In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
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§ 420. Muḥammad b. M. Taqī al-Sāruʾī was in the service of the Qājārs and was a pupil of Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān Astarābādī (see p. 252 supra).
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī,1 a history of the rise of the Qājārs and of the reign of Āqā Muḥammad written by order of Prince (afterwards King) Fatḥ ʿAlī and completed in 1211/1796–7 (with a continuation relating to events in 1212 after Āqā Muḥammad’s death): Rieu Suppt. 67 (18th cent.), Rieu i 199a (ah 1222/1807), 200a (circ. ad 1812), Lindesiana p. 197 no. 161 (circ. ad 1800), Bānkīpūr vi 526 (ah 1222/1807), Blochet i 492 (early 19th cent.), r.a.s. P. 149 = Morley 149 (ah 1235/1819), P. 150 = Morley 150.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh i Qājār, apparently left unfinished since there are large gaps and it ends abruptly with the marriage of Prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā in 1217/1802–3: Rieu i 200a (circ. ad 1812), ibid, (early 19th cent.).
§ 421. Of unknown authorship is the
- Risālah i tadābīr i S̲h̲āh u Wazīr, an account of Āqā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān and his Wazīr Ḥājjī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān S̲h̲īrāzī: r.a.s. P. 155 = Morley 156.
§ 422. ʿAlī-Qulī “Iqbāl” b. M. C̲h̲ulāwī Māzandarānī.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i mulk-ārā, a history of the Qājārs and of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign dedicated to M.-Qulī Mīrzā: Majlis 235 (defective, breaking off in 1209/1794–5).
§ 423. Muṣṭafā-Qulī b. M. Ḥasan al-Mūsawī al-Sarāwī al-Sabalānī wrote in 1269/1852–3 for Qahramān Mīrzā, the governor of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān, his
- ¶ Tārīk̲h̲ i āl i Qājār, a history of the Qājārs to ah 1220/1805: Browne Coll. H. 19 (9) = Houtum-Schindler 21 (ah 1274/1857).
§ 424. M. Nadīm “Nadīm” b. M. Kāẓim, a native of Bārfurūs̲h̲, was brought up at the Persian court, his father being K̲h̲wānsālār, or Steward, to Āqā Muḥammad, and he himself became Librarian and Reader to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. He died in 1241/1825–6.
- Mufarriḥ al-qulūb, divided into five bābs on moral virtues with illustrative anecdotes and a k̲h̲ātimah occupying more than half the work and giving a full account of Āqā Muḥammad’s career and of Fath-ʿAlī’s reign to circ. ah 1220/1805–6: Rieu Suppt. 397 (1st half of 19th cent.).
[Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 101a; Safīnat al-Maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 122) fol. 249; Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 129a; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 514.]
§ 425. Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ṣabā” Kās̲h̲ānī was poet-laureate to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. For a time he was Governor of Qum and Kās̲h̲ān, but he resigned and remained constantly in attendance at court. In addition to his S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āh-nāmah, which according to Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān was by some considered superior to the S̲h̲āh-nāmah of Firdausī, he was the author of a dīwān, and of mat̲h̲nawīs entitled K̲h̲udāwand-nāmah (Ivanow 888) and Guls̲h̲an i Ṣabā. In the opinion of Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān no poet equal to him had appeared for nearly seven hundred years. He died in 1238/1822–3. His eldest son, M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān “ʿAndalīb”, succeeded him as Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ.
- S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah, an epic on the wars of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh: Ethé 901 (superb copy. ah 1225/1810. Pictures), Bodleian 520 (superb copy, presented to Sir G. Ouseley by Fatḥ-ʿAlī in 1812. Pictures), Flügel i 639 (presented by Fatḥ-ʿAlī to the Emperor Franz. Pictures), Berlin 985 (ah 1241/1826), Browne Coll. v 85, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 734).
Edition: Bombay [1890°*].
Text of the prose preface: Fundgruben des Orients vi (Vienna, 1818), pp. 341–8 (edited by Hammer-Purgstall).
German translation of the preface: Wiener Jahrbücher vi, Anz.-Blatt, p. 31.
Extracts and German translations by Hammer: Wiener Jahrbücher xi Anz.-Bl. pp. 1 seq., xvii Anz.-Bl. p. 32 etc., xviii Anz.-Bl. p. 39 etc. (see Flügel i p. 604).
