elliot 207/20 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/19 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/20 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/11,19 (Ethé 625); Elliot 46 (Ethé 636); London i.o. 1032/11 (Dated 1025/1616); i.o. 1031/9; Cambridge Or. 1670–1/i (2nd Suppt. 421. Photostat of a Ms. in a private collection. 15th century?); Paris Supplément 1795/i (Blochet 1292. Ms. dated 4 Ṣafar 821/1418); Supplément 811 fol 658v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Leningrad Acad. C 1611 (Index 1576. Dated 1044/1634–5. Lacunae); Istanbul Ayasofya 2910/6 (Oriens xii p. 86. Ms. dated 706/1306–7. 14 qaṣīdahs); Halet İlâve 238/2 (Oriens xii p. 86. Ms. dated 727/1326–7); Ayasofya 2051/6 (Oriens xii p. 86; Mīkrūfīlm-hā i pp. 409–10. Ms. apparently dated Shawwāl 730/1330. ‘qaṣāʾid’); Süleymaniye, Darülmesnevi 234/4 (Oriens xi pp. 27–8. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 811/1408. ‘Ghazalīyāt wa rubāʿīyāt’); Ayasofya 3857/23 (Oriens xii p. 86. Ms. dated 816/1413–4); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/5 (Karatay 484; Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Halet 234/14 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/5 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Ms. dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Üniversite fy 473/2 (Ateş 121; Oriens xi p. 19. Ms. completed 5 Jumādā i 902/1497); Üniversite fy 490 fol. lb-88b (Ateş 123. 15th century? ‘Muntakhab i ghazalīyāt’); Fatih 4052/1 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Tehran Majlis viii 2600 (First part copied by Faḍl Allah Qazwīnī and dated 688/1289; second part by Ḥasan Ḥājj Muḥammad and dated 1 Dhū l-ḥijjah 707/1308); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/i (Ms. copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331. ‘Kitāb qaṣāʾid wa ghazalīyāt’); Bayānī 13 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 9. 14th century?); Bayānī 14 (Nuskhah-hā i p. 9. 14th century? Selections); Shūrā i Islāmī i 306 (14th century?); Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 326 (Has a note dated 14 Rajab 1128/1716. 83 ghazals only); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 770/2 (Ms. dated 10 Rajab 911/1505. ‘Ghazalīyāt’); Tashkent Acad. ii 855/4 (Ms. dated 6 Jumādā i 827/1424); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 7 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Lucknow Sprenger 121; Bankipore i 46/xiii (17th century?); i 52 (19th century?); Calcutta Ivanow 477/1 (Dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 487 (17th century?).

Editions: Tehran 1319sh./1940 (ed. S. Nafīsī) reprinted 1335sh./1956, 1339sh./1960; 1341sh./1962 (ed. T. Tafaḍḍulī), reprinted 1345sh./1967.

Concordance: D. Meneghini Correale and V. Zanolla, ‘Attar, concordance and lexical repertories of 1000 lines (Lirica Persica 9), Venice 1993.

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Mukhtār-nāmah, a collection of ca. 2000 rubāʿīs, grouped by subject-matter, with an introduction in prose by the author, beginning ḥamd u sipās i bē-qiyās khudāwand-ē rā kih ishrāq i āftāb …, for which see above, ‘biography’. Text and paraphrase of the preface in Ritter, Der Islam xxv, pp. 152–5. Analysis, with text and translation of many of the rubāʿīyāt: Ritter, Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 195–227. See now also: S.ʿA. Mīr-Afḍalī, ‘Āyā Mukhtār-nāmah az ʿAṭṭār ast?’, Nashr i dānish xvii/1, 1379sh./2000, pp. 32–43.

Mss.:74 Dublin Beatty 321/vii (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Beatty 153 fol. 429b sqq. in marg. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Oxford Elliot 207/21 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/21 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/21 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/18 (Ethé 625); London Or. 353/iii (Rieu p. 577. Dated Ṣafar 877/1472. A few lines missing at beginning of preface); Or. 2747/i (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485. Incomplete); i.o. 1032/12 (Dated 1025/1616); Add. 16,787/vi (Rieu p. 576. Dated Shaʿbān 1191/1777); Cambridge Or. 1670–1/ii (2nd Suppt. 421. Photostat of a Ms. in a private collection. 15th century?); Paris Supplément 811 fol. 749v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Leningrad Acad. A 85 (Index 3964); Istanbul Ateş Collection (Oriens xi pp. 9–10. Dated 12 Jumādā ii 816/1413); Üniversite fy 538/5 (Ateş 119. Ms. dated 826/1423); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/6 (Karatay 484; Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Üniversite fy 1315/6 (Ateş 120; Oriens xi pp. 13–4. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 848 /1444); Halet 234/15 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Üniversite fy 473/4 (Ateş 121; Oriens xi p. 19. Dated 5 Jumādā i 902/1497); Üniversite fy 368 (olim Rıza Paşa 513. Ateş 134. Dated 1 Muḥarram 968/1560); Fatih 4052/2 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Cairo 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/6. Ms. dated 20 Muḥarram 858/1454); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 327/vi (Copied by Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Isfarāʾinī and dated Shaʿbān 731/1331); Majlis iii 1147/6 (Ms. dated 840/1436–7); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 8 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bombay Rehatsek pp. 167 no. 137; Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/1 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6).

Collections of rubāʿīyāt (different from Mukhtār-nāmah?): Mss.: Dublin Beatty 185 fol. 1–10 (15th century?); London Or. 11077 fol. 292b (7 quatrains. 13th century?); Leningrad Kokand Collection 38 fol. 391–405 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātusht-nāmah p. x. Ms. completed 1066/1655–6).

Editions of the Mukhtār-nāmah: Tehran 1353/1934–5; 1358sh./1979 (ed. M.R. Shafīʿī-Kadkanī, with an extensive introduction).

Doubtful and spurious works:75

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Asrār al-shuhūd (inc. hast bi-smi llāhi l-raḥmāni l-raḥīm * maṣḥaf i āyāt i asrār i qadīm: scansion?!), a collection of versified anecdotes from the lives of the saints.

Mss.: Leipzig Vollers 1048/ii (Dated 1007/1598–9. ‘Asrārnāmah’); Lucknow Sprenger 125; Other Mss.: Munz. iv 27276–83.

Edition: Lahore 1894.

(2)
Bē-sar-nāmah (inc. man ba ghair i tu nabīnam dar jahān * qādir-ā, parwardagār-ā, jāwidān) is similar in content to the second part of the Ushtur-nāmah.

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 207/17 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/18 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 205/14 (Ethé 625); Fraser 250 (Ethé 634. Dated 1112/1700–1. Defective); London i.o. 1036/2 (Dated 17 Shaʿbān 1105/1694); Or. 10940 fol. 71b–77b (Meredith-Owens p. 71. Ms. dated 1181/1767–8); i.o. 1031/7; i.o. 1033/7; i.o. 1049; Paris Supplément 811 fol. 445v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Supplément 1485 (Blochet 1320. 19th century); Vienna Krafft cxcii (Dated 1232/1816–7); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 261b–263a (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/12. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Üniversite fy 167 (Ateş 144. 19th century?); Lucknow Sprenger 123; Bankipore i 47/vi (Ms. contains dates in 1123/1711 and 1133/1720); Calcutta Ivanow 477/12 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow Curzon 204/9 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6). Cf. Munz. iv 27908–20.

Editions: Cawnpore 1850; 1891; 1897; Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’); 1877 (twice, with other works); 1302/1885; 1315/1897; Tehran 1309/1891–2; 1319/1901; 1325/1907.

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Bulbul-nāmah or Gul u Bulbul (inc. qalam bar dār i rāz i dil ʿiyān kun * sar-āghāz-ash ba nām i ghaib-dān kun). The story of Solomon and a nightingale. In two 15th-century Mss. it is attributed to one ʿAṭṭār Tūnī, i.e. presumably the author of the forged Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib and Lisān al-ghaib. Note, however, the early dates in the Dublin, Istanbul and London manuscripts.

Mss.: Dublin Beatty 321/vi (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Oxford Elliot 207/8 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/8 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/14 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/12 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1034/4 (Ms. copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and completed 1 Dhū l-qaʿdah 812/1410); i.o. 1032/5 (Dated 1025/1616); Or 5415 fol. 67b–71b (Meredith-Owens p. 90. 16th–17th century?); i.o. 1031/3; i.o. 1033/8; Cambridge Or. 1698/3 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); LI. 6. 15 (Browne Cat. cccv/ii. Dated 976/1568–9); Or. 257/3 (Browne Suppt. 177. Dated 1273/1856–7); Or. 274/1 (Browne Suppt. 178. Dated 1273/1856–7); Paris Supplément 1398 fol. 35v sqq. (Blochet 1970. Dated 861/1456–7); Supplément 781A fol. 278v sqq. (Blochet 1972. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 892/1487); Ancien fonds 343/ii (Blochet 1297/ Richard. 16th century? End missing); Supplément 811 fol. 448v–452v (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Ms. completed in Muḥarram 828/1424); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 237b–241a (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Acad. C 1166 fol. 172b–219b (Index 3463. Ms. dated 1115/1703–4); Kokand Collection 38 fol. 223–245 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātusht-nāmah p. x. Dated 1064/1653–4); Istanbul Süleymaniye, Darülmesnevi 234/3 (Oriens xi pp. 27–8. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 811/1408); Atıf Efendi 2241/3 (Oriens xi pp. 31–33. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/2 (Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438. Incomplete); Topkapı, Hazine 697 (Karatay 501. Copied by Ḥabīb b. Ḥusain Samarqandī in 871/1466–7. Different incipit); Halet 234/9 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Topkapı, Koğuşlar 1031/ii (Karatay 922. Dated 965/1557–8); Fatih 4052/8 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Üniversite fy 213–214/11. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Kabul (Oriens xi p. 27. In an anthology supposedly dated 803/1400–1); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 15 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bankipore i 47/v (Ms. contains dates in 1123/1711 and 1133/1720); Calcutta Ivanow 477/14 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8). Cf. Munz. iv 27712–26; Munz. Pak. vii(1) pp. 608–9.

