In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales
§ 276. Ḥubais̲h̲ b. Ibrāhīm al-Tiflīsī, who dedicated his Kāmil al-taʿbīr to the Pāds̲h̲āh of Rūm, Sulṭān Abū ’l-Fatḥ ʿIzz al-Dīn Qilij Arslān b. Masʿūd [551–88/1156–92], has already been mentioned as the author of medical works ( pl. ii § 366) and of the Arabic-Persian dictionary Qānūn i adab ( pl. iii § 121 supra).
- Tarjumān al-qawāfī (fī bayān ḥurūf al-qāfiyah): Cairo p. 438 (apparently acephalous, since it begins Mas̲h̲rūḥ kardah ba-Pārsī taṣnīf i K̲h̲wājah i Imām. ah 629/1232).
§ 277. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn M. b. M. b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-ʿUmarī nicknamed al-Waṭwāṭ, who claimed to be a descendant of the Caliph ʿUmar and was born at Balk̲h̲, ¶ excelled both as a prose stylist and as a poet. In two of his odes he describes himself as having served and eulogised Atsiz [K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh 521–51/1127–56] for thirty years. When Takas̲h̲ entered K̲h̲wārazm in 568/1172 as successor to the throne, Ras̲h̲īd was carried into his presence in a litter, and was then, according to Juwainī, more than eighty years old. According to Yāqūt he died in 573/1177–8, according to Daulat-S̲h̲āh in 578/1182–3. A collection of Arabic letters composed by him was published at Cairo in 1315/1897 under the title Majmūʿat rasāʾil Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn al-Waṭwāṭ. Several mss. containing Arabic compositions of his are mentioned by Brockelmann. His collection of one hundred sayings by each of the first four Caliphs with Persian prose and verse paraphrases is extant in manuscript, but only that relating to ʿAlī (Maṭlūb kull ṭālib min kalām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib) has been published. For his Persian dīwān see Rieu ii 553a, 553b, Rieu Suppt. 212 (4), 234 (2), Sipahsālār ii 1196, Madrās i 20. [Tatimmat Ṣiwān al-ḥikmah (in Arabic) pp. 166–8, Pers. trans. pp. 112–13; K̲h̲arīdat al-qaṣr (in Arabic) (the biography of Waṭwāṭ has been published by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. xi/1 (Nov. 1934), ḍamīmah, pp. 1–6, xi/2 (Feb. 1935), ḍamīmah, pp. 7–12, xi/3 (May 1935), ḍamīmah, pp. 13–20, xii/4 (Aug. 1936), ḍamīmah, pp. 109–16); Irs̲h̲ād al-arīb vii pp. 91–5; Lubāb al-albāb i pp. 80–6; Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī ii pp. 8–102, 114 seq, 18 etc.; Āt̲h̲ār al-bilād (pp. 223–5); Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah p. 827; Bug̲h̲yat al-wuʿāh (in Arabic) p. 97 (dependent on Yāqūt); Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 87–92; Bahāristān i Jāmī pp. 92–3 (Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1340/1961, reprinted from 1846 Vienna edition), p. 67 English translation (by I.A. Khodaram, Bombay 1913); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 20 (Sprenger p. 16); Haft iqlīm no. 563; But-k̲h̲ānah no. 16; Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl no. 11; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 698; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 112; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 799; Sprenger p. 541; Rieu ii 553a; Browne Lit. Hist. ii pp. 330–3; Ency. Isl. under Waṭwāṭ (Huart); Badīʿ al-Zamān Suk̲h̲an u suk̲h̲anwarān i pp. 345–53; ʿAbbās Iqbāl’s introduction to his edition of the Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr (reprinted in Armag̲h̲ān; see note to this edition below); Brockelmann i p. 275, Sptbd. i p. 486; Saʿīd Nafīsī’s introduction to the dīwān.]
Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr fī daqāʾiq al-s̲h̲iʿr (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ʿalā mā afāḍa ʿalainā min niʿamihi al-mutraʿat al-ḥiyāḍ), a treatise on rhetorical figures and other matters relating to the art of poetry (see Flügel i pp. 205–6), designed to supersede the unsatisfactory Tarjumān al-balāg̲h̲ah [of the poet “Farruk̲h̲ī”] and completed after the death of ʿAlāʾ al-Dunyā wa-’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Atsiz [K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh 521–51/1127–56], who had shown the author a copy of the earlier work: D̲h̲arīʿah vi p. 286, Blochet iv 2137 ( ah 668/1269–70), Rieu Suppt. 420 (1) ( ah 877/1473), 188 (1) ( ah 1264/1848), Flügel i 226 ( ah 1002/1594), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1734 no. 31 (11) ( ah 1052/1642–3), Sipahsālār ii p. 439 no. 1077, Berlin 9 (6), 22 (3), 39 (1), Browne ¶ Suppt. 389 (defective), Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 165, Cairo p. 533, Majlis ii 876, Ḥamīdīyah p. 123 no. 407, Faiḍ Allāh Efendī p. 22 no. 300.
Editions: Tihrān 1272/1855–6 (see ʿAbbās Iqbāl’s introduction to the 1929 edition p. SṬ = Armag̲h̲ān xi/12 ( a.h.s. 1309/1931) p. 897); 1302/1885° (Dīwān i ḥaqīqat-bayān i Ḥakīm Qāʾānī—kitāb i Parīs̲h̲ān—G̲h̲azalīyāt i Furūg̲h̲ī—Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr. 23 pp., prefixed to Qāʾānī’s dīwān etc.); 1318/1900 (see Mas̲h̲had 15, ptd. bks., no. 36); 1321/1903–4 (see ʿAbbās Iqbāl loc. cit.); 1322/1904 (374 pp. Karatay p. 116); a.h.s. 1308/1929* (edited, on the basis of the Paris ms., with introduction1 and notes by ʿAbbās Iqbāl Ās̲h̲tiyānī); 1339/1960–1 (appended as pp. 621–707 to the Dīwān i Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn i Waṭwāṭ ed. Saʿīd Nafīsī. Kitāb-k̲h̲ānah i Bārānī. C̲h̲āp-k̲h̲ānah i Rangīn).
Abridgment: Tihrān 1291/1874° (Kitāb i Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲ah i ʿArabī … ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd Tattawī’s Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī followed by an abridgment of the Ḥ. al-s.); Bombay 1322/1904–5 (probably a reprint of the preceding. See ʿAbbās Iqbāl loc. cit).
Based on the Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr and similarly arranged but illustrated with different examples is Sanāʾiʿ i badāʾiʿ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a.b. maʿlūm s̲h̲awad kih īn kitābī-st az barā-yi ahl i luṭf u arbāb i faḍl tarkīb sāk̲h̲tīm az k̲h̲ulāṣah i Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr qarīb al-fahm u bar panjāh bāb sāk̲h̲tīm u īn kitāb rā Ṣanāʾiʿ i badāʾiʿ nām kardīm. Bāb i awwal dar bayān i tarṣīʿ), a work of unknown authorship in fifty bābs: Browne Pers. Cat. 182 (3).
(Risālah i manẓūmah dar ʿarūḍ), or (Aqsām al-buḥūr), etc. (beg. Hazaj rā gar tamām arkān hamī k̲h̲wāhī az-īn ma-gd̲h̲ar * Bi-gīr īn qiṭʿah rā yād u bi-kun īn bait rā az bar * Mafāʿīlun mafāʿīlun mafāʿīlun mafāʿīlun * Zihī bā farr i Yazdānī zihī bā dād i Paig̲h̲ambar *), a series of four-lined qiṭʿahs (in most mss. about 29 in number) formulating and exemplifying different metres, preceded in some mss. by two or three prefatory lines of prose varying in different mss. and in some cases ascribing the work to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Waṭwāṭ2 (e.g. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a. b. īn kitāb i ʿarūḍ i as̲h̲ʿār ast kih Maulānā i ʿālim i fāḍil ustād al-s̲h̲uʿarā M. b. ʿAlī [sic] al-Waṭwāṭ … nawis̲h̲tah u naẓm kardah (Rieu 191 (2)), or Ḥamd i bī-hadd d̲h̲āt i Aḥadī rā kih ʿarūḍ i k̲h̲iyām i wujūd i maujudāt (Madrās 437 (g), Gotha 6 (8)): Bodleian 1336 (Kābul, ah 981/1573–4), Bānkīpūr ix 848 (2) (Kābul, ¶ same date), Bombay Univ. p. 17 no. 9 (17th cent.), Rieu Suppt. 191 (2) ( ah 1123/1711), Berlin 43 (6), Gotha 6 (8), Krafft p. 21 no. 67, Madrās 437 (g).
Edition (?): Yādgār i /10 pp. 67–71 (cf. Oriens i /1 (1948) p. 140).
§ 278.3 S̲h̲ams i Qais.
[See E.G. Browne’s preface pp. xv–xvi to gms. edition.]
al-Muʿjam fī maʿāyīr as̲h̲ʿār al-ʿAjam, on Persian metre, rhyme and poetical figures, completed after 628/1231 and divided into two qisms (the first in four, the second in six, bābs) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rieu Suppt. 190 (foll. 191. Apparently 14th cent.), Āyā Ṣōfiyah 4272 ( ah 881/1476–7. See Browne’s preface to 1909 edition), Bānkīpūr ix 841 (foll. 362. ah 1183/1769), i.o. d.p.
1220 (18th cent.), Ethé 2140 (1), Būhār 262 (somewhat abridged. ah 1236/1821), Majlis ii 884 (fragment containing about three-quarters of Qism ii, Bāb 2, written calligraphically for Farhād Mīrzā. ah 1295/1878), Mas̲h̲had iii, fasc. 15, mss., no. 111, Lālah-lī 1981 (no title. See Horn Pers. Hss. p. 331 no. 586).
Miftāḥ al-qawāfī, condensed abstract of Qism ii, Bābs 1, 2, 4, 5, by M. Riḍā S̲h̲īrāzī b. Ḥājjī Sirāj al-Dīn Nīs̲h̲āpūrī: Ivanow Curzon 169 ( ah 1255/1839).
Editions: London 1909 (Gibb Memorial Series Vol. x, ed. Mīrzā Muḥammad); Tihrān a.h.s. 1314/1935–6 (ed. M. Taqī Mudarris Riḍawī).
§ 279. Naṣīr al-Dīn M. b. M. b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī died at Bag̲h̲dād in 672/1274 (see pl. ii § 10, etc.).
The Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār is ascribed to him by Fak̲h̲rī b. Amīrī in the Ṣanāʾiʿ al-ḥusn (see Bānkīpūr ix p. 55 ult.) and by M. Saʿd Allāh in the commentary mentioned below, but the author does not name himself and it is not clear whether the ascription has good authority. The work was, however, a production of Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s time.
Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ḥamd al-s̲h̲ākirīn … Īn muk̲h̲taṣarīst dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ u qawāfī i s̲h̲iʿr i Tāzī u Pārsī i Darī kih ba-iltimās i baʿḍī dūstān murattab kardah s̲h̲ud u ān-rā Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār nām nihādah āmad), on prosody and rhyme in Arabic and Persian poetry, composed in 649/1251–2 and divided into a muqaddimah (in three faṣls (1) definition of poetry, (2) the reasons for the diversity of metres and rhymes in different languages, (3) arts connected with poetry), and two fanns ((1) on the component parts of the feet, their modifications, and the metres, in ten faṣls (enumerated in the Bānkīpūr catalogue), (2) on rhyme, in ten faṣls (enumerated ¶ likewise in Bkp. cat.)): Istanbul Sarāy 3455 (5) (12 foll. ah 664/1266, transcribed from an autograph. Krause p. 497 (13)), Leyden i p. 119 no. 232 ( ah 710/1310–11), Bānkīpūr ix 842 (foll. 74. 18th cent.), Rieu ii 525a (foll. 89. ah 1206/ 1791–2), i.o. d.p. 1219 (19th cent.).
Editions: Tihrān 1320/1902–3 (ed. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār Najm al-Daulah [cf. pl. ii § 50]. 214 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1463. This is doubtless the Tihrān edition of 1901 [sic?] mentioned in Bānkīpūr ix p. 57); Lucknow [1927*] (pp. 88).
Commentary (with the text of the original): Mīzān al-afkār (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir i k̲h̲ārij az dāʾirah i ʿarūḍ i bayān), written in 1264/ 1848 by M. Saʿd Allāh Murādābādī (for whom see pl. i § 81, etc.) at the request of Mirzā M. Riḍā K̲h̲ān “Barq” and dedicated to Wājid ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, the last King of Oudh, a second edition being apparently undated but doubtless completed in or shortly before 1282/1865, the date of publication: Bānkīpūr ix 843 (foll. 273. 2nd edition. 19th cent.).
Editions: [India] ʿAlawī Press, 1264/1848* (M. al-a. s̲h̲arḥ M. al-a. Pp. 100); [Lucknow] 1282/1865° (M. al-afkār … maʿa Risālah i Rubāʿī. Pp. 222).
Urdu translation: Zar i kāmil-ʿiyār, by S. Muẓaffar-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Asīr” (for whom see pl. iii § 222 supra): Lucknow 1872°.
§ 280. Ḥamīd al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-Najātī al-Nīs̲h̲āpūrī is the author of an Arabic commentary entitled Basātīn al-fuḍalāʾ wa-rayāḥīn al-ʿuqalāʾ on al-ʿUtbī’s Yamīnī, which he completed at Tabrīz in 709/1310 ( mss.: Escurial2 1696 ( ah 713/1313, autograph), Mas̲h̲had 14, mss., no. 9 ( ah 716/ 1316), and several at Istanbul. Cf. Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 514, where 704 is given as the date of completion, Brockelmann i p. 314, Sptbd. i p. 548, where “Par. Schefer, pers. 923” should be deleted since that is Nāṣiḥ b. Ẓafar’s Persian translation of the Yamīnī). Two other Arabic works of his are mentioned by Brockelmann (Sptbd. ii p. 257). He wrote also a Persian commentary on “Qiwāmī’s” Badāʾiʿ al-asḥār (Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 26).
- al-Kāfiyah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ wa-’l-ṣanʿah [wa-?] ’l-qāfiyah (beg. al-Ḥ. l. kamā Huwa ahluhu … c̲h̲unīn gūyad muḥarrir i īn aurāq Najātī): Sipahsālār ii p. 444 no. 1082 (foll. 14. ah 738/1337–8).
§ 281. Aḥmad (?) Guls̲h̲ahrī [Gülşehrî] from Kırşehir (formerly Guls̲h̲ahr [Gülşehir]) in central Anatolia completed his first major work, a didactic ṣūfī mat̲h̲nawī in Persian entitled Falak-nāmah, in ah 701/1301–2 (only known ms. in Ankara İl-Halk Kütüp-hānesi no. 817) and his Manṭiq al-ṭair (a Turkish re-working of ʿAṭṭār’s mat̲h̲nawī of the same name) in ah 717/1317–18.
[Ency. Isl. 2nd ed. under Güls̲h̲ehrī]
- ʿArūḍ i Guls̲h̲ahrī,4 a short treatise, the first 18 pages of which deal with the formation and composition of the different Arabic and Persian metres, the remaining 13 pages giving examples (2 baits long) of the metres in their various forms: Istanbul Millet Genel Kütüphanesi, Ali Emiri, Farsca Yazmalar 517 foll. 46b–61b ( ah 1147/1735. See Ency. Isl.).
§ 282. Abū ’l-Faḍl M. b. K̲h̲ālid Quras̲h̲ī was no longer living in 738/1337–8, since the copyist of the Sipahsālār ms. ( ii 1083) appends to his name a formula implying that he was dead. He refers in his ʿUrāḍat al-ʿarūḍīyīn to a certain ustād i kāmil i fāḍil Yūsuf i ʿarūḍī i Naisābūrī qaddasa ’llāhu rūḥahu.5
- ʿUrāḍat al-ʿarūḍīyīn (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. c̲h̲unīn gūyad … M. b. K̲h̲. Q…. Bi-dān asʿadaka ’llāh kī ʿarūḍ): Sipahsālār ii p. 445 no. 1083 (foll. 28–69. ah 738/1337–8), Āyā Ṣōfyah 4795 (24).
§ 283. Waḥīdī Baihaqī, or, as he calls himself in his preface, M. b. Yūsuf b. M. b. Yūsuf Abī ʿAqīl Nau-Qārizī6 Baihaqī surnamed (al-mulaqqab bi-) al-Waḥīdī,
- (ʿArūḍ. i Waḥīdī) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā. wa-’l-salām ʿalā Saiyid al-Mursalīn … c̲h̲unīn gūyad muqarrir i īn maqālah … M. b. Yūsuf …), a work on prosody completed in 735/1334–5: Sipahsālār ii p. 446 (foll. 72–96. ah 735/1334–5, autograph).
§ 284. For the Miʿyār i Jamālī u miftāḥ i Abū-Isḥāqī, which was completed in 745/1344 by S̲h̲ams i Fak̲h̲rī i Iṣfahānī and which is divided into four fanns dealing respectively with (1) ʿilm i ʿarūḍ (in ten bābs), (2) ʿilm i qawāfī (in five bābs), (3) ʿilm i badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ and (4) ʿilm i lug̲h̲at, see pl. iii § 5 supra. According to Blochet ( ii p. 194) “ce traité de prosodie assez médiocre ne peut soutenir la comparaison avec le traité de Shems-i Kaïs”.
§ 285. M. al-ʿAṣṣār, as he calls himself in the preface to al-Wāfī fī taʿdād al-qawāfī, is apparently identical with the poet S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M. “ʿAṣṣār” Tabrīzī, who completed his Mihr u Mus̲h̲tarī at Tabrīz in 778/1377 and died in 779/1377–8 or 784/1382–3.
[K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 85 (Sprenger p. 18); Haft iqlīm no. 1321; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 111; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390 no. 45, Bānkīpūr viii 705 no. 25); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1510; Sprenger pp. 311–12; Ueber den persischen Dichter ¶ Śamsaddîn Muḥammad bin Aḥmad7 ʿAṣṣâr, by H.L. Fleischer (in zdmg. 15 (1861) pp. 389–96, reprinted in h.l.f.’s Kleinere Schriften iii pp. 522–31); Rieu ii p. 626b; Bānkīpūr i pp. 225–6; Ency.Isl. under ʿAṣṣār (unsigned); Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 275–6; etc.]
- al-Wāfī fī taʿdād al-qawāfī (beg. Iftitāḥ i har kitāb), a dictionary of rhymes arranged alphabetically according to the final letter preceded by nineteen sections treating of the nature of poetry and rhyme, the different kinds of rhyme, etc.: Browne Pers. Cat. 179 ( ah 951/1544), Āyā Ṣōfyah 4161 (3), Cairo p. 438.
§ 286. S̲h̲araf [al-Dīn] Ḥasan b. M. al-Rāmī was a Tabrīzī according to Daulat-S̲h̲āh, who says that in the reign of S̲h̲āh Manṣūr the Muẓaffarid [789–95/1387–93] he was Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ of ʿIrāq and that his dīwān, though unobtainable dar-īn diyār [i.e. at Harāt, etc.], was well known in ʿIrāq, Ād̲h̲arbāyjān and Fārs. In the preface to the Anīs al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq (for which see pl. iii § 426 infra) he speaks of visiting the tomb of Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī at Marāg̲h̲ah. According to Ilāhī he died in 795/1392–3.8
[Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 308–9; K̲h̲azīnah i ganj i Ilāhī (Sprenger p. 76); Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 189–91.]
- Ḥaqāʾiq al-Ḥadāʾiq, called in some mss.,9 but probably incorrectly, Ḥadāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq, (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. i bī-ḥadd u ṣalāt i bī-ʿadd c̲h̲unīn gūyad aqall al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ S̲h̲araf b. M. al-Rāmī10), a work on poetical figures, being in part a commentary on passages in Ras̲h̲īd i Waṭwāṭ’s Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr, written by order of Muʿizz al-Dīn Sulṭān Uwais and divided into two qisms, of which the first, in fifty short bābs, elucidates the statements of Waṭwāṭ and deals with the conventions of the ancient Persian poets, while the second, in ten bābs is concerned with the later poets: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 21 (under Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr, where the title is given as S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Ḥadāʾiq), p. 77 (Ḥaqāʾiq al-Ḥadāʾiq), D̲h̲arīʿah vi p. 284, Rosen Institut 101 (4) ( ah 922/1516), Vatican Pers. 151 (16th cent.), Bombay Univ. p. 7 no. 4 ( ah 1024/1615), Berlin 35 (1) ( ah 1060/1650), Blochet iv 2021 ( ah 1063/1653), Sipahsālār ii p. 437 no. 1076 (17th cent.), Cairo p. 439 ( ah 1146/1733–4), Bānkīpūr xi 1098 (55), Bodleian 1340, Krafft 68, Leningrad Univ. no. 1168 (Romaskewicz p. 6), Rieu Suppt. 421 (5), Majlis i 613 (4), ii 875.
¶ § 287. K̲h̲alīl b. Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ujandī.
- Muk̲h̲taṣarī dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ (beg. Ḥ i bī-ḥadd u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-ʿadd mar ḥaḍrat i D̲h̲ū ’l-jalālī rā kih qawāfī), a short treatise in three faṣls dedicated to Amīr-zādah Ibrāhīm Sulṭān [presumably S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s son, b. 796/1394, d. 838/1435]: Bodleian 1342 ( ah 815/1412–13).