Description: Wiener Jahrbücher vi Anz.-Bl. pp. 29–44.
[Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (Rieu Suppt. 118) fol. 18a; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 63a; Safīnat al-maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 122) fol. 33b; Tad̲h̲kirah ¶ i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124); Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 267–98; Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn pp. 263–6; Madāʾiḥ al-Muʿtamadīyah (Rieu Suppt. 127) fol. 159a; Wiener Jahrbücher xviii, Anz.-Bl. p. 51; Browne Lit. Hist. iv 309–10.]
§ 426. ʿAbd al-Razzāq Bēg “Maftūn” b. Najaf-Qulī K̲h̲ān Dunbulī, 2 the son of a Bēglarbēgī of Tabrīz, was a favourite of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s eldest son, the Nāʾib al-Salṭanah ʿAbbās Mīrzā. He was born at Khūy in 1176/1762–3. After his father’s death he lived first at S̲h̲īrāz and afterwards at Iṣfahān. He died in 1243/1827–8. In addition to the works mentioned below he wrote, according to the Majlis catalogue, p. 315, a Tārīk̲h̲ i Danābilah.
- Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Sulṭānīyah, a history of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh to ah 1229/1814 with a brief account of his predecessors: Rieu Suppt. 68–9 (ah 1236/1821), r.a.s. P. 151–2 = Morley 151–3, Bānkīpūr vi 528 (defective, ending with ah 1228), Madras (?) (author not stated).
Edition: Tabrīz 1241/1826° (contains also the years 1230/1815–1241/1825–6).
English translation: The dynasty of the Kajars translated from the original Persian manuscript presented by His Majesty Faty Aly Shah to Sir H.J. Brydges [the translator] … London 1833°* (only about 2/3 of the Tabrīz text, ending with ah 1226/1811).
Description: Wiener Jahrbücher liii, Anz.-Bl. p. 58 (Hammer-Purgstall).
- Tajribat al-aḥrār wa-tasliyat al-abrār, personal memoirs with notices of his contemporaries written ah 1228/1813: Rieu Suppt. 132 (19th cent.), Majlis 534.
- Nigāristān i Dārā, on the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign written ah 1241/1825–6: Rieu Suppt. 123 (List of Poets.)
- Basīrat-nāmah, a translation of the Turkish version3 of J.T. Krusinski’s Tragica vertentis belli Persici historia on the Afg̲h̲ān invasion in the time of S̲h̲āh Sulṭān-Ḥusain (for editions see Arnold T. Wilson A bibliography of Persia p. 122): Rieu Suppt. 63 (ah 1278/1861).
[Tajribat al-aḥrār (v. supra); Nigāristān i Dārā fol. 180b; Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (Rieu Suppt. 118) fol. 134a; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 85a; Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124) fol. 212b; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 483; Rieu Suppt. 68, 132.]
¶ § 427. M. Ṣādiq “Humā” Marwazī was born and educated at Marw i S̲h̲āhijān, departed thence on its devastation by the Uzbaks and went first to Karbalā and al-Najaf and afterwards to Kās̲h̲ān, where he studied poetry under “Ṣabāḥi” (d. ah 1206/1791–2). He was appointed Historiographer (Waqāʾiʿ-nigār) by Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and by his order wrote both the Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (see below under Biography: Poets) and, subsequently, the Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-ārā. He was still alive in ah 1247/1831–2.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-ārā, a history of the first twenty years (ah 1212/1797–1233/1817) of the reign of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (d. 1250/1834): r.a.s. P. 153–4 = Morley 154–5 (ah 1233–4/1817–8), Rieu i 200b (vol. i only, i.e. the 1st 10 years, to ah 1221/1806. ah 1236/1821), Blochet i 493 (vol. i only ? “s’arrête à la prise d’Érivan par les Russes” (?). Early 19th cent.), 494 (vol. i only ? ah 1269/1852), Bānkīpūr vi 527 (def. and damaged. Extends to ah 1217/1802. 19th cent.), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 731).
[Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (Rieu Suppt. 118), at end; Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124), last notice but one; Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 137; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 105; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 572; Rieu Suppt. 118.]