Editions: Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’); [Tehran] 1312/1894–5.

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Dīwān i muʿjizāt. Ms.: Manchester Lindesiana 543 (18th century?).
(5)
Haft wādī begins with the same verse as the Muṣībat-nāmah. It is apparently an extract from Manṭiq al-ṭair and other poems.

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 207/9 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/12 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 205/13 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1032/4 (Dated 1025/1616); i.o. 1031/6; i.o. 1033/15; i.o. 1050 (defective); Paris Supplément 811 fol. 438v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 255b–261a (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/18. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Tehran Malik 5062/7 (Munz. 17893. Ms. dated 956/1549); Bankipore i 46/x (17th century?); Suppt. i 1982 (18th century?); Calcutta Ivanow 477/4–5 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8. Two copies of the same poem); Ivanow Curzon 204/11 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Būhār 299/ii (Dated 1203/1788–9). Cf. Munz. iv 36631–5.

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Hailāj-nāmah (inc. bi nām i kirdigār i fard i bē-chūn * kih mārā az ʿadam āwurd bērūn) is presented in i.o. 1046 as the ‘third daftar’ of the Jauhar/Jawāhir al-dhāt. It is, according to Ritter, ‘a poor imitation of the second part of the Ushtur-nāma’. See also above, pp. 1634.

Mss.: Manchester Lindesiana 797 (17th century?); London Or. 6634 (Meredith-Owens p. 66. Dated 861/1456–7); Or. 353 ii (Rieu p. 577. Dated Ṣafar 877/1472. Latter half only); i.o. 1048 (Dated 2 Ṣafar 902/1496); i.o. 1046 fol. 335b sqq. (Dated 1139/1726–7); Cambridge Or. 1670–1/iii (2nd Suppt. 421. Photostat of a Ms. in a private collection. 15th century?); Istanbul Halet 234/2 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhahhā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 3 of a Ms. dated 857/1453). Cf. Munz. iv 36676–91.

Edition: Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’); Tehran 1253/1837–8.

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Jauhar (or jawāhir) al-dhāt (inc. ba nām i ān-kih nūr i jism u jān ast * khudāy i āshkārā u nihān ast), in two daftars. This work belongs together with the Ushtur-nāmah (which it quotes) in the central position that both works give to Ḥallāj. See above, pp. 1634.

Mss.: Dublin Beatty 321/v (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418. ‘Jauhar-nāmah’); Manchester Lindesiana 797a,b (16th century?); Oxford Ouseley 371/1 (Ethé 626. 16th century?); Ouseley 353/2 (Ethé 627. Ms. has a note dated ⟨10⟩ 13/1604–5); Elliot 206/3 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020 /1611–2); Ouseley 374/7 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 208/3 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/8 (Ethé 625); London Or. 11325 in marg. (Meredith-Owens p. 72. With a colophon in Uighur script dated 862/1457–8. Pictures); Or. 353/i (Rieu pp. 576–7. Dated Ṣafar 877/1472. Deficient at beginning and end; the leaves missing at the beginning have been replaced by the beginning of the Ilāhīnāma, in a modern hand); Or. 2888/i (Rieu Suppt. 237. Dated Rabīʿ ii 893/1488); i.o. 1047 (Dated 10 Shawwāl 1021/1612. 2nd daftar only); i.o. 1046 (Dated 1139/1726–7); i.o. 1031/17; i.o. 1033/2 (first daftar only); i.o. 1035/2 (incomplete); Paris Supplément 1795/ii (Blochet 1292. Dated 4 Ṣafar 821/1418); Supplément 1366 fol. 70r sqq. (Blochet 1993. Dated Rabīʿ i 1009/1600); Supplément 811 fol. 179v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Berlin Diez A 12° no. 1 (Pertsch 759. Dated Ṣafar 850/1446. Fragment of daftar 1); Petermann 461 (Pertsch 760. Dated Shaʿbān 860/1456, but Pertsch thinks it is ‘erheblich jünger’. Daftar 1, beginning missing); Ms. or. oct. 2415 (Heinz 203. 2nd daftar); Vienna Flügel 518 (also Duda pp. 52–3. Contains seals of Shāh-rukh, regn. 807/1404 to 850/1446, and of the Ottoman Bayezit i—acc. to Flügel—or ii—acc. to Duda -); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 48b–145a (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); kokand Collection 38 fol. 305–388 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātusht-nāmah p. x. Ms. dated 1064/1653–4. ‘Jawāhir-nāmah’); Acad. C 1165 fol. 128b–221a (Index 3462); Konya Müze 90 (Ateş 44. Copied by ʿUthmān b. Ḥusain al-Bahwānī and dated 10 Jumādā i 735/1335); Istanbul Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/1 (Karatay 484; Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Halet 234/6 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/2 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Ms. dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Topkapı, Revan 1044 (Karatay 500; Der Islam xxv p. 173. Copied by Aḥmad b. Sulṭān ʿAlī in 981/1573–4. According to Karatay the Ms. contains Jauhar al-dhāt, but Ritter says it is Khusrau-nāmah. Pictures); Esat 2558 (Duda p. 40. Dated 998/1589–90. Part 1 only); Topkapı, Revan 1042 (Karatay 499. Copied by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Khwārazmī. 16th century?76 Pictures); Üniversite fy 213–214/4 (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 1 Rajab 1057/1647); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Tabriz Millī 3634/3 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Tehran Malik 5974/6 (Munz. 28971. Ms. dated Rabīʿ ii 809/1406); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 769/2 (Has a note dated 1052/1642–3); Dushanbe Acad. ii 415 (17th century?); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 1 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bankipore i 46/i (17th century? Bk. ii only, incomplete); i 49 (17th century? Bk. i only); Calcutta Ivanow 482 (15th–16th century?); Ivanow 477/13 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8. Beginning only); Ivanow 483 (17th century? Beginning only); Ivanow Curzon 204/2 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169 /1755–6); Būhār 299/iv (Beginning only). Cf. Munz. iv 28970–9011.

Editions: Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’); Tehran 1315/1897–8; 1318/1900 (in 2 parts).

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Jumjumah-nāmah, alias Qiṣṣah (or Ḥikāyat) i Sulṭān Jumjumah, is the story of a skull that has been brought back to life, possibly a fragment of an authentic work, according to Ritter. For parallels in the Ilāhī-nāmah and the Ushtur-nāmah, and in the Arabic version (Gotha, Arabic catalogue iv 453), see Ritter, Meer pp. 100–1, 640.

Mss.: Oxford Fraser 124/54 (Ethè 1239); Gotha 45/7; Leningrad Acad. B 2172 fol. 1a–5b (Index 1086); Acad. B 4497 fol. 138b–144b (Index 1087); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/10. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Kayseri Râşid Efendi Eki 224/12 (Karabulut 358).

An edition (from the Oxford and Leningrad Mss. and from two copies of a Judaeo-Persian transcription) has been published, with a translation in English, facsimiles of the two mentioned Mss. and commentary in J.P. Asmussen, Studies in Judaeo-Persian literature, Leyden 1973, pp. 67–109.

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Kanz al-asrār or Kanz al-baḥr (inc. sipās u ḥamd bar khallāq i ʿālam * kih az khāk ē padīd āwurd ādam) ends with verses stating that it was completed in 699/1299–1300. The author calls himself ‘the ʿAṭṭār of the age’ (ʿAṭṭār i zamān). See Ritter, Der Islam xxv, pp. 157–8.

Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 374/20 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/10 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); London i.o. 1031/8; i.o. 1033/9; Leningrad Acad. C 1166 fol. lb–62b (Index 3463. Ms. dated 1115/1703–4); Acad. C 1960 fol. 107a–153b (Index 3487); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/20. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 20 Ṣafar 1060/1650); Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/16 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6). Cf. Munz. iv 33017–8.

(10)
Kanz al-ḥaqāʾiq begins with three verses which are identical with the 1st, 3rd and 5th of the Asrār-nāmah. See the summary of this work by Ritter, Der Islam xxv, pp. 158–9.

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 207/18 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/9 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/19 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); London Or. 4151/v (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472. Pictures); i.o. 1032/7 (Dated 1025/1616); i.o. 1031/13; i.o. 1033/16; Leningrad Acad. C 1166 fol. 63b–105b (Index 3463. Ms. dated 1115/1703–4); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/13 and 16. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/v (Ms. dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Malik 5062/13 (Munz. 33026. Ms. dated 965/1557–8); Bankipore i 46/ix (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow 477/15 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow Curzon 204/14 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6). Cf. Munz. iv 33024–31.

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Khaiyāṭ-nāmah77 (inc. ba nām i ān kih hastī z-ō nishān yāft * nufūs i nāṭiqah z-ō nūr i jān yāft). Cf. Berthels, ‘Farīdaddīn ʿAṭṭār’s Khayyāṭ-nāma’, Izv. Akad. Nauk sssr, otdeleniye gumanitarnykh nauk 1929, pp. 201–14.