§ 288. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad Jāmi, who died at Harāt in 898/1492, has already been mentioned as the author of the S̲h̲awāhid al-nubuwwah ( pl. i § 234), the Nafaḥāt al-uns ( pl. i § 1274) and other works.
(Risālah i ʿarūḍ), or (Risālah dar kalām i mauzūn), or (Risālah i buḥūr i s̲h̲iʿr), (beg. Sp. i wāfir Qādirī rā kih ḥarakat i sarīʿ … ammā baʿd bi-dān-kih arbāb i ṣināʿat i ʿarūḍ): Blochet iii 1676 fol 581b. ( ah 896/1491, from an autograph), Leningrad Institut ( ah 922/1516. See Rosen p. 282 no. 101 (2)), Pub. Lib. (transcribed for Abū ’l-Fatḥ Bahrām. Dorn p. 373, no. 422 (29)), Berlin 115 (4) (?) (acephalous. ah 933/1526–7), Bodleian 894 (33) ( ah 941/1534), 895 (33) ( ah 963/1556), 896 (17) ( ah 979/ 1571–2), 969, 1350, Ivanow 612 (8) (late 16th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 969 (1), Ethé 1380 ( ah 1073/1662), 2112 (1) (1128/1716), Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 427 (2) (17th cent), Trinity R. 13. 45 (30) (Palmer p. 119), Cairo p. 439 ( ah 1146/1734), Lindesiana p. 165 no. 241a, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 47 no. 20, Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 252, Bānkīpūr ii 180 (15), xvii 1668, Flügel iii 2010 (6).
Editions: [Istanbul] 1261/1845° (ʿArūḍ al-Andalusī, an Arabic work,11 followed by the ʿArūḍ i Jāmī, here called ʿArūḍ al-Jāmiʿ. Pp. 14, 45); 1273/1857° (Mīzān, containing the ʿArūḍ al-Andalusī, with a commentary by Ḥāfiẓ Ibrāhīm Ḥaqqī S̲h̲umnawī, followed by the ʿArūḍ i Jāmī. Pp. 154); Istanbul, ʿAlī Riḍā Pr. 1274/1858 (14 + 47 pp. See Karatay p. 34); 1281/1865 (45 pp. Karatay ibid.); 1287/1871 (47 pp. Karatay ibid.).
(Muk̲h̲taṣar i wāfī bi-qawāʿid i ʿilm i qawāfī), as it is sometimes called from the description in the preface (see below), or (Risālah i qāfiyah), or (Risālah i qawāfī), etc. (beg. Baʿd az tayammun bi-mauzūntarīn kalāmī … numūdah mī s̲h̲awad kih īn muk̲h̲taṣarīst wāfī bi-q. i ʿi. i q.), a brief tract in a preface, five faṣls and a conclusion: H. K̲h̲. iii p. 425 (under Risālat al-qāfiyah), D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 164 no. 671 (Dastūr i qāfiyah), Blochet iii 1676 fol. 580a ( ah 896/1491, from an autograph), iv 2021 ( ah 1063/1653), ii 1050 (2), Leningrad Institut ( ah 922/1516. See Rosen p. 282 no. 101 (1)), Pub. Lib (3 mss. See Dorn p. 336 no. 360, p. 373 no. 422 (21) and (31)), Bodleian 894 ¶ (28) ( ah 941/ 1534), 895 (32) ( ah 963/1556), 896 (18) ( ah 979/1571–2), Ivanow 612 (9) (late 16th cent.), Curzon 171, 172 (1), 2nd Suppt. 969 (12), Bombay Univ. p. 2 no. 1 (17th cent.), Rieu ii 526b (17th cent.), Suppt. 191 (4) ( ah 1123/1711), Cairo p. 439 ( ah 1146/ 1734), Sipahsālār ii p. 449, Browne Pers. Cat. 75 (2), Suppt. 667 (Corpus 65 (3)), Cambridge Trinity R 13. 45 (31) (Palmer p. 119), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 4, p. 47 nos. 12, 14, 15, p. 48 nos. 28, 30, 31, Bānkīpūr ii 180 (16) ( ah 1017/1608–9?), xvii 1669, 1692, 1742, Aumer 315 (3), Berlin 43 (7), Flügel iii 2010 (7), Krafft 66, Majlis 604 (3).
Editions: Calcutta 1867°* (The Persian metres by Saifí, and a treatise on Persian rhyme by Jámí. Edited in Persian, by H. Blochmann), 1872°* (The prosody of the Persians according to Saifi, Jami, and other writers. By H. Blochmann. [The text of the ʿArūḍ i Saifī and the Risālah i qāfiyah i Mullā Jāmī with English translations, etc.]).
Commentary: see D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 1651.
§ 289. Nūr al-Dīn b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl.
- Risālah dar qawāfī (beg. Nūrānī ak̲h̲tarī kih maṭlaʿ i anwār i bayān rā s̲h̲āyad), completed in 892/1487 for Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr: Browne Coll. T. 4 (foll. 58. 16th cent.), Rehatsek p. 148 no. 74 ( ah 1240/1825).
§ 290. Ḥusain b. ʿAlī al-Wāʿiẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī, who died in 910/ 1504–5, has already been mentioned as the author of the Jawāhir al-tafsīr ( pl. i § 20), the Mawāhib i ʿalīyah (ibid.), and the Rauḍat al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ ( pl. i § 268).
- Badāʾiʿ al-afkār fī ṣanāʾiʿ al-as̲h̲ʿār (beg. al-Ḥ. li-Mubdiʿ al-badāʾiʿ *), a treatise on poetical figures and other matters connected with poetics, dedicated to S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah Amīr S. Ḥasan12 and divided into a muqaddimah (in four fuṣūl, on the nature and origin of poetry, the different forms of poetry (qaṣīdah, g̲h̲azal, etc.), varieties of verse, and certain technical terms), two bābs ((1) dar ṣanāʾiʿ i s̲h̲iʿrī, forming about three-fifths of the work, (2) on faults of poetry) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on rhyme): Blochet ii 1045 ( ah 987/1579), Browne Pers. Cat. 180 ( ah 1086/1675), Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 113 ( ah 1162/1749), Rehatsek p. 127 no. 8 ( ah 1232/1816–17).
¶ § 291. In the reign of Sulṭān Bāysung̲h̲ur of the Aq-qoyūnlū (896–7/1490–2) was written
- A concise work on prosody (beg. Jawāmiʿ i majāmiʿ i ḥamd u t̲h̲anāy): Dorn 360 (2) (defective at end).
§ 292. Maulānā Saifī ʿArūḍī Buk̲h̲ārī went from Buk̲h̲ārā to Harāt in the reign of Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī Sulṭān Ḥusain (873–911/ 1469–1506) and began there his study of the ʿulūm. Even in his student days he wrote poetry which became well known (Laṭāʾif-nāmah p. 98 ult.: u dar at̲h̲nāʾ i taḥṣīl ba-naẓm mas̲h̲g̲h̲ūl mī-gardīd u ṭarīq i mat̲h̲al rā ba-g̲h̲āyat k̲h̲ūb guft u as̲h̲ʿāras̲h̲ mas̲h̲hūr s̲h̲ud).
[Laṭāʾif-nāmah (ed. S.M. ʿAbd Allāh) pp. 98–9; Bābur-nāmah (ʿAbd al-Raḥīm’s translation) p. 114; The Bābur-nāmah in English … Translated … by A. S. Beveridge i p. 111; Taqī Kās̲h̲ī no. 150 (Sprenger p. 20); Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū ii no. 23 (Bodleian col. 212); ocm. x/3 p. 160 (Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī); Blochet ii 1070 (2).]
(ʿArūḍ i Saifī) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. jaʿala ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ mīzān al-as̲h̲ʿār), a standard text-book of prosody13 completed in 896/ 1491: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 419 (under Risālah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ) Berlin 65 (2) ( ah 942/1535), 115 (5) (acephalous. ah 1003/1594), 116, 56 (5), 73 (6), Bānkīpūr ix 846 ( ah 1007/1599), 847 (1) (19th cent.), Bombay Univ. p. 6 no. 3 ( ah 1024/1615), Rieu ii 525b (17th cent.), Suppt. 191 (1) ( ah 1123/1711), Ethé 2046 ( ad 1784), 2047–8, Browne Suppt. 858 ( ah 1199/1785. King’s 207), 859 (n.d. Corpus 23 (2)), Lindesiana p. 214 no. 703a, Āṣafīyah iii p. 74 no. 301, ii p. 1734 no. 31 (13), Ivanow Curzon 172 (2), 179 (1), 179 (3), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 47 nos. 9, 10, p. 48 no. 35, Princeton 52, Edinburgh 358, Madrās i 481, Peshawar 1881.
Editions: S̲h̲āhjahānābād [i.e. Delhi] 1269/1853* (ʿArūḍ i Saifī. With notes by Maulawī S̲h̲ahrzād K̲h̲ān. P. 64); Calcutta 1867°* (The Persian metres by Saifí, and a treatise on Persian rhyme by Jámí. Edited in Persian by H. Blochmann. Pp. viii, 54, 7); 1872°* (The prosody of the Persians according to Saifi, Jami, and other writers [being the text of the ʿArūḍ i Saifī and Jāmī’s Risālah i qāfiyah with introduction, English translations and notes] by H. Blochmann. Pp. viii, xix, 101, 54, 7, 4); [Lucknow], N.K., 1288/1871* (ʿA. i S. Pp. 48); 1293/1876* (Pp. 48); Lucknow, N.K., 1298/1881 (see Ranking’s translation p. 123); Lahore [1923*] (with notes by Maulawī Naṣīr al-Dīn. Pp. 48); and several others.
¶ English translations:
(1) The prosody of the Persians according to Saifí, Jámí, and other writers. By H. Blochmann, Calcutta 1872°*, pp. 1–67 (see above under Editions).
(2) The elements of Arabic and Persian prosody. A short treatise on Persian prosody, together with a translation of the ’Arúz-i-Saifí [pp. 25–123]. By G. S. Ranking. Bombay 1885°.
(1) K̲h̲āfiyat al-mat̲h̲al (beg. Naẓm i maḥāmidī kih suk̲h̲an-sanjān … Lillāhi ’l-ḥamdu dar ṣabāḥ u masā *), a brief metrical paraphrase composed in 1107/1695–6 by M. b. M. Saʿīd Anṣārī Dihlawī: Ivanow Curzon 180 (3) ( ah 1192/1778).
(2) Risālah dar fann i s̲h̲iʿr guftan (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. ammā c̲h̲unīn gūyad aḥqar al-ʿibād Faiḍī kih īn risālah īst d. f. i s̲h̲. g. kih ān-rā ʿilm i ʿarūḍ gūyand), by a certain “Faiḍī”: Ivanow Curzon 179 (5) (19th cent.).