§ 428. Maḥmūd Mīrzā Qājār, 15th son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, Governor of Nihāwand, and the author of the Safīnat al-maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 122), the Bayān al-maḥmūd (ibid. 377), and the Guls̲h̲an i maḥmūd (ibid. 121), was born in 1214/1799–1800 and had as his tutor the Ṣadr i Aʿẓam Mīrzā M. S̲h̲afīʿ. Commanded by his father to write a history of the reign, he began in Rabīʿ ii and finished in Rajab 1248/1832 his Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣāḥib-qirānī. He died at Tabrīz in 1852 or 1853.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣāḥib-qirānī, a history of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh to ah 1248/1832 preceded by an account of his ancestors and Qājār predecessors esp. Āqā Muḥammad: Rieu Suppt. 70 (ah 1248/1832–3).
[Guls̲h̲an i maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 121) foll. 57–64; Safīnat al-maḥmūd (ibid 122) fol. 274a; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (ibid. 120) fol. 33b; Nigāristān i Dārā (ibid. 123); Tārīk̲h̲ i D̲h̲ū ʼl-Qarnain (ibid. 71) fol. 358a; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i 56; Mélanges asiatiques ii (St. Petersburg 1852–6) p. 510; Rieu Suppt. 70, 121, 377.]
§ 429. Faḍl Allāh “K̲h̲āwarī” b. ʿAbd al-Nabī Ḥusainī S̲h̲īrāzī, for whose dīwān see Rieu Suppt. 358, was successively secretary to the Ṣadr i Aʿẓam Mīrzā M. S̲h̲afīʿ, wazīr to the s̲h̲āhzādah Humāyūn Mīrzā, and private secretary to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. He was still living in 1283/1866–7.
- ¶ Tārīk̲h̲ i Dhu ’l-Qarnain, a history of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh to his death, in two jilds, the 1st completed in 1249/1833, the 2nd in 1263/1847, professing to contain much weighty matter omitted from the Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-ārā, esp. the negotiations with Turkey and the European powers: Browne Coll. H. 21 (11) = Houtum-Schindler 22 (ah 1257/1841, autograph), Rieu Suppt. 71 (latter half of 19th cent.).
- K̲h̲ātimah i Rūz-nāmc̲h̲ah i humāyūn, an appendix to the above history added at Fatḥ-ʿAlī’s request some time after ah 1254/1838–9, a date incidentally mentioned as past, and containing notices of the S̲h̲āh’s children, grandchildren and other relatives and of his amīrs and wazīrs: Rieu i 201a (defective at the end. Circ. ad 1855).
[Safīnat al-maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 122) fol. 219; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 52b; Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 91a); Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124) fol. 184a; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 126; Madāʾiḥ al-Muʿtamadīyah (Rieu Suppt. 127) fol. 87b Rieu Suppt. 71.]
§ 430. Mīrzā M. Taqī b. Mīrzā Zakī ʿAlī-ābādī Māzandarānī, Ṣāḥib i Dīwān i Rasāʾil, wrote in ornate Persian on the basis of oral information supplied by Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh his
- Kalām al-mulūk wa-mulūk al-kalām or Risālah i K̲h̲āqānīyah, on the genealogy and personal characteristics of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who is made to speak in the first person: Majlis 554 (ah 1261/1845), 555 (ah 1305/1887–8), 614.
[Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 105a; Madāʾiḥ al-Muʿtamadīyah (Rieu Suppt. 127) fol. 157b.]
§ 431. Of unknown authorship is the
- Kalām al-mulūk, a brief account of the Qājārs to the death of Fatḥ-ʿAlī ah 1250/1834: Browne Coll. H. 20 (9) (ah 1290/1873).
§ 432. Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim “T̲h̲anāʾī” Farāhānī, entitled Qāʾim-maqām, was the son of Prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā’s Deputy-Prime Minister, Mīzā ʿĪsā Farāhānī, called Mīrzā Buzurg4 and likewise entitled Qāʾim-maqām. On the death of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh he fell into disgrace and he was put to death by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh on 26 June 1835. His letters are regarded as models of good style and many of them are diplomatic documents of historical importance.
- ¶ Correspondence of Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim “T̲h̲anāʾī” Farāhānī and others in reference to the murder of the Russian Ambassador Griboyedov: 5 Majlis 782.