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 209/16 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); London i.o. 1033/10 (incomplete); Leningrad Acad. C 1166 fol. 140b–171b (Index 3463. Ms. dated 1115/1703–4); Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/22. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Tehran Malik 5062/12 (Munz. 29706. Ms. dated 956/1549); Bankipore i 46/vii (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/15 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Ivanow 486 (= Sprenger 136. 17th–18th century?); Būhār 299/i (Dated 1203/1788–9). Cf. Munz. iv 29706–9.

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Khazāʾin al-asrār, is, according to one of the two owners’ notes in the Oxford Ms., the title of the mathnawī whose prose preface begins with the words fa l-waḥdatu li man wuḥḥidat dhātuhū bi l-dhāt.

Mss.: Oxford Pers. e. 71 fol. 2–313 (Beeston 2571. 16th century? Beginning and end missing).

(13)
Lisān al-ghaib (inc.: ism i tauḥīd ibtidā i nām i ō-st * murgh i rūḥ-am jumlagī dar dām i ō-st), supposedly written in Mecca at the end of ʿAṭṭār’s life. It is by the same forger as Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib.

Mss.: Manchester Lindesiana 797c (16th century?); Oxford Ouseley 371/2 (Ethé 626. 16th century?); Elliot 206/4 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/6 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/13 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 205/20 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1031/16; i.o. 1033/11 (incomplete); Paris Supplément 1366 fol. 113v seqq. (Blochet 1993. Ms. contains dates between 1009/1600 and 1010/1602); Suppément 811 fol 35v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Rome Vatican Pers. 89 (Rossi p. 107. Dated 22 Shawwāl 47th year of ʿĀlamgīr, i.e. 1114/1703); Hanover pp. 140–157 acc. to Rossi; Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/6. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4 Ms. completed 1060/1650); Tabriz Millī 3634/5 (Nuskhah-hā iv p. 309. Ms. dated 1 Ṣafar 885/1480); Bankipore i 46/vi (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/7 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6). Cf. Munz. iv 33508–21.

Edition: Tehran 1344sh./1965–6 (ed. A. Khush-nawīs ʿImād).

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Manṣūr-nāmah, or Ḥallāj-nāmah (inc. būd manṣūr, ai ʿajab, shūrīdah-ḥāl * dar rah i taḥqīq ō rā ṣad kamāl), a brief account of the death of Ḥallāj. In many copies it is inserted into the Waṣlat-nāmah.

Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 374/15 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); London i.o. 1033/13; Leningrad Acad. B 150 (Index 4306); Acad. C 667 fol. 130a–138a (Index 4307. Ms. dated 1287/1870–1); Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1698/2 (Oriens xi p. 19. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 893/1488); Istanbul Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/3a (Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Halet 234/3a, 13a (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/4a (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Ms. dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Fatih 4052/10 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Bankipore i 46/iv (17th century?).

(15)
Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib (inc. āfrīn jān, āfrīn bar jān i jān * z-ān-kih hast ō āshkārā u nihān), a hagiography of ʿAlī. The date of composition is given (mendaciously) in one verse as 584/1188 (pānṣad u hashtād u chār), when the author was supposedly 100 years old, and in another there is a chronogram for 585/1189 (sirr i ʿajāʾib). In several verses the author calls himself a citizen of Tūn. It is certainly a forgery. See Bombay Univ. Cat. pp. 60–5 (summarising Shērānī), Ritter, Der Islam xxv, pp. 137–8 and Nafīsī p. 126sqq.

Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 371/3 (Ethé 626. 16th century?); Ouseley 353/4 (Ethé 627. Ms. has a note dated ‘13’ which Ethé interprets as 1013/1604–5); Elliot 206/5 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/16 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/12 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/2 (Ethé 625); London Add. 6621 (Rieu p. 579. 17th century? Consists of 73 leaves detached from a larger volume, the whole of the Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib, and a further leaf containing the conclusion of another, unidentified, poem); i.o. 1031/18; i.o. Delhi 1270; Cambridge Or. 651/1 (Browne Suppt. 1210. Dated Rabīʿ i 1201/1787); Browne Coll. V.8 (Dated Ṣafar 1286/1869. Apparently contains several other mathnawīs); Paris Supplément 811 fol. 90v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Leningrad Dorn cccliv (Copied by Dōst Muḥammad apparently in 947/1540–1);78 Kokand Collection 38 fol. 1–120 (See Rosenberg’s edition of the Zarātusht-nāmah p. iii. Dated 1066/1655–6); Istanbul Nuruosmaniye 4199 mükerrer (Ateş 133. Copied by Muḥammad Riḍā al-Mashhadī and dated 990/1582); Üniversite fy 213–214/2. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Dated 27 Dhū l-qaʿdah 1058/1648); Shiraz Wiṣāl (Nuskhah-hā p. 293 no. 34. Ms. dated 892/1487); Bombay Univ. 24; Bankipore i 46/ii (17th century? Incomplete); i 48 (18th century?); Calcutta (=Lucknow Sprenger 131. Dated 1186/1772–3. Pictures); Ivanow Curzon 204/6 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Būhār 300/ii (18th century?); Būhār 302 (18th century?). Cf. Munz. iv 35223–39.

Editions: Tehran 1323/1905–6; 1345sh./1966 (ed. A. Khushnawīs ʿImād).

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Miftāḥ al-futūḥ (inc. panāh i man ba ḥaiy-ē kih na-mīrad * ba āh-ē ʿudhr i ṣad ʿiṣyān padhīrad) was written by a man from Zanjān in 688/1289–90, or, as other copies have it, 587/1191–2. A text-book of ascetic exercises. See Ritter, Der Islam xxv, p. 157.

Mss.: Oxford Ouseley 353/3 (Ethé 627. Ms. has a note dated ⟨10⟩ 13/1604–5); Elliot 207/19 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/10 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 208/7 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); London Or. 4151/vi (Rieu Suppt. 235. Ms. dated 22 Rajab 877/1472); i.o. 1032/9 (Dated 1025/1616); i.o. 1031/11; i.o. 1033/4; Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/9. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Tehran Gulistān/Ātābāy ii 325/vi (Dated 25 Ramaḍān 880/1476. Pictures); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 17 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bankipore i 46/viii (17th century?); Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/10 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6). Cf. Munz. iv 35353–62.

Editions: Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’).

Part of the work was published under the title Irshād i bayān, Tehran 1315sh./1936–7.

(17)
Miʿrāj-nāmah, ‘could well be an excerpt from the naʿt of any mathnawī (Ritter).

Mss.: Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/23. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 2 of a Ms. dated 857/1453). Cf. Munz. iv 35310–4.

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Naṣīḥat-nāmah. Mss.: London Or. 9819 fol. 1b–23b (Meredith-Owens p. 82. 17th–18th century?); Berlin Petermann ii Nachtr. 8, fol. 31b sqq (Pertsch 688/3).
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Nuz’hat al-aḥbāb. Mss.: Paris Supplément 1398 fol. 57v sqq. (Blochet 1970. Dated 861/1456–7); Istanbul Halet 234/11 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Dated 889/1484); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 16 of a Ms. dated 857/1453). Cf. Munz. iv 35920–1.

Editions: Lucknow 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’).

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Pand-nāmah (inc. in some copies: ibtidā kardam ba nām i kirdigār * khāliq i khalq az ṣighār u az kibār, in other copies it begins ḥamd i bē-ḥad mar khudāy i pāk rā * ān kih īmān dād mushtī khāk rā; compare the latter with the incipit of the Muṣībat-nāmah), a small treatise on morals, particularly popular in Turkey. Nafīsī thought it authentic, but Ritter79 pointed out that it is not traceable before the 15th century and is lacking in all the old manuscripts of the Kullīyāt, that it is not mentioned in ʿAṭṭār’s authentic works and that ‘von der gedankenwelt ʿAṭṭār’s eigentlich nichts zu spüren ist’.