§ 293. “Jauharī” Samarqandī, Superintendent of the soap factory, Mus̲h̲rif i ṣābūn-k̲h̲ānah (at Samarqand according to the Laṭāʾif-nāmah), versified the Siyar al-Nabī (at Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr’s request according to the Haft iqlīm), was well acquainted with prosody (ʿarūḍ rā k̲h̲ūb mī-dānist) and is doubtless identical with the “Jauharī”, whose verses are explained in the commentary entitled Tuḥfat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ.
[Majālis al-nafāʾis, tr. Qazwīnī ed. Ḥikmat, p. 220; Laṭāʾif-nāmah ed. S.M. ʿAbd Allāh pp. 83–4 (where Maulānā “Jauharī’s” biography is headed “Maulānā K̲h̲āwarī” and vice versa), ed. Ḥikmat p. 47; Haft iqlīm no. 1443; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū, Daftar ii no. 46 (Bodl. col. 213).]
Verses on the  ʿilal, or modifications (qabḍ, qaṣr, k̲h̲abn, ḥad̲h̲f, etc.), to which feet are subject in the Persian metres: no separate ms. recorded.
Prose commentary: Tuḥfat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-ʿadd ḥaḍrat i Maʿbūdī rā jallat qudratuhu), dedicated to S̲h̲ams al-Dīn ʿAlī, Governor (Ḥākim u zimām-dār) of Bisṭām, by “Ṣafīu’llāh b. ʿAlī of Basṭām and Dihistān” (so in the Bombay catalogue), of Ṣafī al-Dīn ʿAlāʾ b. Ṣafī al-Dīn ʿAlī Bisṭāmī (so in the Sipahsālār catalogue): Bombay Univ. p. 16 no. 8 (17th cent.), Sipahsālār ii p. 449 no. 1096 ( ah 1241/1825–6).
§ 294. Amīr Burhān al-Dīn ʿAṭāʾ Allāh b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥusainī, born at Nīs̲h̲āpūr, studied at Harāt and taught there for many years in the Sulṭānīyah and Ik̲h̲lāṣīyah madrasahs. At the end of his life he became blind and went to Mas̲h̲had, where he died in the middle of S̲h̲awwāl 919/December 1513 (so in the Bombay text of the Ḥabīb al-siyar, not 929 as Rieu says and, presumably on his authority, several later cataloguers). His fame rested on his Risālah i qāfiyah and his Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ, which according to K̲h̲wānd-Amīr were well ¶ known among scholars. These two works, and only these two, are mentioned by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr and Bābur in their accounts of their author.
[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3 p. 34522–29 (summarised by Rieu); The Babur-nama in English … Translated … by A. S. Beveridge ii p. 285 (passage quoted with some comments in the Bombay Univ. catalogue p. 4); Bābur-nāmah tr. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm p. 11322 (where he is called Mīr ʿAṭāʾ Allāh Mas̲h̲hadī); K̲h̲azīnah i ganj i Ilāhī (Sprenger p. 81).]
Risālah i qāfiyah, or Risālah dar ʿilm i qawāfī, (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Ṣāniʿī rā kih taʾsīs i badāʾiʿ i maṣnūʿāt … a. b. īn risālah īst kih dar ʿilm i qawāfī ba-ʿurf i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi ʿAjam muntak̲h̲ab az maqṭaʿ i kitāb i Takmīl al-ṣināʿah kih ān kitāb rā īn ḥaqīr i faqīr ʿA. A. b. M. al-Ḥ. dar fann i s̲h̲iʿr musawwadah numūdah), a treatise on rhyme divided (in accordance with the number of the ḥurūf i qāfiyah) into nine ḥarfs (for which see Rieu, Ethé, etc.), being an abridgement of the final chapter (maqṭaʿ) of the author’s Takmīl al-ṣināʿah, a work on poetics,14 which was written by desire of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr (d. 906/1501: see pl. i § 1094) and which appears to be lost: Haidarābād S. ʿAlī Ḥusain Bilgrāmī’s library ( ah 925/1519, autograph. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 304), Ethé 2052 ( ah 968/1561), 2053 ( ah 1140/1728), 2054, i.o. d.p.
428 (b), Bombay Univ. p. 3 no. 2 ( ah 1024/1615), Bānkīpūr xvii 1714 (breaks off with Ḥarf 4. 17th cent.), 1693, ix 919, Rieu Suppt. 191 (3) ( ah 1123/1711), 192 ( ah 1245/1830), 421 (4) ( ah 1233/ 1818), Ivanow Curzon 173 (18th cent.), 174, Princeton 53 ( ah 1231/1816), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 47 no. 23, Āṣafīyah i p. 166 nos. 247, 251, ii p. 1734 no. 31 (12), iii p. 72 no. 261, Bodleian 1402, Cairo p. 524, Dresden 333 (2), Majlis 604 (1).
Edition: [India] ʿAlawī Press 1264/1848* (pp. 25).
- Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ on prosody and poetic figures, completed in 898/1492–3 by desire of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr after remaining long unfinished (d. 906/1501: see pl. i § 1094): Dresden 333 (1) (damaged. ah 952/1545–6), Asʿad 2523, Dorn 319.
§ 295. Waḥīd Tabrīzī, as he calls himself (or is called) in the preface to the Jamʿ i muk̲h̲taṣar, seems to be identified, correctly or incorrectly, in Taqī Kās̲h̲ī’s K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ashʿār with the poet “Waḥīdī” Qummī or “Waḥīdī” Tabrīzī,15 who is ¶ there said to have been a Tabrīzī by origin but to have lived at Qumm and consequently to have been regarded by most people as a Qummī (Aṣl i wai az Tabrīz ast ammā dar Qumm sākin būdah u bīs̲h̲tar i mardum ū-rā Qummī mī-dānand). Towards the end of his life he went to Gīlān (ba-wāsiṭah i ṭamaʿ) and died there in 942/1535–6.16 His numerous poems included a s̲h̲ahr-angīz,17 once famous, on the people of Tabrīz and some satires on his rival “Ḥairatī”. Waḥīd Tabrīzī wrote also a work on rhetoric entitled Miftāḥ al-badāʾiʿ (for which see pl. iii § 339 infra).
[Tuḥfah i Sāmī p. 126; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 362 (Sprenger p. 30); Haft iqlīm no. 993; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 3017; Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 393–4.]
- Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Mālik al-mulkī rā. End: Ṣāḥib-hunar na-gīrad bar bī-hunar bahānah *), described as a work on prosody and rhyme written for the author’s nephew: D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 64 no. 187, Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., no. 7 (foll. 40).
- Jamʿ i muk̲h̲taṣar (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Wājib al-taʿẓīmī rā kih ba-tas̲h̲rīf i nuṭq insān-rā mus̲h̲arraf sāk̲h̲t … a. b. bi-dān-kih īn muk̲h̲taṣarī-st az muns̲h̲aʾāt i Waḥīd i Tabrīzī dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ u qāfiyah u ṣanāʾiʿ al-s̲h̲iʿr kih az barā-yi birādar-zādah i k̲h̲wud18 taʾlīf kardah … u īn-rā Jamʿ i muk̲h̲taṣar nām nihād19), a concise treatise on prosody and rhyme (for the subject-matter of which see Flügel i 227): Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 205 (under ʿArūḍ), D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 139, Berlin 43 (5) (transcribed at Nāgaur by a copyist who completed in 906/1501 the transcription of another tract in the same volume), 48 (1) ( ah 1087/1676), 118 (modern), Leningrad Institut ((1) Rosen 101 (3). ah 922/1516. Lacks the section giving the scansion of a verse in each metre, (2) Rosen 100. ah 1140/1727–8), Pub. Lib (Dorn p. 436 no. 498 (2)), Univ. 1160 ( ah 1226/1811. See Romaskewicz p. 5), Rieu ii 789a ( ah 1012/1604), Bodleian 1347 ( ah 1022/1613), 1346 (transcribed in a European hand from a ms. said to have been dated 869/ 1464–5), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 47 no. 11 ( ah 1082/1671–2), p. 46 no. 5, Blochet ii 1050 (1) (late 16th cent.?), Cairo p. 439 ( ah 1146/1734), p. 520, Princeton 444 ( ah 1190/1776–7), Flügel i 227 ( ah 1192/1778), 228, Aumer 316 (1), 315 (1), Sipahsālār ii ¶ p. 440 no. 1078, p. 442 no. 1079, p. 449 no. 1095, Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 126, Cataloghi iii p. 310 no. 17 (Bibl. Medicea Laurenziana), Majlis 643 (1), 604 (2), Lindesiana p. 232 no. 711, Browne Suppt. 358 (?), Gotha 6 (7), Madrās i 437 (f), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., no. 16, Bānkipūr ix 845, i.o. d.p. 1214.
§ 296. “Fak̲h̲rī” b. M. “Amīrī” Harawī (see pl. i § 1099).
- (Risālah fī ’l-g̲h̲azalīyāt) (beg. Ai s̲h̲āh u gadā zi sūy i k̲h̲wad rāh-numāy *), on poetry, particularly the g̲h̲azal, and more espeically on the cases in which a poet may without plagiarism use a verse written by another poet, composed in Sind for S̲h̲āh Ḥasan [Arg̲h̲ūn] in, or not long after, 940/1533–4, when the author went from Harāt to Sind on his way to Mecca and Medina: Browne Pers. Cat. 328 (10).
§ 297. Mīr M. Muʾmin b. ʿAlī Ḥusainī [Astarābādī] (see pl. ii § 61) died in 1021/1612–13 according to Naṣīrā-yi Hamadānī (for whom see below).
(ʿArūḍ i M. Muʾmin i Ḥusainī) (beg. Baʿd i ḥ. u sp. i bī-q. u ṣalāt u durūd i nā-maḥdūd c̲h̲. g. rāqim i īn suṭūr), completed in 1007/1598–9, dedicated to Muḥammad-Qulī Quṭb-S̲h̲āh and divided into a muqaddamah, two faṣls and a k̲h̲ātimah: Sipahsālār ii p. 442 no. 1080 (17th cent.).
Commentary: Laʿ i Quṭbī (beg. Gauharī g̲h̲arīb i badīʿ), completed in 1021/1612 and dedicated to Muḥammad-Qulī Quṭb-S̲h̲āh by Naṣīrā-yi Hamadānī:20 Sipahsālār ii p. 443 no. 1081 (17th cent.).
§ 298. Mullā M. “Amānī” Māzandarānī.