Edition of “T̲h̲anāʾī’s” letters and other writings in prose and verse compiled in 1281/1864–5 at the instance of Farhād Mīrzā: Tabrīz 1282/1865–6 (see Browne Lit. Hist. iv 312, where the title is not given).
[Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 92a (? “Mus̲h̲īr, Abū ’l-Qāsim Farāhānī”); Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 71a (1 “Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, Sayyid ul-Vuzarā”); Tad̲h̲hirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124) fol. 179a; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 87; R.G. Watson History of Persia pp. 271–2 and 287–8; Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 311–16. Portrait in Ḥ. Mudīr Ḥallāj Tārīk̲h̲ i nahḍat i Īrān p. 16.]
§ 433. Waqāʾiʿ i wafāt i Fatḥ -ʿAlī S̲h̲āh u safar-nāmah i Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā, an account of the events which followed the death of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and of the journey of Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā Nāʾib al-Iyālah b. Husain ʿAlī Mīrzā Farmān-Farmā to Europe in 1250/1831–5: Majlis 787 (ah 1320/1902–3).
§ 434. An account of ʿAbbās Mīrzā,6 Fatḥ-ʿAlī’s eldest son, by Mīrzā Masʿūd, apparently an extract from a larger work: Browne Coll. H. 22 (9) (4).
§ 435. Aḍud al-Daulah Sulṭān Aḥmad, the 46th son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and Governor of Hamadān, wrote by order of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh and completed in 1304/1887 the
- (Tārik̲h̲ i ʿAḍudī), memoirs of the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (who died when the author was 10 years old): Rieu Suppt. 72 (ah 1304/1887).
Edition: Bombay 1306/1889‡.
§ 436. S̲h̲āh-zādah Jahāngīr Mīrzā b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā Nāʾib al-Salṭanah [b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār].
- Tārīk̲h̲ i nau, a history of the years 1240/1824–5–1265/1848–9, i.e. the last ten years of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign, the fourteen years of M. S̲h̲āh’s reign and the beginning of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign: Majlis 238 (ah 1310/1892–3).
§ 437. Among the early disciples of the Bāb was a merchant of Kās̲h̲ān, Ḥajjī Mīrzā Jānī Kās̲h̲ānī. In 1847, when the Bāb reached Kās̲h̲ān on his way from Iṣfahān to his prison at Mākū, he stayed for two nights at the house of Mīrzā ¶ Jānī, who had bribed the escort to permit this. At the time of the Māzandarān insurrection (1848–9) Mīrzā Jānī, Bahāʾ Allāh, Ṣubḥ i Azal and other prominent Bābīs attempted to join the garrison of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṭabarsī, but they fell into the hands of the enemy and were imprisoned for some time at Āmul.
On 15 September 1852 he and twenty-seven other Bābīs were put to death at Ṭihrān.
- Nuqṭat al-kāf, on the doctrines and history of the Bābī religion composed between 1850, the date of the Bāb’s death, and 1852, the date of the author’s death: Blochet i 164 fol. 285a onwards = Supplement persan 1070 (only the first third of the work (see Blochet iv 2255, The Táríkh-i-Jadíd … translated … by E.G. Browne, p. xxx). ah 1279/1862), 167 = Supplement persan 1071 (the whole of the work. See The Táríkh-i-Jadíd, loc. cit. 2nd half of 19th cent.).
Edition: Nuqṭatu ’l-kāf, the earliest history of the Bábís, composed before 1852 by Ḥājjī Mírzá Jání of Káshán, edited from the unique Paris MS. (Suppl. Persan, 1071), by E.G. Browne, Leyden and London 1911°* (Gibb Mem. Ser., vol. xv).
Discussion: The Táríkh-i-Jadíd … translated … by E.G. Browne, pp. 327–39.
[The Táríkh-i-Jadíd or New history of Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad the Báb, by Mírzá Ḥuseyn of Hamadán, translated … by E.G. Browne …, Cambridge 1893, pp. xiv–xvi, xli; Nuqṭatu ’l-kāf.]