Mss.:80 Dublin t.c.d. 1556; Manchester Lindesiana 895a (Dated 1202/1787–8); Lindesiana 241c (Dated 1210/1795–6); Lindesiana 541 (18th century?); Oxford Elliot 207/10 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/14 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/15 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Fraser 247 (Ethé 632. Dated 14 Rabīʿ i 43rd year of ʿĀlamgīr/1699); Elliot 205/15 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1032/1 (Dated 1025/1616); Harl. 5464 fol. 67–144 (Rieu p. 790. Dated Rabīʿ ii 1078/1667. With Turkish glosses); Sloane 3588 i (Rieu pp. 579–80. Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 1083/1673); Harleian 5447 i (Rieu p. 580. 17th century?); Or. 5932 fol. 17b–54b (Meredith-Owens p. 90. Dated 1150/1737–8. With interlinear Turkish translation); i.o. 1037 (Has a seal dated 1172/1758–9); i.o. 1038 (Dated 18 Shawwāl 1191/1777); Add. 6632 iii (Rieu p. 803. Dated Jumādā ii 1192/1778); Add. 7734 (Rieu p. 580. Dated Shawwāl 1193/1779. With Turkish glosses); Ross and Browne xxxiii (Dated 1197/1783); i.o. 1039 (Dated 4 Dhū l-qaʿdah 1209/1795); Sloane 3264 (Rieu p. 580. 18th century. With a Latin translation by Solomon Negri); Add. 6960 ii (Rieu p. 580. 19th century copy of Sloane 3264); i.o. 1031/4; i.o. 1033/5; i.o. 1040–1042; Wellcome 413. Cambridge Browne Coll. Sup. 6 fol. 17a–45b (17th–18th century? End missing); Add. 784 (Browne Cat. ccxxi. Dated 1161/1748. A few Turkish glosses); Add. 250 (Browne Cat. ccxxii. Recent); Glasgow T.5.20 (Weir 14. Dated 9 Jumādā i 1100/1689); S.7 (Weir 15); Edinburgh New Coll. Or. 32; Paris Supplément 1398 in marg. fol. 113v–175v (Blochet 1970. Dated 861/1456–7); Supplément 781A fol. 300v sqq. (Blochet 1972. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 892/1487); Anciens fonds 7/xxi (Blochet 2147/Richard. 16th century? Incomplete at end); Ancien fonds 343/i (Blochet 1297/Richard. 16th century?); Supplément 1366 fol. 46–53 (Blochet 1993. Dated 11 Ṣafar 1009/1600); Supplément 811 fol. 649v–658 (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Supplément 1255 (Blochet 1316. Dated 1087/1676–7); Supplément 649 (Blochet 1310. 17th century? Incomplete); Supplément 651 (Blochet 1311. 17th century? End missing); Supplément 648 (Blochet 1312. 17th century?); Ancien fonds 261/ii (Blochet 1313/Richard. 17th century? With Turkish glosses); Supplément 650 (Blochet 1314. 17th century?); Supplément 652 (Blochet 1315. 17th century? Beginning missing); Supplément 653 (Blochet 1317. Dated 1149/1736–7); Supplément 947 (Blochet 1318. Dated 6 Ṣafar 1205/1790); Supplément 1683 fol. 112v sqq. (Blochet 2188. 19th century); Supplément 1686 fol. 73r sqq. (Blochet 2190. 19th century); Supplément 1687 fol. 92v sqq. (Blochet 2191. 19th century); Suppément 1688 fol. 73r sqq. (Blochet 2192. Dated 1277/1860–1); Supplément 1689 fol. 42v sqq. (Blochet 2193. 19th century); Supplément 1691 fol. 54r sqq. (Blochet 2194. Ms. completed in 1299/1881–2); Supplément 1693 fol. 53v sqq. (Blochet 2196. Dated 1263/1847); Supplément 1695 fol. 60v sqq. (Blochet 2197. 19th century); Supplément 1697 fol.81v sqq. (Blochet 2199. 19th century); Supplément 1698 fol. 95r sqq. (Blochet 2200. 19th century); Supplément 1700 fol. 38v sqq. (Blochet 2201. 19th century); Supplément 1701 fol. 31r sqq. (Blochet 2202, with erroneous call-number. 19th century. Incomplete); Supplément 1702 fol. 157v sqq. (Blochet 2203. 19th century); Supplément 1736 fol. 134v sqq. (Blochet 2204. 19th century?); 2104; Arabe 2315 fol. 30v–60; Suppl. turc 381/i; Supplément turc 1408 fol. 146 sqq.; Göttingen Divshali/Luft 58 (Dated [1] 189/1775); Divshali/Luft 60 (Dated 1258/1842–3); Divshali/Luft 59; Berlin Petermann ii Nachtr. 8 (Pertsch 688/6. Dated Rajab 981/1573); Ms. or. quar. 182 (Pertsch 749); Ms. or. quar. 188 (Pertsch 750); Ms. or. quar. 25 (Pertsch 751); Gotha 50; Munich 178 Quatr. (Aumer 30. Dated 1077/1666–7); 219 Quatr. (Aumer 31. Dated 1185/1771–2); Cim. 87 (Aumer 28); Uppsala Tornberg clx; Tornberg clxi; Bratislava 570 (16th century?); 571; 572 (17th century?); Vienna Flügel 517/2; Flügel 1935; Flügel 1936; Krafft clxxxix; Leningrad Acad. B 149 (Index 433. Dated 964/1556–7); Acad. C 1166 fol. 257b–285b (Index 3463. Ms. dated 1115/1703–4); Dorn ccclv (Dated 1133/1720–1); Dorn ccclvi (Dated 1234/1818–9); Dorn ccclvii; and many more copies (see Acad. Index 429–461); Konya Mevlâna Müzesi 1460/3 (Oriens xiiixiv, p. 229. Ms. dated 867/1462–3); Istanbul Topkapı, Koğuşlar 949 (Karatay 493. Copied by Nūrī b. Ḥusain Shabāngāh Shaikhī and dated Muḥarram 877/1472); Halet 234/10 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Üniversite fy 593/4 (Ateş 135. Dated 890/1485); Nuruosmaniye 5008/2 (Ateş 136. Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 1051/1642); Topkapı, Revan 2021/iv (Karatay 924. Dated 1057/1647); Üniversite fy 213–214/17. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 1559 (Karatay 485. Dated 1078/1667–8); Üniversite fy 378 (olim Rıza Paşa 3069. Ateş 137. Dated 1102/1690–1); Topkapı, Emanet Hazinesi 1333 (Karatay 489. Dated 1114/1702–3); Topkapı, Revan 420 (Karatay 487. Dated 1128/1771); Topkapı, Hazine 719 (Karatay 490. Dated 1128/1716); Topkapı, Emanet Hazinesi 1320 (Karatay 491. Dated 1151/1738–9); Üniversite fy 586 (olim Rıza Paşa 3488. Ateş 138. Dated 3 Ṣafar 1185/1771); Üniversite fy 67 (Ateş 139. 18th century?); Nuruosmaniye 4993 (Ateş 140. 18th century?); Topkapı, Revan 421 (Karatay 488. 18th century?); Üniversite fy 95 (Ateş 141. Dated 1220/1805–4); Topkapı, Bağdat 98 (Karatay 486); Topkapı, Koğuşlar 1021 (Karatay 492); Dushanbe Acad. ii 409–413; Bankipore Suppt. i 1838 in marg. (Ms. dated 15 Dhū l-ḥijjah 910/1505); i 46/xii (17th century?); Rampore Saulat 51–52 (recent); Calcutta Ivanow 477/10 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow 480/2 (Dated 1087/1676–7); Ivanow Curzon 204/13 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Ivanow 481 (18th century?); Būhār 303 (19th century?); Princeton 422 (Modern).

Editions: London 1809 (Pendeh-i-Attar, ed. J.H. Hindley); Paris 1819 (Pend-namèh, ou Le livre des conseils …, traduit et publié par M. le Bon Silvestre de Sacy); Constantinople 1251/1835; 1257/1841; 1260/1844; 1266/1849–50; 1267/1850; 1291/1874–5; (See also translations: Turkish); Bulaq 1243/1827–8; 1244/1828–9; 1253/1837–8; 1280/1863; Kazan 1845; Bombay 1277/1860; Lucknow 1264/1848 (30 p. according to Sprenger p. 356); 1872 (in the ‘Kullīyāt’); Tehran 1290/1873; Lahore [ca. 1870]; 1294/1877; 1887; 1888; 1892 (with a commentary); Bombay 1887; Cawnpore 1290/1873; 1888; and evidently many others.

Translations: (Turkish verse) by Emrī of Adrianople (d. 988/1580) dedicated to Pādshāh Bāyazīd b. Sulaymān (i) Khān. Cf. Gibb, History of Ottoman poetry iii pp. 10–11 and Ritter, Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 237–8. Mss. in Europe: London Harleian 5447 ii (Rieu p. 580. 17th century?); Add. 6960 i (Rieu p. 580. 19th century copy of the preceding); Cambridge Browne Coll. W.9 (Dated 1035/1625–6); Vienna Flügel 1937.

Editions: Constantinople 1229/1814, 1266/1849–50, 1280/1863–4, 1282/1865–6, (all with the Persian text).

Also in Turkish verse by Maqālī, dedicated to the same Sultan. Mss.: Leipzig Fleischer cccvi fol. 25v–44v. A fragment of one or the other of these translations is found in Vienna Krafft cxci.

(French): see editions. An older French translation by Romain de Paris, dated 1725, is contained in Munich 20 Quatr. (Aumer 29. Autograph).

(Arabic): The Persian text was published with a interlinear translation by Aḥmad Rashīd Khalwatī in Alexandria 1289/1872.

(German): Pendnâmeh, tr. G.H.F. Nesselmann, Königsberg 1871.

(English): Pund Nameh, tr. Erachsha F. Karani and Mahumed Gows Abdul Kadir Aga, Bombay 1912.

(Swedish): Pand-Nâmah, tr. E. Hermelin, with a reprint of Silvestre’s text and a transliteration, Stockholm 1929.

Commentaries:

(a) Saʿādat-nāmah by Shemʿī, in Turkish, incorporating (at least part of) the Persian text and a Turkish translation. He also wrote commentaries on Makhzan al-asrār, Manṭiq al-tair, Mathnawī i maʿnawī, Gulistān, Bōstān, Tuḥfat al-aḥrār, Subḥat al-abrār, Bahāristān, and the dīwāns of Ḥāfiẓ and Shāhī.81 Mss. are common in Turkey (see Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 232–3). Those in European libraries include: Manchester Lindesiana 889 (Dated 1077/1666–7); London Sloane 3588 ii (Rieu p. 580. Dated Dhū l-ḥijjah 1083/1673); Cambridge Dd. 11. 16. (Browne Cat. ccxx. Dated 5 Ṣafar 1028/1619); Glasgow T.7.10 (Weir p. 607 no. 22. Dated 1030/1620–1); Paris Anciens fonds 329 (Blochet 1319/Richard. 17th century?); Supplément turc 341, 383, 578, 579, 695; Bologna Bibl. Universitaria (Piemontese 8–14: several copies); Hamburg Orient. 264 fol. lv-70r (Brockelmann 285. Ms. has an owner’s note dated 1051/1641–2); Wiesbaden (M. Götz, Türkische Handschriften ii, 1968, no. 632–3); Leipzig Fleischer xxix/2 (Dated Ṣafar 1078/1667); Fleischer cccvii/1; Berlin Ms. or. oct. 127 (Pertsch 752. Has a note dated 1082/1671–2); Vienna Flügel 1938 (Dated 1128/1716); Leningrad Dorn ccclviii.