- Dastūr al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (beg. St. i wāfir Kāmilī rā kih bārgāh i sipihr), on prosody, rhyme and ṣanāʾiʿ i s̲h̲iʿrīyah, written for a wazīr named Mīrzā S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M. Taqī: D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 160, Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., no. 47 ( ah 1048/1638–9, apparently autograph), Rehatsek p. 148 no. 73 ( a.y. 1156/ ad 1786–7), Lindesiana p. 112 no. 552 (circ. ad 1790), Majlis ii 877.
¶ § 299. “Ulfatī” b. Ḥusainī Sāwajī.
- Riyāḍ al-ṣanāʾiʿ i Quṭb-S̲h̲āhī (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir u t̲h̲anā-yi kāmil Mubdiʿ u Ṣāniʿī rā s̲h̲āyān ast), a metrical text and prose commentary, both by “Ulfatī”, on prosody (scansion, etc. and the metres, foll. 7–44), rhyme (foll. 45–55), poetical figures, etc. (foll. 55–73) and chronograms (gūs̲h̲wār i R. al-ṣ., or k̲h̲ātimah, foll. 74–6), completed in 1048/1638–9 and dedicated to ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh: Ivanow Curzon 180 (4) ( ah 1192/1778), Bānkīpūr ix 849 (18th cent.), xvii 1743 ( ah 1235/1820), Būhār 478 (1) ( ah 1222/1807), Āṣafīyah iii p. 72 no. 310 ( ah 1227/1812), Browne Pers. Cat. 181.
§ 300. Raḍī al-Dīn M. b. M. S̲h̲afīʿ was one of the Mustaufiyān i K̲h̲āṣṣah [presumably of the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās ii].
- Maṭlaʿ (beg. Ṭilā-yi kāmil-ʿiyār21 i kalimāt i faṣāḥat-simāt kih dar maʿādin i k̲h̲awāṭir i k̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-naẓāʾir), a work of some length completed in 1063/1653 and divided into two miṣrāʿs, of which the first, in four rukns, deals with ʿarūḍ and qawāfī, while the second, also in four rukns, is concerned with ṣanāʾiʿ and badāʾiʿ: Sipahsālār ii p. 451 no. 1097 (foll. 148 ah 1106/1694–5).
§ 301. M. Saʿd, the author of the Mīzān al-as̲h̲ʿār, is probably identical with M. Saʿd “G̲h̲ālib” Qurais̲h̲ī ʿAẓīmābādī, who has already been mentioned ( pl. iii § 246 (2) (b) supra) as the author of the ʿĀfiyah, a commentary on Ibn al-Ḥājib’s S̲h̲āfiyah completed in Ṣafar 1097/28 Dec. 1685–25 Jan. 1686.
- Mīzān al-ashʿār (beg. Jawāhir i zawāhir i t̲h̲anā u maḥmidat), a treatise on prosody in a muqaddimah, nineteen bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah, written in an easy style so as to be more intelligible than some earlier works which the author had seen, e.g. the Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār and the ʿArūḍ i Saifī: Bānkīpūr ix 859 (foll. 40. ah 1116/1704–5), probably also Āṣafīyah iii p. 74 no. 311 (M. al-a. by Mīrzā M. Saʿīd. ah 1226/1811), and possibly Āṣafīyah i p. 170 no. 249 (M. al-a., without author’s name).
§ 302. S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ, evidently an Indian, mentions in his preface that he was born in 1909/1679.
- Manār al-dawābiṭ (so ʿAbd al-Muqtadir. A chronogram = 1140/1727–822), or Jāmiʿ al-fawāʾid wa-manār al-ḍawābit (so Pertsch. Rieu seems to have found no title) (beg. ʿIs̲h̲q i mā Majnūn), a treatise on Persian grammar ¶ and poetics illustrated by quotations mainly from Nāṣir ʿAlī and divided into seventeen bābs (of which the headings are given by Pertsch and ʿAbd al-Muqtadir): Rieu Suppt. 169 (1) (Bābs i– viii only. 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 781 (19th cent.), Berlin 1053 (2).
§ 303. S. “Wālih” b. M. Bāqir Mūsawī.
- Dastūr al-naẓm (beg. Bar-jastah maṣraʿī kih az rangīnī), a small work on Persian prosody written in 1140/1727–8 and divided into a muqaddimah, two fanns (as in Ethé 2944 and 2119) or three bābs (as in Rieu ii 859a and Ivanow 1st Suppt. 795 (2)) and a k̲h̲ātimah, which may perhaps correspond to the fourth bāb of Ivanow 1482 and Madrās 480: Ethé 2944 (foll. 44. ah 1161/ 1748), 2119 (foll. 27. ah 1164/1751), Ivanow 1482 ( ah 1191/ 1777), 1st Suppt. 795 (2) ( ah 1289/1872), Madrās 480 ( ah 1201/ 1786–7), Rieu ii 859a (late 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1722 no. 14 (1).
§ 304. Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ārzū” died on 23 Rabīʿ ii 1169/26 Jan. 1756 (see pl i pp. 834–40, etc.).
- Dād i suk̲h̲an (beg. Ḥaqq ān-ast kih ḥ.): see pl. i § 1149. Ivanow 393 (foll. 11–39. Probably ah 1176/1762–3), Lahore Panjāb Univ. ( ah 1229/1814. See ocm. v/4 p. 17).
§ 305. Mīr S̲h̲ams al-Dīn “Faqīr”23 ʿAbbāsī Dihlawī was born at Delhi in 1115/1703–4. At the age of twenty-five, having adopted the life of a dervish, he went to the Deccan and lived for a time at Aurangābād, but after five years he returned to Delhi with Qizil-bās̲h̲ K̲h̲ān “Umīd”. In 1181/1767 he set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and after staying there for two years met his death by shipwreck in 1183/1769–7024 on his journey home. He is the author of a dīwān and of several mat̲h̲nawīs, the best-known of which, Wālih u Sulṭān, was written in 1160/1747 and tells the love-story of his friend, the poet ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Wālih” Dāg̲h̲istānī (for whom see pl. i § 1147).
[Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (cf. Berlin p. 623); Muntak̲h̲ab al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 521; “Ḥairat” Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Sprenger p. 158); K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 375–7 (no. 95); Gul i raʿnā; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390 no. 52; Bānkīpūr viii p. 143); ʿIqd i T̲h̲uraiyā; Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm (Berlin p. 653 no. 196); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 202; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1993; Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii pp. 76–7; Nis̲h̲tar i ʿis̲h̲q; ¶ Natāʾij al-afkār; Sprenger pp. 223, 394; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 442–3; Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 293–4; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 378; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Faqīr; Rieu Suppt. p. 214b; Bānkīpūr iii pp. 235–6; etc.]
- al-Risālat al-wāfiyah fī ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ wa-’l-qāfiyah (beg. Baʿd az taqdīm i ḥamd i Mubdiʿī kih bait i dunyā), completed in 1161/1748, and divided into a muqaddimah, two rukns ((1) on ʿarūḍ, (2) on qāfiyah) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ivanow Curzon 178 (less than the first half of the work. ah 1255/1839 probably), Bānkīpūr ix 855 (2) (foll. 15–32. 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 166 no. 136 ( ah 1296/1879), iii p. 72 no. 312 (?), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 47 no. 18 (?), and in the mss. of ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Wālih’s” Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, where the Wāfiyah is appended to “Faqīr’s’” biography.
Ḥadāʾiq al-balāg̲h̲at (beg. Ḥamdī-kih ruk̲h̲sārah i s̲h̲āhid i bayān), a large work on rhetoric, poetic, etc., completed in 1168/1754–5 and divided into five ḥadīqahs ((1) on bayān, (2) on badīʿ, (3) on ʿarūḍ, (4) on qawāfī, (5) dar fann i muʿammā) and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar sariqāt i s̲h̲iʿrīyah): D̲h̲arīʿah vi p. 282, i.o. d.p.
422 (b) ( ah 1205/1790), 428 (a), Ivanow 395 (early 19th cent.), 396 ( ah 1270/1853–4), Lindesiana p. 220 no. 472 ( ah 1242/ 1826–7), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 7, p. 48 no. 37.
Editions: Calcutta 1814°* (Ḥ. al-b. The Bowers of eloquence: being a treatise on the rhetoric, poetry and rhyme of the Persians; by Meer Shums-ood-deen Fukeer, of Dehlee. Corrected for the press and published … by Mouluvees Jan Alee and Abdoor Ruheem. Pp. 486); [Lucknow] Jaʿfarī Pr. 1263/1847* (ed. M. Jaʿfar. Pp. 135); Lucknow 1303/1886 (Dabdabah i Aḥmadī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Ṣubḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52); Lucknow 1913° (Ḥ. al-b. maʿ ḥās̲h̲iyah Nahr al-ifāḍah. With notes entitled N. al-i. by M. ʿAbd al-Aḥad. Ed. M. Ẓahīr al-Dīn Ḥasan. Pp. 168); [Bombay] Ṣafdarī Pr. 1303/1886°* (pp. 112); Cawnpore 1887 (N.K. 220 pp. [?] Karatay p. 170); Lahore 1920* (with footnotes. Pp. 167).
French translation: Rhétorique et prosodie des langues de l’orient musulman … par M. Garcin de Tassy. Seconde édition, revue, corrigée et augmentée. Paris 1873° (Pp. 439). French translation of Ḥadīqah i: La rhétorique des nations musulmanes, d’aprés le traité persan intitulé Hadayik ul-balaghat, par M. Garcin de Tassy. Paris 1844–5° (extrait du Journal asiatique. 2 pts.); [Ḥadīqah ii (in Journal asiatique 4e série viii pp. 91–130, ix pp. 285–331); Ḥadīqah v and k̲h̲ātimah (in Journal asiatique 4e série x pp. 357–96). v.s.]
Urdu translation: Tarjamah i Ḥadāʾiq al-balāg̲h̲āh prepared in 1258/1842 (see Āṣafīyah iii p. 752) by Imām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” (for whom see pl. iii § 214. supra): in Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī, Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°, Vol. iii (Vols. ii– iii are in i.o.), and separately 1304/1886–7 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 752, where the place of publication is not mentioned).
§ 307. M. ʿĀbid “Dil” b. Jaswant Nāgar was an Urdu poet and lived at Patna. He was the elder brother of M. Raus̲h̲an “Jōs̲h̲is̲h̲” (for whom see § 308 infra).
[Sprenger p. 245; Garcin de Tassy i p. 419.]
- ʿArūḍ al-Hindī (a chronogram = 1176/1762–3) (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i R. al-ʿā … mak̲h̲fī na-mānad kih aḥqar M. ʿĀbid al-mutak̲h̲alliṣ ba-Dil), on Hindī prosody: Bānkīpūr xvii 1659 ( ah 1220/1806).