§ 438. In E.G. Browne’s Materials for the study of the Bábí religion, Cambridge 1918 (especially pp. 237–43), will be found particulars of some short works, pamphlets and documents relating to the history of Bābism. Of these it will be sufficient to mention the following:—
- Waqāʾiʿ i Mīmīyah, an account of the Bābī insurrection in Māzandarān, written, apparently in 1265/1848–9, by S.M. Ḥusain “Mahjūr” b. M. Hādī Zawārī (92 pp.): Browne Coll. F. 28 (1) (cf. Materials for the study of the Bábí religion, pp. 238–9).
- Account of the martyrdom of Mullā Ḥusain of Bus̲h̲rawaih, partly in verse, partly in prose, by the same S.M. Ḥusain “Mahjūr”: Browne Coll. F. 28 (2) (cf. Materials, p. 239).
- Account of the insurrection in Māzandarān said to be by Luṭf-ʿAlī Mīrzā Qājār: Browne Coll. F. 28 (3) (apparently incomplete. See Materials, pp. 239–40).
- Personal reminiscences of the Bábí insurrection at Zanjān in 1850. By ʿAbdu ’l-Aḥad Translated … by E.G. Browne (in j.r.a.s. 1897, pp. 761–827. Cf. Materials, p. 234).
¶ § 439. Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Qājār, the son and successor of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār, was born in 1247/1831, acceded to the throne at the age of seventeen in 1264/1848, and was assassinated on 18 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qa‘dah 1313/1 May 1896. Among the noteworthy events of his reign were a persecution of the Bābīs after an attempted assassination of the S̲h̲āh by three Bābīs in 1852, the foundation of the Dār al-Funūn at Ṭihrān in 1851 for the provision of instruction in European science, the introduction of the telegraph in 1864, the extension of the press and the wider diffusion of literature. The S̲h̲āh visited Europe in 1873, 1878 and 1889, and published diaries of these journeys, as he did also in the case of some journeys in Persia.
[Visit to K̲h̲urāsān in 1867.]
- Ruz-nāmah. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1286/1869°.
[Second visit to K̲h̲urāsān.]
- Safar-nāmah. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1306/1889°.
[Visit to Karbalāʾ in 1870.]
- Rūz-nāmah i safar az Ṭihrān ilā Karbalā . Edition: [Ṭihrān, 1870°.]
[Visit to Māzandarān in 1875.]
- Rūz-nāmah i safar i humāyūni ba-Māzandarān. Edition: [Persia,] 1294/1877°.
Russian translation: Putes̲h̲estvie S̲h̲ak̲h̲a Nasr-ed-Dina po Mazanderanu. Sobstvenny Ego Velic̲h̲estva dnevnik. Perevel s persidskago E. Koriander. St. Petersburg 1887°.
[Visit to Europe in 1873.]
- Rūz-nāmah i safar i Farangistān.
Editions: [Ṭihrān,] 1291/1874°, Ṭihrān 1292/1875 (see Mas̲h̲had iii, Faṣl 14, Printed books, p. 25), Bombay 1293/1876* (title: Waqāʾiʿ i musāfarat u siyāḥat i Sulṭān al-salāṭīn al-Sulṭān Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh i Qājār, etc.), 1880° (Persian title: Waqāʾiʿ i musāfarat u siyāḥat i sāḥat i Farangistān. English title: Travels and adventures of the Shah of Persia in Europe), 1302/1884°* (title: Musāfarat-nāmah i Farangistān), 1309/1892‡ (Persian title: Waqāʾiʿ i musāfarat u siyāḥat etc. English title: The first tour of the Shah of Persia in Europe), Allahabad 1915‡ (two editions, Indian Press and Anwār i Aḥmadī Press).
English translation: The diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia during his tour through Europe in A.D. 1873. By J.W. Redhouse … A verbatim translation. London 1874°*.
[Visit to Europe in 1878.]
- Rūz-nāmah. Editions: [Ṭihrān,] 1296/1879°, Bombay 1879*, Bombay 1298/1881° (Persian title: Rūz-nāmah i safar i dūyum i Farangistān. English title: Second traveis [sic] and adventures of the Shah of Persia in Europe).
¶ English translation: A diary kept by His Majesty the Shah of Persia, during his journey to Europe in 1878. From the Persian … by A. Houtum Schindler and Baron L. de Norman. London [Guildford printed], 1879°*.
[Visit to Europe in 1889.]
- Rūz-nāmah i safar i siwwum i Farangistān. Edition: Bombay [1891°].