(b) Mufīd, a commentary, also in Turkish, by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī written at the time of Meḥmet iv (1058/1648 to 1099/1687). Mss.: See Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 233–4.

(c) By Shuʿūrī, again in Turkish. Ms.: Istanbul Darülmesnevi 185 (Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 234–5. Autograph dated Rabīʿ i 1083/1672).

(d) By Ismāʿīl Ḥaqqī (1063/1653 to 1137/1724–5). Mss.: See Oriens xiiixiv, p. 235. Also Manchester Lindesiana 165 (Cat. p. 244. Dated 1186/1772–3).

Editions: Constantinople 1250/1834–5; 1287/1870.

(e) Barg i darwīshān (in Turkish) by Muṣṭafā Rafīʿā, written in 1143/1730–1 for Mīr Iskandar, the son of the Ottoman governor in Cairo. Ms.: Vienna Krafft cxc (Autograph?)

(f) By Ḥāfiẓ Meḥmed Murād (d. 1264/1848). See Oriens xiiixiv, p. 236. Editions: Constantinople 1252/1836–7; 1260/1844; 1286/1869–70.

For two further anonymous commentaries see Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 236–7.

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Rumūz al-ʿāshiqīn. Ms.: Istanbul Üniversite fy 213–214/21. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650).
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Sī faṣl. Mss.: London Or. 8363 (Meredith-Owens p. 69. Dated 1298/1881); Tehran (2 modern Mss. listed by Munz.). Cf. Munz. iv 31286–8.

Edition: Tehran 1354/1935–6.

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Ushtur-nāmah or Shutur-nāmah (inc. ibtidā bar nām i ḥaiy i lā-yazāl * ṣāniʿ i ashyā u ibdāʿ u jalāl with variants) contains a rather striking story in which a puppeteer is used as a symbol for the divinity. The figure of Ḥallāj plays a major part in it. See above, pp. 1634.

Mss.: Manchester Lindesiana 797d (16th century?); Oxford Elliot 207/15 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/13 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/5 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/7 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1034/1 (Ms. copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and completed 1 Dhū l-qaʿdah 812/1410); Add. 7736/i (Rieu pp. 578–9. Dated Shaʿbān 968/1532); Or. 7987 (Meredith-Owens p. 68, where the title is quoted as ‘Astarnāmeh’. 17th–18th century?); i.o. 1031/1; i.o. 1033/12; Cambridge Or. 1698/2 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Paris Supplément 1795/iii (Blochet 1292. Dated Shawwāl 820/1417); Supplément 811 fol. 331v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Leyden 310(2) (Cat. ii dclii. Dated 786/1384); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Dated 5 Dhū l-qaʿdah 821/1418); Rome Vatican Pers. 121/i (Rossi p. 128. 19th century?); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 25a–47b (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Acad. A 79 fol. 1b–14b (Index 145. Dated 1233/1817–8); Acad. C 1165 fol. 1a–128b (Index 3462. Apparently two different versions); Istanbul Atıf Efendi 2241/14 (Oriens xi pp. 31–33. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 828/1425); Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi 1992/5 (olim Nuruosmaniye 3786. Oriens xi pp. 12–3. From the library of Shāh-rukh, d. 850/1447. Pictures); Halet 234/3 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/1 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Ms. dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Üniversite fy 450/1 (olim Rıza Paşa 448. Ateş 149. Dated Ramaḍān 945/1539); Üniversite fy 213–214/15. (Ateş 122; Oriens xi pp. 20–4. Ms. completed 1060/1650); Cairo 9252/2 adab fārisī (Oriens xi p. 14. Ms. dated 26 Rajab 877/1472); Medinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 143 adab fārisī (Nuskhah-hā v pp. 571–2. Ms. dated Jumādā ii 844/1440); Tehran Aṣghar Mahdawī 8/3 (Nuskhah-hā ii pp. 94–5. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 809/1407); Mashhad Riḍawī vii 769/6 (Has a note dated 1052/1642–3); Tashkent Acad. ii 855/5 (Dated 6 Jumādā i 827/1424); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 4 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Bankipore i 46/xi (17th century?); i 47/iii (Dated 27 Ṣafar 1123/1711); Calcutta Ivanow Curzon 204/8 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Ivanow 485 (Dated 1180/1766–7). Cf. Munz. iv 27505–21.

Edition: Tehran n.d (ed. M. Muḥaqqiq. Part i, with a preface dated 1339sh./1960. More published?).

Epitome: Istanbul Üniversite fy 538/6 (Ateş 119. Ms. dated 826/1423).

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Waṣīyat-nāmah (inc. ai, ba nām-at kār-hā rā iftitāḥ * nēst bē nām i tu dar amr ē falāḥ).

Mss.: Oxford Elliot 207/16 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Elliot 208/6 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); London i.o. 1032/3 (Dated 1025/1616).

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Waṣlat-nāmah (inc.: ibtidā auwal ba-nām i kirdigār * khāliq i haft u shash u panj u chahār) is the work of a certain Buhlūl according to the concluding verses in some of the copies (including the Basel manuscript and Calcutta Curzon 206; the verses are quoted by Sprenger and Ivanow). In others the lines mentioning this name have been excised.

Mss.: Dublin Beatty 321/i (Ms. copied by ʿAlī b. Muḥammad and dated Ṣafar 821/1418); Beatty 153 fol. 528b sqq. (Ms. dated 12 Rabīʿ ii 881/1476); Oxford Pers. d. 71 fol. 137b–191b in marg. (Beeston 2564. Ms. completed 16 Ramaḍān 874/1470); Ouseley 371/5 (Ethé 626. 16th century?); Elliot 207/7 (Ethé 622. Contains a seal dated 1020/1611–2); Ouseley 374/2 (Ethé 623. Ms. dated 23 Jumādā i 1027/1618); Elliot 209/17 (Ethé 624. Ms. dated 4 Dhū l-ḥijjah 1078/1668); Elliot 204/4 (Ethé 625); London i.o. 1034/6 (Copied by Muḥammad Ḥājjī b. Bābā Ḥājjī and dated 1 Dhū l-qaʿdah 812/1410); Or. 2747/vi (Rieu Suppt. 236. Ms. dated 22 Dhū l-ḥijjah 889/1485); Add. 7736/ii (Rieu p. 579. Dated Shaʿbān 968/1532); Or. 5415 fol. 54b–65b (Meredith-Owens p. 90. 16th–17th century?); i.o. 1031/10; i.o. 1033/14; Cambridge Or. 1698/4 (2nd Suppt. 443. Ms. dated 829/1425–6); Or. 256/2 (Browne Suppt. 1355. Recent copy of one of the Calcutta Mss.); Paris Supplément 811 fol. 5449v sqq. (Blochet 1291. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 1013/1605); Supplément 654 (Blochet 1293. Dated Ramaḍān 1110/1699); Basel Tschudi Collection (Oriens xi p. 10. Ms. completed in Muḥarram 828/1424); Rome Vatican Pers. 121/ii (Rossi p. 128. 19th century?); Leningrad Acad. D 436 fol. 241b–254b (Index 3464. Ms. dated 1001/1592–3); Konya Mevlâna Mūzesi 1698/2 (Oriens xi p. 19. Ms. dated Rabīʿ i 893/1488); Istanbul Nuruosmaniye 4198/2 (Ateş 118. Ms. dated 825/1422); Topkapı, Ahmet iii 3059/1 (Karatay 484; Oriens xi pp. 11–2. Ms. dated 27 Shawwāl 841/1438); Halet 234/13 (Oriens xi pp. 14–7. Ms. dated 889/1484); Ayasofya 1659/4 (Oriens xi pp. 17–9. Dated 26 Rabīʿ ii 890/1485); Fatih 4052/9 (Ritter-Reinert pp. 129–30; Oriens xi pp. 24–5. 16th century?); Cairo 139 mīm adab fārisī (Ṭirāzī 1835/5. Dated 20 Muḥarram 858/1454); Madinah ʿĀrif Ḥikmat 30 (Nuskhah-hā v p. 484. Ms. dated 859/1455); Hamadan Iʿtimād al-daulah (Nuskhah-hā v p. 345. Ms. dated 28 Shawwāl 831/1428); Lahore Univ. ii/1 pp. 175–9 (No. 14 of a Ms. dated 857/1453); Luck-now Sprenger 134 and 157; Bankipore i 47/vii (Ms. contains dates in 1123/1711 and 1133/1720); Calcutta Ivanow 477/9 (Ms. dated 1006/1597–8); Ivanow Curzon 206 (=Sprenger 157. Dated Ramaḍān 1066/1656 and attributed to ‘Shaikh al-shuyūkh Shaikh Buhlūl’); Ivanow Curzon 204/12 (Ms. contains seals dated 1169/1755–6); Būhār 299/iii (Dated 1203/1788–9); Ivanow 1st Suppt. 797 (Dated 12 Jumādā ii 1259/1843). Cf. Munz. iv 36272–95.