§ 308. M. Raus̲h̲an “Jōs̲h̲is̲h̲” was an Urdu poet resident at Patna, who in 1194/1780 sent some extracts from his dīwān to ʿAlī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān (cf. pl. i § 922) for inclusion in the Gulzār i Ibrāhīm (for which see pl. i § 1177). He was a brother of M. ʿĀbid “Dil” (for whom see § 307 supra).
[Sprenger p. 245, where references are given to some Urdu tad̲h̲kirahs; Garcin de Tassy ii p. 109.] Risālah i qāfiyah (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i Ilāhī u naʿt i ḥaḍrat i Risālat-panāhī), a tract written for Mīr M. Amīn: Bānkīpūr xvii 1658 (foll. 10. 1213 Faṣlī/1805–6).
§ 309. Mīrzā Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān “Ṭālib” b. Ḥājjī M. Bēg K̲h̲ān Tabrīzī Iṣfahānī Landanī, who died at Lucknow in 1220/1805–6, has already been mentioned as the author of the Lubb al-siyar u jahān-numā ( pl. i § 173), the Tafḍīḥ al-g̲h̲āfilīn ( pl. i § 934), and the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār ( pl. i § 1177).
- Risālah i Ṭālibī dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ u qawāfī (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i bī-ḥadd mar Ṣāniʿ i Nāẓimī rā kih), in two bābs: Ethé 696 (foll. 370b–375b. Transcribed by G. Swinton from an autograph and corrected by the author in 1804), Bodleian 391 ( ah 1210/ 1796), Rieu Suppt. 116 (foll. 326b–330b. Early 19th cent.), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 48 no. 32, Ivanow Curzon 179 (2).
C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat (beg. Nak̲h̲wat-furūs̲h̲ī i zabān i faṣīḥ-bayānān), on certain matters relating to Persian composition, written in 1217/1802–3 on the author’s return from Kālpī to Lucknow after an absence of two years and a half, and divided into four s̲h̲arbats ((1) Persian prosody and rhyme, (2) modern idioms and figurative phrases, (3) elegant expressions, faulty phrases used in India, and models of epistolary composition, (4) short Turkī grammar and vocabulary): D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 313 no. 1493, Princeton 446 ( ah 1219/1805), Rieu ii 858a ( ah 1229/1814), 795a (foll. 71–131. ah 1229/1814), Lindesiana p. 173 no. 604 ( ah 1233/1817–18. Preceded by an account of the author’s life and works), Browne Suppt. 371 (Corpus 67 (3). ah 1252/1836–7), 372 (Corpus 190 (1)), Bānkīpūr ix 857 ( ah 1253/1838).
¶ Editions: Lucknow 1261/1845 (Muḥammadī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52); Lucknow 1268/1852* (with marginal notes by Qāḍī G̲h̲ulām-Ḥaḍrat and M. Hādī ʿAlī. Pp. 86); 1887° (ed. M. G̲h̲ulām-Jabbār with marginal notes mainly from Q. G̲h̲.-Ḥ. and M.H.ʿA. Pp. 112); Bombay 1303/1885–6 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 162 no. 233).
§ 311. Mōtī Rām Mērat’hī wrote his Mīzān al-ʿarūḍ when serving under jmz mārs [James Morris?] Ṣāḥib.
- Mīzān al-ʿarūḍ (a chronogram = 1223/1808, the date of inception, 28 Ṣafar 1224/14 April 1809 being the date completion) (beg. Subḥān Allāh K̲h̲udāy i Yaktā *), a manual of prosody based on “an incomplete copy of a treatise containing some portions from the treatise by Sayfî” and illustrated by numerous verses of the author’s own, which in most cases commemorate contemporary events: Bānkīpūr ix 858 (19th cent.).
§ 312. Abū ’l-Qāsim “T̲h̲anāʾī” Farāhānī, [entitled Qāʾim-maqām, was put to death in 1835 (see pl. i § 432). v.s.]
Risālah i ʿarūḍīyah: see Karatay p. 161. (cf. pl. iii § 629 infra).
Probably the same work is ʿArūḍīyah: Tihrān 1280/1864 (243 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1112).
§ 313. Saʿādat-yār K̲h̲ān “Rangīn”, an Urdu poet who wrote little in Persian,25 was the son of Ṭahmās K̲h̲ān (see pl. i § 800 and was born at Sirhind in 1170/1756–7. He died in 1250/ 1834–5 or 1251/1835–6.
[Blumhardt Catalogue of the Hindustani MSS…. in the … India Office pp. 94–114, where the autobiographical statements of “Rangīn” are summarised; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 560–2; Sprenger p. 280; R.B. Saksēna History of Urdu literature pp. 93–5; T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature p. 56; etc.].
Majālis i Rangīn, accounts, written in Persian some time between 1235/1820 and 1238/1822–3, of sixty-five conversations at which verses (mainly in Urdu) were composed or quoted with criticisms made by “Rangīn” of those verses and their authors: i.o. U. 84 (= Blumhardt 185. 53 foll. ah 1249/1833, autograph), U. 85 (= Blumhardt 186. 27 foll. ad 1898*).
Edition: [Lucknow] 1264/1848*.
§ 314. Qabūl Muḥammad, author of the seventh volume (qulzum) of the Haft qulzum, the large Persian dictionary nominally by King G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar, is believed to have been the real author of the whole work. His Siḥr i ḥalāl u ¶ wird i asḥār, a mat̲h̲nawī in which all the words consist entirely of undotted letters, was published at Lucknow in 1264/1848* (cf. Sprenger 690, where the work is placed under “Hindústány poets” [though the opening verse quoted by Sprenger is in Persian], Garcin de Tassy i p. 394 under Cubul Muhammad). It seems probable that the Anwār al-nujūm of Q.M. Anṣārī ( pl. ii § 148) is also by him.
(Risālah i ʿarūḍ) (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir u t̲h̲. i mutakāt̲h̲ir Ṣāniʿī rā sazā-st kih nauʿ i insān-rā az tamānī i mak̲h̲lūqāt), on prosody, poetical figures, etc., evidently identical with the seventh qulzum of the Haft qulzum, since the date of completion is indicated with the same discrepancy between chronogram (g̲h̲urrah = 1205/ 1791) and words (1237/1822): Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2336 (126 foll. ah 1265/1849).
German translation: Grammatik, Poetik und Rhetorik der Perser. Nach dem siebenten Bande des Heft Ḱolzum dargestellt von Friedrich Rückert. Neu herausgegeben von W. Pertsch. Gotha 1874 (Cf. Zu Rückert’s Grammatik, Poetik u. Rhetorik d. Perser in H.L. Fleischer’s Kleinere Schriften iii pp. 532–605).
§ 315. S. Karāmat ʿAlī b. Raḥmat ʿAlī Ḥusainī Jaunpūrī,26 born at Jaunpūr in 1796, left his birthplace at the age of eighteen and spent two years at Lucknow and ten in Persia. From 1832 to 1835 he represented the Government of India at the court of Dōst-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān in Kābul. In 1837 he was appointed Superintendent (Mutawallī) of the Hoogly Imāmbāṛah27 and held that post until his death in 1876. He wrote Urdu works entitled Maʾk̲h̲ad̲h̲ i ʿulūm (English translation: Calcutta 1867°) and Mabdaʾ al-ʿulūm (Hoogly 1869*, [Calcutta 1870°]. English translation: Calcutta 1870°*).
[Tajallī i nūr; England and Russia in Afghanistan, by Syed Ameer Ali (in the Nineteenth century, May 1905, pp. 777–86); Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 229.]
- (Muk̲h̲taṣar dar ʿarūḍ u qawāfī i Pārsī-zabānān),28 on prosody in three bābs, written at the suggestion of Mr. S̲h̲wlz Farānsīs, whom the author ¶ had met at Tabrīz, and dedicated to Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim Qāʾim-maqām (for whom see pl. i § 432): Tihrān n.d. (121 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1129); [Calcutta? (no town or press mentioned), circ. 1830?°*] (title-page blank. Beg.: Pas az sitāyis̲h̲ u niyāyis̲h̲ i K̲h̲udāwand i hastī i Pāyandah. Pp. 124); Calcutta (ʿArūḍ i Karāmat ʿAlī. Pp. 122. See Zenker ii p. 27 no. 356. Possibly identical with the preceding edition, if the number of pages has been incorrectly stated by Zenker).
§ 316. Qudrat Aḥmad b. ʿInāyat Aḥmad Fārūqī Ṣafawī Gōpāmau’ī, the author of the Kāfil al-ʿarūḍ, is doubtless identical with the Q.A. b. ʿI. A., who wrote a medical work of which the title is given in the British Museum catalogue as Bahj al-ḥad̲h̲āqat.29
- Kāfil al-ʿarūḍ (a chronogram = 1238/1822–3): [Lucknow] Ḥasanī Press 1260/1844* (pp. 24).
§ 317. Kunwar30 Hīrā Lāl “Ḍamīr” b. Rājah Pyārē Lāl “Ulfatī” Kāyat’h ʿAẓīmābādī was a friend of Wāzīr ʿAlī “ʿIbratī” ʿAẓīmābādī, who says that he died in 1259/1843.
[Miʿrāj al-k̲h̲ayāl (Ivanow Curzon 60 no. 6); Riyāḍ al-afkār (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 56); Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 258. Notices of his father “Ulfatī” (d. 1254/1838) will be found in the same works.]
- Risālah i Ḍamīr (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. īn suṭūr ast c̲h̲and kih az qalam), on prosody and metres: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 975 ( ah 1242/1826).
Barāhīn al-ʿAjam fī qawānīn al-muʿjam, on prosody with special reference to rhyme in weak letters and the distinction between maʿrūf and majhūl vowels, completed in 1251/1835–6 (a date for which the printed edition substitutes 1268/1851–2), dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār, and divided into a preface and twenty-four bābs: Blochet ii 1046 ( ah 1253/1837), Majlis 751 (about half the work).
Edition: Tihrān 1272/1855° (Pp. 165).
Kāfī dar ʿilm i qawāfī: Cawnpore [1878°] (in the first of the three volumes of the Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī, Cawnpore and Lucknow [1878–80°]).
Commentary: Wāfī, by the author himself: Cawnpore [1878°] (following the Kāfī in the same edition).
§ 320. Ḥājjī M. “Bīdil” b. ʿAlī M. Māzandarānī.
- Qiwām al-ʿarūḍ (a chronogram = 1254/1838), in three qāʾimahs [probably in Persian, though the catalogue does not expressly say so]: Majlis i 421 (46 foll. ah 1296/1879).
§ 321. Bas̲h̲īr al-Dīn.
- Mīzān al-as̲h̲ʿār: Murs̲h̲idābād 1261/1845* (appended to the same author’s Persian grammar, Taʿlīm al-ṣibyān. 72 pp. Edited by the author and his sons, K̲h̲abīr al-Dīn and Walī al-Dīn).