Epitome: Ms. Istanbul Nuruosmaniye 4904/30 (Ateş 150. Dated 840/1436–7).

Literature: ʿAufī ii pp. 337–9; Shams p. 285; Ibn al-Fuwaṭī, al-Juzʾ al-rābiʿ min talkhīṣ majmaʿ al-ādāb fī muʿjam al-alqāb, ed. M. Jawād, Damascus 1962–7, no. 2554 (also quoted by Ritter, Oriens xi, p. 5); Mustaufī pp. 661–2, 740; Jājarmī ii pp. 954–6, and passim in the section devoted to rubāʿīyāt, Daulat-shāh pp. 187–92; Rāzī ii pp. 226–40 (no. 733); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i pp. 367–8; id., Riyāḍ pp. 110–8.

Modern studies: Apart from the fundamental works by Ritter and Nafīsī (above p. 162) see for example: Qazwīnī’s introduction to Part I of the Tadhkiratu ’l-awliyáofFarídu’ddín ʿAṭṭár editedby R.A. Nicholson, London/Leyden 1905; L. Massignon, ‘L’oeuvre hallagienne d’ʿAṭṭār’, Revue des études islamiques 1941–6, pp. 117–44; ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ʿAzzām, al-Taṣawwuf wa Farīd al-dīn al-ʿAṭṭār, Cairo 1945; F. Meier, ‘Der Geistmensch bei dem persischen Dichter ʿAṭṭār’ Eranos-Jahrbuch xiii, 1945, p. 286 sqq.; G. Spieß, Maḥmūd von Ġazna bei Farīdu’d-dīn ʿAṭṭār, Basel 1959; Badīʿ al-zamān Furūzānfar, Sharḥ i aḥwāl wa naqd wa taḥlīl i āthār i Shaikh Farīd al-dīn Muḥamad i ʿAṭṭār i Nīshābūrī, Tehran 1339–40sh./1960-l; W. Lentz, ‘Aṭṭār als Allegoriker. Bemerkungen zu Ritter’s “Meer der Seele”’, Der Islam xxxv, 1960, pp. 52–96; Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 858–71; Khaiyām-pūr p. 366; J.A. Boyle, ‘Popular literature and folklore in ʿAṭṭār’s mathnavīs’, in Colloquio italo-iraniano sul poeta mistico Fariduddin ʿAṭṭār, Rome 1987 pp. 57–70 (volume contains also articles by Nasr, Scarcia, Tafazzoli and Bausani); R. Ashraf-zādah, Farhang i nawādir i lughāt u tarkībāt u taʿbīrāt i āthār i ʿAṭṭār i Nīshābūrī, Mashhad 1367sh./1988, 2nd ed. 1370sh./1991; J.T.P. de Bruijn, ‘The preaching poet: three homiletic poems by Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār’, Edebiyât ix, 1998, pp. 85–100; ei2 s.v. ‘ʿAṭṭār’ (H. Ritter); EIr s.v. ‘ʿAṭṭār’ (B. Reinert).

§ 177. Badīʿ al-dīn Turkō al-Sijzī82 is included in ʿAufī’s chapter on the poets of Khurāsān after the time of Sanjar (i.e. after 552/1157), where he follows two other poets from Sīstān, Farīd al-dīn and Shams al-dīn (below, nos. 190, 291). ʿAufī quotes a qiṭʿah in which the poet defends his decision to remain unmarried, and a number of rubāʿīyāt (one of them of a decidedly ‘Khaiyamic’ flavour). Saif Harawī quotes four poems by presumably the same author, cited as ‘Badīʿ’ and as ‘Badīʿ Turkōy (or Turkūʾī)’. Rāzī, otherwise dependent on ʿAufī, adds a qaṣīdah, the dedicatee of which is not named.

Some years ago Nazir Ahmad discovered three substantial odes by Badīʿ al-dīn in the Bankipore manuscript of appendix to Taqī’s Khulāṣat al-ashʿār and published some extracts from them. The first addresses a ruler of Makrān by the name of Tāj al-dīn Abū l-Makārim. The second is dedicated to a ruler in Jand, in Transoxania, by the name of ʿImād al-dīn Tegīn. The third addresses Yamīn al-daulah wa l-dīn Bahrāmshāh, evidently the ruler of his native Sīstān from 610/1213 to 618/1221.83

Hidāyat says that ‘some’ give him the nisbah Tabrīzī; in other words, Hidāyat confused him with the 10th/16th-century poet Badīʿī Tabrīzī; the fragment that he attributes to our poet beginning shāhanshāh-ē kih dāʾim … is in fact quoted by Ādhar (i pp. 111–2) as the work of Badīʿī Tabrīzī.

ʿAufī ii pp. 349–51; Saif Harawī pp. 458–9, 459–60 (thrice); Rāzī i pp. 297–9 (no. 309); Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 168; Khaiyām-pūr p. 81 (Badīʿ i Sīstānī); Nazir Ahmad’s English introduction to his edition of the dīwān of Sirājī Khurāsānī,84 Aligarh 1972, pp. 34–45 (with references to unpublished tadhkirahs).

§ 178. Bārānī is cited as the author of three verses in lf ed. Iqbāl pp. 16, 49, 394 (Ms. nūn in marg.).

§ 179. The first three verses of a poem by one Dailamī are quoted by Shams i Qais. A longer version of the same is quoted by Ādhar, who includes its author among the the poets of Qazwīn, and by Hidāyat.

Shams p. 224; Ādhar iii p. 1166; Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 218; Khaiyām-pūr p. 214.

§ 180. Three verses are ascribed to a certain Ḍamīrī in lf ed. Iqbāl pp. 162, 395, 396 (Ms. nūn in marg.).

ln s.v. ‘Ḍamīrī’ p. 68; Khaiyām-pūr p. 346.

§ 181. Saʿd al-dīn Masʿūd Daulat-yār was a poet in Bukhārā at the end of the 6th/12th and beginning of the 7th/l3th century. ʿAufī, who says that his father was a converted Zoroastrian, quotes, among other things, a rubāʿī which he composed ‘at the time when i (ʿAufī) was in the service of Tāj al-dīn Ṣadr al-sharīʿah’ (i.e. al-Ṣadr al-kabīr ʿUmar ii b. Masʿūd, 593/1196–7 to before 603/1206). ʿAufī refers also to an elegy that he had composed for the predecessor of that worthy, al-Ṣadr al-saʿīd, and which some of the wits of Bukhārā saw as a plagiarism of verses by ‘Sirājī’ (evidently one of the two poets of that name quoted earlier in ʿAufī’s book).

ʿAufī i p. 178, ii pp. 385, 387–8; Rāzī iii p. 424 (no. 1482); Khaiyām-pūr p. 213.

§ 182. Dībājī Samarqandī was, according to Hidāyat, a contemporary of Qaṭrān and Asadī. Hidāyat quotes an ode addressing ‘Mīr i fāḍil Faḍlūn’, evidently either Qaṭrān’s patron or one of the later Shaddādids of the same name. lf ed. Iqbāl p. 161 and 397 (Ms. nūn in marg.) quotes two different variants of one verse by Dībājī to illustrate two place-names in Georgia.

Hidāyat, Majmaʿ i p. 218; Khaiyām-pūr p. 213.

next chapter: Part 2

Notes

^ Back to text1. Though these two authorities are virtually contemporaries, ʿAufī’s emigration to India meant that he was less well in touch with the most recent developments of poetry in Persia. Thus, while Shams knows both Jamāl al-dīn and his son Kamāl al-dīn, ʿAufī is aware only of the former. The only other major figures known to Shams, but ignored by ʿAufī, are Falakī and Qamar. The reader will notice that in this chapter, as in the previous one, the amateur poets quoted in the first half of ʿAufī’s book have for the most part been omitted.

^ Back to text2. See his article in Rāh-nimā i kitāb xv, 1351sh./1973, pp. 568–82, with a list of the poets quoted.

^ Back to text3. Ed. O. Löfgren, Leyden 1951–4. For the date and authorship of this work see G.R. Smith, ‘Ibn al-Mujāwir’s 7th/13th century guide to Arabia: the eastern connection’, Occasional papers of the school of Abbasid studies iii, 1990, pp. 71–88. The poets relevant to this chapter quoted by Ibn al-Mujāwir are Ḥasan Ghaznawī (p. 301, anonymously), Ḥusām Kirmānī (p. 84; see below no. 205), Mukhtārī (p. 178, wrongly attributed; see no. 249), Ṣābir (p. 197), Sanāʾī (p. 265: ‘al-shāʿir al-Ghaznawī’), Shāh Bū Rajā (p. 84; see no. 286), Ẓahīr Fāryābī (p. 246: ‘al-Ẓahīrī’). He also quotes four of his own Persian verses (pp. 84, 235), two from Gurgānī’s Wīs u Rāmīn (pp. 135, 255, both anonymously), one by Rōzbih Nukatī (p. 94, name misspelt in the Mss.; this verse supplements those mentioned above, § 135) and one that remains unidentified (p. 53).

^ Back to text4. As he is called by Samʿānī. ʿAufī calls him al-Imām al-hammām Badīʿ al-zamān Tāj al-afāḍil ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ al-Jabalī al-Adīb; Ibn al-Fuwaṭī has Farīd al-dīn Badīʿ al-zamān Abū l-Faḍāʾil ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ b. ʿAbd al-Jāmiʿ al-Jabalī al-Harawī al-Adīb. I can see no reason to doubt that the religious scholar mentioned by Samʿānī and by Ibn al-Fuwaṭī is the same person as the poet quoted by ʿAufī.

^ Back to text5. rawā la-nā ʿan Abī ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-ʿUmairī bi Harāt wa samiʿtu shaiʾan min shiʿri-hi bi Marw. Similarly Ibn al-Fuwaṭī, who in turn quotes Samʿānī’s Kitāb al-mudhaiyal, evidently Samʿānī’s Mudhaiyil taʾrīkh Baghdād. For an extract from this book see Leyden Arab. Cat. ii pp. 201–2; Brockelmann Suppt. i p. 565 (title cited as ʿDhail …’).

^ Back to text6. This Ms. was unfortunately not used by Ṣafā in preparing his edition.

^ Back to text7. P. 700 of his edition of the dīwān.

^ Back to text8. Hidāyat gives him the ‘name’, or rather the title, Niẓām al-dīn.

^ Back to text9. For this work see below, no. 224.

^ Back to text10. Bad variant: Ērān.

^ Back to text11. The verses quoted by Daulat-shah make every impression of having been elaborated from those given by Mustaufī. Thus Daulat-shāh’s last verse bi-guftam bi-guftam na-guftam na-guftam * bi-gādam bi-gādam na-gādam na-gādam (‘if I said it, I said it, if I didn’t, I didn’t; if I … him, I did it, if I didn’t, I didn’t’), is evidently someone’s improvement on the last verse of Mustaufī’s version: ba jāy i yak-ē rah du ṣad bār guftam * na-gādam na-gādam na-gādam na-gādam (‘Not once, but two hundred times I said: I did not … him, I did not, I did not, I did not’).

^ Back to text12. Earlier estimates (by Hādī Ḥasan and Minorsky) for the end of his reign need to be revised following the publication by Kouymjian of a coin of Manūchihr’s dated fī sanat kham[s wa khamsīn wa khams-miʾah]; the restoration of the date 555/1160 is assured by the fact that this coin names the caliph al-Mustanjid (555/1160 to 566/1170) and the (Seljuq) sultan Sulaimān (who reigned only from Rabīʿ ii 555/1160 to Rabīʿ i or ii 556/1161). Khāqānī, in his elegy on the death of Manūchihr (dīwān, ed. Sajjādī p. 530, without substantial variants), speaks of his ‘thirty-year reign’ (sī-sālah mulk u milk i jahān). According to the Georgian Chronicle Manūchihr’s father, Farēdūn (Ap‘ridun) ii, was killed during a battle with the ruler of Darband in November of the Georgian year 340 (ah 514, ad 1120). But if Manūchihr really succeeded his father in 514 and did not die until after 555, then he must have ruled for at least 41 lunar years. Khāqānī’s ‘thirty years’ could conceivably mean ‘thirty-odd years’, but hardly ‘forty-one’. In the light of this contemporary evidence we must conclude either that the date given by the Georgian source for the death of Farēdūn is wrong, or else that Manūchihr did not ascend the throne until some years after his father’s death. Manūchihr certainly died before 566/1170 (the last year of the caliphate of al-Mustanjid, whose name still occurs on coins of Manūchihr’s successor Akhsatān). Thus he died between 555/1160 and 566/1170 and began ruling fewer than 40 years before this, i.e. not before 516/1122. See: M. Brosset, Histoire de la Géorgie i (translation of the Georgian chronicle), St. Petersburg 1849, p. 364; Hādī Ḥasan, Falakī-i-Shirwānī pp. 11–12, 22–3; id., Researches in Persian literature, Hyderabad 1958, p. 6; V. Minorsky, A history of Sharvān and Darband, Cambridge 1958, pp. 135–6; D.K. Kouymjian, ‘A unique coin of the Shirvānshāh Minūchihr ii dated A.H. 555/1160 A.D.’, in Near Eastern numismatics, iconography, epigraphy and history. Studies in honor of George C. Miles, Beyrouth 1974, pp. 339–46; id., A numismatic history of Southeastern Caucasia and Adharbayjān based on Islamic coinage of the 5th/11th to the 7th/13th centuries (Microfilm), Ann Arbor 1969, pp. 165–73.

^ Back to text13. The poem mentions the dedicatee’s laqab ʿAlāʾ al-dīn, his name Muḥammad, as well as his father’s name Tekish. Following his defeat of the Qara Khiṭāy in 607/1210, Muḥammad assumed the title ‘Iskandar al-thānī’.

^ Back to text14. In the edition ‘Saiyid ʿAlī’, but Ethé quotes the name as ‘Saiyid Abū ʿAlī’, as in ʿAufī.

^ Back to text15. The poet’s name is misspelt in the edition.

^ Back to text16. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-taʾrīkh, ed. Tornberg, x pp. 201–2.

^ Back to text17. 2nd edition (see above, p. 129), p. 497, vs. 147–62.

^ Back to text18. For whom see ʿAufī i pp. 164–9; Rāzī iii pp. 388–92 (no. 1459); Ṣafā, Tārīkh ii pp. 764–7; Khaiyām-pūr p. 296.

^ Back to text19. Thus ʿAufī. Hidāyat calls him Shams al-dīn ʿAjībī Jurjānī.

^ Back to text20. The rasm ʿmʿq occurs in all the sources and the final syllable -aq is confirmed notably by a verse of Anwarī’s (dīwān, ed. Mudarris i Riḍawī, i p. 273, 6), where it occurs in the rhyme. It has no meaning in Persian or Arabic and has not been explained. Ṣafā’s suggestion that ʿAmʿaq might be an error for ʿAqʿaq, ‘magpie’, would require the most implausible assumption that the latter perfectly common word was replaced in various independent traditions by one and the same meaningless form. If, however, one assumes that the letters are correct, but the pointing possibly wrong, one might suggest that *Ghamghaq could represent Turkish qamğaq, ‘salt-wort’, for which see G. Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford 1972, p. 627b.

^ Back to text21. Nafīsī, pp. 157–62. The dedication to ‘Jamāl i mulk, khāqān i muʿaẓẓamMalik Khiḍr’ is on p. 159.

^ Back to text22. Nafīsī, pp. 137–9, invokes, despite its superscription, ‘Jamāl i mulk, khāqān i muʿaẓẓam’, which seems to be ʿAmʿaq’s name for Khiḍr (see the previous note).

^ Back to text23. Nafīsī pp. 188–9.

^ Back to text24. For this (probably fictitious) work see below, p. 248 (Khatūnī).

^ Back to text25. al-Kāmil fī l-taʾrīkh, ed. Tornberg, x p. 468.

^ Back to text26. Only this much of his name is certain. His contemporary Ẓahīrī Samarqandī, in his unpublished Aghrāḍ al-siyāsah, calls him Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (thus according to Ateş, Islâm Ansiklopedisi, s.v. ‘Enveri’ p. 278); the apparently contemporaneous author of the introduction in some copies of the dīwān (e.g. London Or. 3486/i) has ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāq, while ʿAufī has Auḥad al-dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad. That his grandfather was indeed named Isḥāq is confirmed by the verse in his dīwān, ed. Mudarris i Riḍawī p. 302 ult. The ʿAlī b. Isḥāq al-Abīwardī who supposedly copied the Tabrīz Ms. of the dīwān of Qaṭrān in 529/1134 (see above, p. 124) is in any case certainly not Anwarī, though this could possibly be the name of his father.

^ Back to text27. Dīwān pp. 201–5.

^ Back to text28. Dīwān p. 415, i. 7: sāl bar pānṣad u sī u sih zi tārīkh i ʿajam.

^ Back to text29. His Ms. ‘t’. Wrongly described in volume i, introduction, p. 18, as a Paris manuscript, but correctly identified in volume ii, introduction pp. 146–7.

^ Back to text30. According to Nasim, p. 346 no. 2, it is dated 1054/1644.

^ Back to text31. Shādī-ābād is another name for Māndū, capital of the kingdom of Mālwah (Sto.). For his commentary on the qaṣāʾid of Khāqānī see below, no. 224.

^ Back to text32. As he calls himself in Chahār maqālah p. 3.

^ Back to text33. Taqī, apud Sprenger p. 16 no. 30. The same date is given also by Ādhar.

^ Back to text34. Thus ʿAufī. al-Kātib calls him ʿAṭāʾ b. Yaʿqūb b. Mālik al-Ghaznawī.

^ Back to text35. Hidāyat has 471/1078–9; i.e. in his copy of ʿAufī he read sabʿīn instead of tisʿīn. The two words are of course very similar in Arabic script.

^ Back to text36. Thus (with further honorifics) in the India Office manuscript (see Humāyūn-Farrukh’s introduction p. xxxiii n. 1). Rāwandī and ʿAufī call him merely Athīr Akhsīkatī.

^ Back to text37. Thus Shams p. 273.

^ Back to text38. Akhsīkath (thus pointed and vocalised in Yāqūt, Buldān i p. 162) is evidently an Arabicised form for the local name, Akhshīkath (or however the first vowel is to be read); cf. (Manichaean) Sogdian ʾxšy-, ‘to rule’, and (Christian) Sogdian knθ and kθ, ‘town’.

^ Back to text39. Dīwān p. 68.