§ 322. Mullā-bās̲h̲ī ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Īrawānī Tabrīzī died in 1294/1877 (see pl. iii § 217 supra).
- Muk̲h̲taṣar al-ʿarūḍ: Tabrīz 1262/1846 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1410).
§ 323. M. Saʿd Allāh Murādābād,, who was born in 1219/1804–5 and died at Rāmpūr in 1294/1877, has already been mentioned as the author of the Nawādir al-bayān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān ( pl. i § 81 (1)), the Mīzān al-afkār s̲h̲arḥ Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār (under § 279 supra) and other works.
- Risālah i rubāʿī. Edition: [Lucknow] 1282/1865° (Mīzān al-afkār … maʿa Risālah i rubāʿī. Cf. under § 279 supra).
§ 324. Maulawī Āg̲h̲ā Aḥmad ʿAlī b. Āg̲h̲ā S̲h̲ajāʿat-ʿAlī, who was born at Dacca in 1255/1839 and died there in 1290/1873, has already been mentioned as the author of the Haft āsmān ( pl. i § 1224), the Muʾaiyid i Burhān ( pl. iii § 32 (2)), and the S̲h̲ams̲h̲īr i tīztar ( pl. iii § 32 (4)).
- Risālah i tarānah, on the rubāʿī. Edition: Calcutta 1867°* (A treatise on the Rubá’i entitled Risálah i Taránah by Ághá Ahmad ’Alí … with an introduction and … notes by H. Blochmann. Pp. xi, 14).
§ 325. Muns̲h̲ī S. Muẓaffar ʿAlī “Asīr” b. Mīr Madad ʿAlī died at Rāmpūr in 1299/1881–2 (see pl. iii § 222 supra).
- ¶ S̲h̲ajarat al-ʿarūḍ: [Lucknow], N.K., 1290/1873°* (followed by the same author’s Rauḍat al-qawāfī (p. 60) and Risālah i iḍāfat. Pp. 86); Lucknow 1915 (86 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1008).
- Rauḍat al-qawāfī: [Lucknow], N.K., 1290/1873°* (see S̲h̲ajarat al-ʿarūḍ above).
§ 326. Yūsuf Ḥusain S̲h̲ahīd.
- Risālah i ʿarūḍ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l…. a. b. bandah i z̲h̲ūlīdah), a “very modern” tract written “as a reply to” a treatise on the same subject which its author, S̲h̲. Mahdī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, had sent to Nawwāb Jaʿfar Ḥasan K̲h̲ān: Bānkīpūr ix 860 (foll. 19. 19th cent.).
§ 327. Najaf-qulī K̲h̲ān Ḥusām al-Daulah, known as (al-maʿrūf bi-) Āqā Sardār, b. Mīrzā Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān b. Bahrām Mīrzā b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār was born at Najaf in 1303/ 1885–6.
- Durrah i Najafī, on prosody, composed in 1330/1912: Bombay 1333/1915* (Muẓaffarī Pr. 224 pp. Cf. D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 114 no. 417; Mus̲h̲ār i 664).
§ 328. Abū ’l-Ḥasan “K̲h̲urram” S̲h̲īrāzī entitled Ṣadr al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, who has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 307) as the author of the S̲h̲ajāʿat al-Ḥusainī, and who wrote also Manāqib al-Aʾimmah, poems in praise of the Imāms, Maṭlaʿ al-anwār, poems in praise of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, etc., Maulūd-nāmah, a poem on the Twelfth Imām, and Bahār i k̲h̲urram, is doubtless identical with the “K̲h̲urram” S̲h̲īrāzī, whose name according to the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ( ii p. 110) was Najaf-Qulī and who after being one of the Yasāwulān i Ḥuḍūr entered the service of Ṣāḥib-qirān Mīrzā.
- Bahār i k̲h̲urram u ḥadīqah i dānis̲h̲, on prosody: Bombay 1328/1910°* (40 pp. Preceded by the above-mentioned S̲h̲. al-Ḥ., M.-n., Manāqib al-A., and Maṭalʿ al-a. 2nd ed. [?]); 1328/1911°.
§ 329. S. Mahdī Badāʾiʿ-nigār “Lāhūtī” Tafris̲h̲ī (cf. pl. i § 99b and Suppt. no. 25).
- Badāʾiʿ al-ʿarūḍ: Tihrān ah 1344/ a.h.s. 1304/ ad 1925–6 (31 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 211).
§ 330. Sarhang Aḥmad Ak̲h̲gar Lārījānī b. Ibrāhīm Farsīw Āmulī.
- ʿIlm i ʿarūḍ: Tihrān (Mus̲h̲ār i 1129).
¶ § 331. Parwīz Nātil K̲h̲ānlarī.
[S̲h̲ayān Māzandarān ii pp. 99–105 (portrait).]
- Taḥqīq i intiqādī dar ʿarūḍ i Fārsī: Tihrān a.h.s. 1327/ ad 1948–9 (225 pp. Tihrān Univ. Publications, no. 37).
§ 332. Ḥusain [b.] Muḥammad S̲h̲āh [b.] Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Anṣārī al-mulaqqab bi-’l-S̲h̲ihāb, as he calls himself in his preface (ed. Yūs̲h̲aʿ p. 213), or S̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Anṣārī as he is called in the colophon, wrote in the time of ʿAlāʾ al-Dunyā wa-’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Muḥammad S̲h̲āh al-Sulṭān (p. 27), i.e. Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī.
Kanz al-fawāʾid (beg. Ḥ. mar Ṣāniʿī rā kih ṣanʿat i Ū jiyād i ḍamāʾir …), on poetics and prosody in five faṣls: Madrās Govt. Or. mss. Lib.
Edition: Kanz-al-fawāʾid by Husain Muhammad Shāh Shihāb Ansārī. Edited by A.S. U’sha’ [on the Persian title-page: Saiyid Yūs̲h̲aʿ]. Madras 1956‡ (Madras University Islamic Series, no. 18).
§ 333. Appendix
- Anīs al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. u t̲h̲. i bī-ʿadd ḥaḍrat i Pāds̲h̲āhī rā kih), probably by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Maʿrūf: Ivanow 1481 (defective. ah 852/1448).
- ʿArūḍ i Jahāngīr (beg. Sp. i wāfir Yazdān rā kih Āfrīnandah i insān i kāmil ast), by Amīr-zādah Jahāngīr Mīrzā: Majlis 643 (3) ( ah 1270/1853–4).
- ʿArūḍ i Mūsawī: Lindesiana p. 210 no. 726 ( ah 1093/ 1682).
- ʿArūḍ-zādah, by ʿAbd al-Rasūl b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir b. Ḥasan Qurais̲h̲ī: Āṣafīyah i p. 168 no. 101 ( ah 1226/1811).
- Dabistān al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ,31 “on the art” (Edwards), by M. b. Ḥasan Ḥasan Ḥusainī K̲h̲urasānī, author of the Arabic al-Baḥr al-ṣāfī s̲h̲arḥ al-Wāfī:32 [Mas̲h̲had] 1295/1878° (foll. 65–127 in al-Majmūʿat al-laṭīfah, which contains also Qaṣīdah i mulammaʿah, a macaronic poem, al-Baḥr al-ṣāfī, al-Wāfī, two Arabic riddles, etc.).
- al-Dāhiyah: Kāẓimīyah Hibat al-Dīn ( ah 1088/1677. D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 47 no. 120).
- G̲h̲unc̲h̲ah i bī-k̲h̲ār, on poetical devices based on Rājah Balavant Siṃha’s Sanskrit work C̲h̲itra-c̲h̲andrikā, by Ganēs̲h̲ Dās: Gūjrānwālah. 1288/1871°* (46 pp.).
- ¶ Ik̲h̲tirāʿ i jadīd, poems illustrating certain poetical devices, by Kis̲h̲an-Kumār “Waqār”: [Lucknow 33], N.K., 1877°* (12 pp.); Murādābād 1318/1901° (12 pp.).
- ʿIlm i ʿarūḍ: Lindesiana p. 158 no. 710 (circ. ad 1780).
- Kāfī (Risālah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ): Lindesiana p. 168 no. 705 ( ah 1240/1824–5).
al-Kāfiyah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ [wa-’l-qāfiyah presumably] (beg. La-qad was̲h̲s̲h̲amtu fātiḥata ’l-kalāmi *), by Abū Bakr b. M. al-K̲h̲awārazmī (perhaps an Arabic work, though the catalogue does not say so): Cairo p. 440 (defective).
The same Abū Bakr al-K̲h̲awārazmī is associated with another work recorded on the same page in the Cairo catalogue, namely S̲h̲arḥ al-qaṣīdah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ li-ṣāḥib al-Kāfiyah (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ka-mā yanbag̲h̲ī), but the precise nature of this work is not clear.
- Mak̲h̲zan al-qawāfī, by?: Āṣafīyah i p. 170 ( ah 1296/1879).
- Maṣdar al-ʿarūḍ, two mnemonic couplets illustrating the rules of prosody, followed by a detailed analysis, by Aḥmad b. Muḥammad (Aḥmad Mīrzā according to the Quarterly Catalogue of Books): Lucknow 1290/1873°* (M. al-ʿa. s̲h̲arḥ al-baitain. Pp. 4).
- Minhāj al-ʿarūḍ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. ’btdy [sic] wa-’sthdy [sic]), a short tract: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 47 no. 24 ( ah 1216/ 1801–2), Ethé 2140 (2) (foll. 31b–40), Āṣafīyah i p. 170.
- Miʿrāj al-ʿarūḍ, by G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn b. Jamāl al-Dīn: Tihrān 1315/1897–8 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1459).
- Mirʾāt al-qawāfī, by S̲h̲āh Bak̲h̲s̲h̲is̲h̲ Ḥusain: Delhi 1262/1846 (Ḥasanī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52).
- Mirʾāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, “metrical rules followed by a Divan to illustrate them”, by Ṣāliḥ Iṣpahānī: Eton 148.
- Mīzān al-as̲h̲ʿār: Āṣafīyah i p. 170 no. 249.
- Muk̲h̲taṣar dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ (beg. Ḥ. u sp. i g̲h̲air i Maqṭūʿ … īn muk̲h̲taṣarī-st dar ʿi. i ʿa. kih afqar al-ʿibād wa-aḥqaruhum Rustam b. ʿAlī al-Ṭāramī al-maʿrūf bi-K̲h̲āwarī az kutub i mutaqaddimīn intik̲h̲āb kardah ast), a short tract on prosody in seven faṣls by “K̲h̲āwarī”, i.e. Rustam b. ʿAlī al-Ṭāramī (cf. § 333 (41) infra): Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 418 (Risālah fī ’l-ʿarūḍ), Cairo p. 439 (Risālah muntak̲h̲abah min kutub al-ʿarūḍ. ah 1146/1733–4), Aumer 315 (2).
- Risālah dar ʿarūḍ u qāfiyah, a short work for beginners by Qāsim: Lucknow 1260/1844 (Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, ptd. bks., no. 65).
- ¶ Risālah dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ, by ʿAbd al-Razzāq Iṣfahānī (cf. Sipahsālār ii p. 4453): Leningrad Univ. 51d (Salemann-Rosen p. 15).
- (Risālah dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a. b. īn risālah īst dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ mus̲h̲tamil bar muqaddimah u yak-bāb u k̲h̲ātimah), an anonymous work later than “Saifī” (d. 905/1499–1500): Bānkīpūr ix 853 (foll. 24. ah 1101/1690).
- Risālah dar ʿilm i qawāfī, by “Maulānā Qāsim Kāfī”:34 Lucknow 1260/1844 (Riḍāʾī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52).
- Risālah dar qāfiyah (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i Janāb i Aḥadīyat), a short work in a muqaddimah and seven unnumbered faṣls, by M. Fāʾiq, possibly the author of the Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ ( pl. iii § 585 infra): Ivanow Curzon 182 (foll. 12. Mid 19th cent.).
- (Risālah fī ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ) (beg. Ai ism i Tū ganj i har ṭilasmī *): Cairo p. 440.
- Risālah i ʿAbd al-Jāmiʿ i “Rājī”: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 48 no. 34.
- (Risālah i ʿarūḍ), by Ẓafar ʿAlī Mas̲h̲hadī: Lindesiana p. 236 no. 703c ( ah 1217/1802), 703d (a different work. Same date).
- (Risālah i ʿarūḍ), various works insufficiently described for identification: Berlin 3 (1) (in 14 bābs), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. xxxiv no. 26 (the same work or works as Rehatsek p. 149 no. 76), Browne Suppt. 1510 (3), Rehatsek p. 149 nos. 75 and 76, Salemann-Rosen p. 15 no. 51c.
- (Risālah i ʿarūḍ wa-g̲h̲airah), “On Prosody. Inŝa, &”, by M. Wafā: Lindesiana p. 197 no. 772a (circ. ad 1840).
- (Risālah i manẓūm dar ʿarūḍ) (beg. Baḥr i awwal Hazaj buwad hus̲h̲yār *), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 969 (9) (foll. 276b–283b. Early 19th cent.).
- (Risālah i manẓūmah dar ṣanāʾiʿ i s̲h̲iʿr) (beg. Ba-nām i Ān-kih s̲h̲amʿ-afrūz i mihr ast *), described by Palmer as a mat̲h̲nawī relating to qāfiyah [in spite of the quasi-title]: Cambridge Trinity R. 13. 45 (17) (Palmer p. 115. ad 1477).
- (Risālah i qāfiyah) (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-ʿadd mar K̲h̲āliqī rā kih zabān), by an author who frequently quotes S̲h̲ams i Qais and “Ṣāʾib” (d. 1087/1676 or 1088/1677): Rieu ii 814b.
- Risālah i qāfiyah (beg. al-Ḥ. l. al-Wāhib al-Minwāl), a brief work by a certain “Hilālī”: Ivanow Curzon 175 (foll. 12–16. ah 1255/1839).
- (Risālah i qāfiyah), various works insufficiently described for identification: Āṣafīyah i p. 164, Peshawar 1179 ( ah 993/1585), Rehatsek p. 149 no. 76.
- Risālah i qāfiyah-numā. Edition: place? date? (Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 130).
- ¶ Riyāḍ al-qawāfī, by Mirzā M. b. ʿInāyat Aḥmad K̲h̲ān Kāmil:35 i.o. D. Misc. 36 (1219. Faṣlī/ ad 1811).
- Tadqīq i daqīq, on some points of prosody and (more especially?) rhyme, by S. ʿAlī Muḥammad: [Lucknow, 1878°*] (pp. 30).
- Taqwīm al-as̲h̲ʿār, on Arabic and Persian prosody, by M. ʿAzīz al-Dīn known as (maʿrūf bah) M. Baṛē:36 Jāmiʿ al-ak̲h̲bār Pr. [Madrās] 1259/1843* (pp. 58. Cf. Āṣafīyah i p. 162 no. 86).
- al-Wāfī fī ’l-ʿarūḍ wa-’l-qawāfī, metrical, by ʿAḍud al-Dīn M. “ʿAḍud”: Bihār 1885* (ed. M. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr Bihārī. 16 pp. S̲h̲araf Pr.).
- Wāfiyah, by M. Baqā: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 48 no. 33 ( ah 1272/1858–9).
- al-Wāfiyah fī ʿilm al-qāfiyah (beg. Ḥ. i farāwān K̲h̲āliqī rā ʿamma naʿmāʾuhu), a short tract on rhyme, by Maulānā K̲h̲āwarī, i.e. Rustam b. ʿAlī al-Ṭāramī (cf. § 333 (19) supra): Aumer 315 (4) (foll. 46–47b. ah 1003/1594–5), Cairo p. 439 (Qawāʿid al-kāfī fī ʿilm al-qawāfī. ah 1146/1734).
- Zubdat al-ʿarūḍ, by M. Muʾmin surnamed (mulaqqab bah) Riḍawī b. S. ʿAbd al-Muhaimin surnamed (mulaqqab bi-) Saiyid Masjidī b. S. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār Mōhānī:37 Āṣafīyah i p. 166 no. 107 ( ah 1186/1772–3).
^ Back to text1. The introduction has been reprinted in Armag̲h̲ān xi/5 (July–Aug. 1930) pp. 398–400, xi/6 (Aug.–Sept. 1930) pp. 453–62, xi/7 (Sept.–Oct. 1930) pp. 518–26, xi/8 (Oct.–Nov. 1930) pp. 600–8, xi/9 (Nov.–Dec. 1930) pp. 690–703, xi/10 (Dec. 1930–Jan. 1931) pp. 725–42, xi/11 (Jan.–Feb. 1931) pp. 820–33, xi/12 (Feb.–March 1931) pp. 890–901.
^ Back to text13. According to Blochmann “Saifi’s treatise … and a few others, commence, as is natural, with the rules of scanning, introduce technical terms gradually, and only such as are absolutely required, and treat the ‘circles’ as redundant, though perhaps necessary for a systematic work. Hence, for the purpose of teaching, Saifi’s work has always been preferred to other treatises, and has for nearly four centuries been studied in the Madrasahs of the East.”
^ Back to text14. The ms. Ethé 2930 (Ḥās̲h̲iyah i Qāfiyah) contains some notes on the maqṭaʿ of the Takmīl al-ṣanāʾiʿ (as it is the called). At the beginning of those notes it is stated that the T. al-ṣ. is divided into a maṭlaʿ (on the meaning of poetry and its different kinds), three baits ((1) dar ṣanāʾiʿ, (2) dar muʿammā, (3) dar ʿarūḍ) and a maqṭaʿ (dar qāfiyah).
^ Back to text15. According to the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār (as quoted in the Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān)” Waḥīdī “dar s̲h̲ināk̲h̲t i as̲h̲ʿār u ʿilm i ʿarūḍ u qāfiyah ṣāḥib-wuqūf ast u dar naẓm i g̲h̲azal qudrat i tamām ẓāhir mī-numūdah ast risālah dar ʿarūḍ u qāfiyah (Muk̲h̲taṣar i Waḥīdī) nawis̲h̲tah dar akt̲h̲ar i bilād i ʿIrāq u Ād̲h̲arbāyjān mas̲h̲hūr-ast u baʿḍī az abyāt i ū dar ān risālah jihat i amt̲h̲ilah mad̲h̲kūr. Even if the bracketed title Muk̲h̲taṣar i Waḥīdī is an explanatory addition by the author of the Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān (which may or may not be the case), it can scarcely be doubted that the Jamʿ i muk̲h̲taṣar is the work that Taqī Kās̲h̲ī had in mind. If, however, the Bodleian ms. 1346 was in fact transcribed from a ms. written in 869/1464–5, Taqī Kās̲h̲ī’s identification can scarcely be correct.
^ Back to text16. So according to the text of the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār as quoted in the Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān. The same date is given in the Tuḥfah i Sāmī. In Sprenger’s summary of the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār the date is 938.
^ Back to text20. K̲h̲wājah Naṣīr al-Dīn “Naṣīr” b. K̲h̲wājah Maḥmūd Hamadānī visited S̲h̲īrāz in 1015/1606–7, when Taqī Auḥadī met him (Sprenger p. 512), and died in 1030/1621 (Naṣrābādī p. 1677). “Wālih” Dāg̲h̲istānī (cited by Rieu) says that he went [from Persia] to Akbar’s court and thence to that of the Quṭb-S̲h̲āh. mss. of his dīwān have been described by Ethē (no. 1484), Rieu (Suppt 318 (2)) and Sprenger (no. 408). Prefaces, riddles, letters and other compositions of his are collected in the Bait al-s̲h̲araf i maʿānī (Ivanow-Curzon 140) and smaller selections from his works are to be found in various anthologies and scrap-books (e.g. Gotha 9, (9) and (10), Ivanow 419 (8)). See Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir (Sprenger p. 54); Naṣrābādī p. 166; Hamīs̲h̲ah bahār (Sprenger. p. 129); Riyād al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (cf. Sprenger p. 512); Muntak̲h̲ab al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 689; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 616; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2797; Riyāḍ al-afkār (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 59); Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 122; Ṣubh i guls̲h̲an p. 522.
^ Back to text26. This Saiyid is to be distinguished from Maulawī Karāmat ʿAlī Ṣiddīqī Jaunpūrī, the religious revivalist and reformer, who wrote numerous Urdu works (some of them ascribed to his namesake in the Urdu catalogues of the British Museum and India Office) and died at Rangpūr in 1290/1873 (see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 171; Ency. Ist. under K. ʿA. (A. Yūsuf ʿAlī); etc.).
^ Back to text28. No title is formally given to the work, but Mr. S̲h̲wlz Farānsīs asked the author to write Muk̲h̲taṣarī d. ʿa. u. q. i P.-z., and the latter refers to his work as īn muk̲h̲taṣar. The title Muk̲h̲taṣar i qawāʿid i ʿarūḍ given to the work in the British Museum catalogue does not occur as such in the preface and seems in fact to be based on a misunderstanding.
^ Back to text32. D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 41 no. 86, where the author’s name is given as S.M.b. Ḥasan Ḥusainī Hindī Harawī. The author of al-Wāfī fī ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ wa-’l-qawāfī, an Arabic metrical work, was according to Edwards “a certain Muḥammad”. It seems possible that he was M. b. Ḥasan himself.