^ Back to text40. Thus in Zakarīyāʾ al-Qazwīnī, Āthār al-bilād, ed. Wüstenfeld, Göttingen 1848, p. 228: al-Jibāl nāḥiyah mashhūrah yuqāl la-hā Quhistān.

^ Back to text41. Dīwān p. 200.

^ Back to text42. Pp. 297–8.

^ Back to text43. Dīwān p. 300. For this Jamāl al-dīn and the other members of the Khujandī family see in detail below, no. 227 (ad Khujandī).

^ Back to text44. Taqī, apud Sprenger p. 16 no. 27.

^ Back to text45. Sprenger p. 346.

^ Back to text46. For this and the older Mashhad Ms. see below, no. 247 (Muʿizzī).

^ Back to text47. For ʿAṭṭār’s Tadhkirat al-auliyāʾ (in prose) see pl i § 1250.

^ Back to text48. The personal name Saʿīd does not seem to occur in any other source and results perhaps from the misunderstanding of a report which spoke of the ‘late’ (saʿīd) ʿAṭṭār. In the Tehran (Gulistān) Ms. of ʿAṭṭār’s collected works, copied in 731/1331 (less than a decade after the death of Ibn al-Fuwaṭī) the poet is called Farīd al-daulah ⟨wa⟩ al-dīn Muḥammad al-ʿAṭṭār al-Nishābūrī.

^ Back to text49. M. Shērānī, ‘Taṣnīfāt i shaikh Farīdu l-dīn ʿAṭṭār’, in Urdū (Aurangabad) vii, 1927, pp. 1–97. This article (in the Urdu language) was summarised in English by ʿAbd al-Qādir Sarfarāz in the Bombay University catalogue pp. 60–4.

^ Back to text50. S. Nafīsī, Just-u-jū dar aḥwāl wa āthār i Farīdu l-dīn ʿAṭṭār i Nīshābūrī, Tehran 1320sh./1942. See also the note in his edition of ʿAufī pp. 734–45.

^ Back to text51. See H. Ritter, ‘Philologika X: Farīdaddīn ʿAṭṭār I’, Der Islam xxv, 1939, pp. 134–73; ‘Philologika XIV: Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār II’, Oriens xi, 1958, pp. 1–76; ‘Philologika XV: Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār III. Der Dīwān (Mit Vergleich einiger Verse von Sanāʾī und Ḥāfiẓ)’, Oriens xii, 1959, pp. 1–88; ‘Philologika XVI: Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār IV. Muxtārnāme. Pandnāme’, Oriens xiiixiv, 1961, pp. 194–239 and his magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele. Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (quoted as ‘Ritter, Meer’), Leyden 1955. See also his article ‘ʿAṭṭār’ in ei2.

^ Back to text52. See Ritter, Der Islam 25, pp. 152–5.

^ Back to text53. Id. pp. 146–52. Ritter distinguishes two prefaces (both found in all the Mss. consulted by him): one belonging to the original version of the work and a second referring specifically to the circumstances of the abridgment. The difficulty here is that the supposed first preface mentions, among other poems, the Mukhtār-nāmah, while the preface to the Mukhtār-nāmah mentions, as we have seen, the Khusrau-nāmah. If the two parts of the preface really belong to separate versions (which I think is not certain) it is evident that in revising the poem the author made some changes in the original preface, notably adding the reference to the Mukhtār-nāmah.

^ Back to text54. Oriens xi pp. 7–8.

^ Back to text55. The Konya Ms. of Jauhar al-dhāt is dated 735/1335 (if correctly read). The Leyden Ms. of Ushtur-nāmah is dated 786/1384.

^ Back to text56. See Muhaqqiq’s edition p. 42.

^ Back to text57. Because of the large number of available copies I have aimed at some degree of completeness only for Mss. copied down to about the end of the 9th/15th century.

^ Back to text58. See Ritter, Der Islam xxv pp. 172–3; id., Oriens xi, pp. 46–7; Munz. iv 33335–55.

^ Back to text59. See Ritter, Oriens xi, pp. 60–2; Munz. iv 27285–336; Munz. Pak. vii(1) pp. 165–8.

^ Back to text60. For Dorn cccliv, see below p. 186 (Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib).

^ Back to text61. The dates of the two Konya Mss. were read by Ateş as 680 and 693 respectively, but should be read as 656 and 676 according to R. Sellheim, Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte ii (= Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland, Band xvii/2, Reihe A), Wiesbaden/Stuttgart 1987, p. 125.

^ Back to text62. London Add. 16,788 gives the year 570/1174–5, while Or. 4151 and Berlin Ms. or. oct. 270 make it 583/1187–8.

^ Back to text63. The Risālat al-ṭair (or ṭuyūr) in Persian prose has been published for the first time, and the Arabic prose version republished, in Majmūʿah i āthār i fārsī i Aḥmad i Ghazzālī, ed. Aḥmad Mujāhid, Tehran 1370sh./1991–2, pp. 77–92 of the second series of pages. The editor thinks that the Persian risālah is ‘certainly’ by Aḥmad Ghaz(z)ālī, the Arabic ‘probably’ by his brother Muḥammad. See also, with different conclusions, Ritter, Meer, pp. 8–18 (and the literature cited there); ei2 s.v. ‘al-Ghazālī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad’ (H. Ritter); ei2 s.v. ‘Sīmurgh’.

^ Back to text64. See Ritter, Oriens xi, pp. 50–56; Munz. iv 35445–577; Munz. Pak. vii(1) pp. 193–8.

^ Back to text65. A facsimile of the Turin Ms. was published in Tehran in 1994.

^ Back to text66. For whom see Robinson, Paintings p. 63.

^ Back to text67. For the dates of these two Mss. see above, p. 167, fn.

^ Back to text68. See below, p. 190.

^ Back to text69. See Ritter, Oriens xi, pp. 56–60; Munz. iv 35064–103; Munz. Pak. vii(1) pp. 191–3.

^ Back to text70. See Ritter, Oriens xi pp. 47–9; Munz. iv 27568–661; Munz. Pak. vii/1 pp. 169–70.

^ Back to text71. The correctness of this date is confirmed by the words ‘during the reign of Muḥammad Shâh’ quoted in the catalogue. For 47/ii, /iii, and /iv the catalogue gives the date as 1123.

^ Back to text72. See also his corrections, Oriens xi pp. 48–9.

^ Back to text73. See Ritter, Oriens xii pp. 86–7; Munz. iii 24792–826.

^ Back to text74. See Ritter, Oriens xiiixiv pp. 227–8; Munz. iv 34706–26.

^ Back to text75. J.T.P. de Bruijn informs that several of these have been ‘edited’ by Aḥmad Khushnishīn ʿImād, those numbered 2, 3, 16, 19, 20 and 22 in a single volume, Tehran n.d. (introduction dated 1362sh./1983), and number 6 separately, Tehran [1364sh./1985]. I have not seen these publications.

^ Back to text76. If this ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Khwārazmī is the same as the copyist mentioned on p. 468, then this Ms. must be dated to the middle of the 15th century.

^ Back to text77. Ethé reads the title as Khiyāṭ-nāmah, which (following Sprenger) he renders as ‘Book of transition’, but to my knowledge khiyāṭ means only ‘needle’; moreover, in the verse in which the author indicates the title of the poem, quoted by Sprenger, the metre requires khaiyāṭ.

^ Back to text78. For this Ms., identified by Dorn as ʿAṭṭār’s Asrār-nāmah and with a date which he read as 927/1521, compare the photograph of the last page (five final verses and colophon) published by Ch. Adle in Studia Iranica xxii, 1993, figure 3, where the date appears rather to be 947/1540–1. The poem concluding on this page is definitely not the Asrār-nāmah, but evidently a recension of the Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib differing from that in ʿImād’s edition (where I have not been able to find the five verses); the third verse from the end corresponds to the last line of the copy of Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib contained in Istanbul Üniversite fy 213 (see Oriens xi p. 20).

^ Back to text79. Oriens xiiixiv, pp. 228–9.

^ Back to text80. Mss. of this work are extremely common; we limit ourselves therefore to a small sample. See Ritter, Oriens xiiixiv pp. 229–38; Munz. iv 28266–321; Munz. Pak. vii(1) pp. 170–83.

^ Back to text81. See ei2 s.v. ‘Shemʿī’ (J.T.P. de Bruijn, with further literature), where it is suggested that the commentator Shemʿī is not the same person as the 16th-century poet Shemʿī Prizrenī.

^ Back to text82. Thus in ʿAufī, Ms. S, apart from the fact that the last word is apparently pointed s.kh.r.y. Browne, evidently with Ms. E., has al-Sanjarī. Rāzī includes this author among the poets of Sīstān. Hidāyat calls him Ḥakīm Badīʿ al-zamān al-Turkūʾī al-Sanjarī and says that he was a native of Turkū, a locality in Sīstān; with this he presumably has in mind the citadel trqwn mentioned in the Iḥyāʾ al-mulūk of Malik-shāh Ḥusain Sīstānī (ed. Sitūdah, Tehran 1344sh./1966) pp. 144–5, evidently identical also with the ‘Trākun’ visited by Tate. I should think it more likely that the poet’s name should be read Turkō(y), ‘little Turk’; the vocalisation of the first syllable is supported by ʿAufī’s pun with turkān.

^ Back to text83. See Bosworth, Saffarids pp. 404–5.

^ Back to text84. See below, no. 301.

Cite this page
“3 From the End of the 11th Century to the First Quarter of the 13th: Part 1”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 23 February 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_50301000>
First published online: 2021



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