[Journey in ʿIrāq i ʿAjamī in 1892.]
- Safar i ʿIrāq: Blochet i 653 (ah 1311/1893).
[Browne History of the Persian revolution (see index); Sykes History of Persian ii 339–74; Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 151–7, etc.]
§ 440. Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat” died ah 1288/1871 (see p. 118 supra).
- Sifārat-nāmah i K̲h̲wārazm, an account of the author’s embassy to Khiva in 1267/1851: Blochet i 650 (ah 1273–1856).
Edition: Relation de l’ ambassade au Kharezm (Khiva) de Riza Qouly Khan, publiée, traduite et annotée par C. Schefer, 2 vols., Paris 1876–9°* (Publications de l’École Spéciale des Languages Orientales Vivantes, 1e série, tome iv).
- Fihris al-tawārīk̲h̲, a chronology, which “appears to have been lost, save that portion which was lithographed at Tabríz in ah 1280, but which has never been distributed” (S. Churchill in jras. 1887, p. 318).
- Rauḍat al-ṣafā i Nāṣirī, an edition of Mīr K̲h̲wand’s Rauḍat al-ṣafā’ (see p. 73 supra) with a continuation to Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān’s own time in three books.
Edition: Ṭihrān 1270–4/1853–6°.
Analysis of the parts relating to the Bābīs: A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb, edited … and translated … by E.G. Browne, vol. ii, Cambridge 1891, pp. 188–92.
§ 441. M. Taqī “Sipihr” Kās̲h̲ānī, who died in 1297/1880, and his Nāsik̲h̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲ have already been mentioned (pp. 119–120 supra). The ninth volume of that work is a history of the Qājār dynasty to ah 1273/1857 and it seems to have been published separately at least once.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Qājārīyah.
Editions: (1) Presumably it formed part of the edition of the Nāsik̲h̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲ published at [Ṭihrān 1860 ? onwards]. (2) Ṭihrān [?] 1304/1886–7 (as vol. ix of the Nāsik̲h̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲. See Āṣafīyah i p. 256). (3) Tabriz 1319/1901–2 (apparently a separate edition. See Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 405 (1926) no. 908).
Analysis of the parts relating to the Bābīs: A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb, edited … and translated … by E.G. Browne, vol. ii, Cambridge 1891, pp. 173–88.
¶ § 442. Mīrzā Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. ʿAbd Allāh Sarābī Tabrīzī was on the staff of Farruk̲h̲ K̲h̲ān Amīn al-Mulk, when he was sent to London and Paris after the Anglo-Persian War of 1857–8. (For this mission see R.G. Watson History of Persia 1800–1858, pp. 456–61.)
- Mak̲h̲zan al-asfār, an account of Farruk̲h̲ K̲h̲an’s mission: Browne Coll. K. 7 (9) = Houtum-Schindler 38 (ah 1276/1860), Mas̲h̲had iii, Faṣl 14, mss., p. 28 (where the work is called Mak̲h̲zan al-waqāʾiʿ).
§ 443. Mīrzā M. Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān K̲h̲ūrmūjī, Zubdat al-sādāt al-ʿiẓām, Muqarrab al-K̲h̲āqān, … Muʾarrik̲h̲ i mak̲h̲ṣūṣ i daulat i ʿalīyah,7 is the author of a work entitled Āt̲h̲ār i Jaʿfarī, on the topography and history of Fārs, published at [Ṭihrān ?] in 1276/1860. Having completed that work and having received no encouragement at S̲h̲īrāz, he migrated in 1276/1860 to Ṭihrān. Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, having read and approved of the Āt̲h̲ār i Jaʿfarī, instructed the author to compose a plain and unvarnished history of the reign.
- Ḥaqāʾiq al-ak̲h̲bār i Nāṣirī, a history of the Qājār dynasty, of which only the first volume, extending to 1277/1860–1, was completed, the second volume containing only the events of the next two years followed by brief biographical and historical notes reaching down to 1284/1867.
Edition: Ṭihrān 1284/1867°*.
§ 444. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled Ṣanīʿ al-Daulah and afterwards Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, died at Ṭīhrān in 1896 (see p. 120 supra).
- Mirʾāt al-buldān i Nāṣirī, an uncompleted geographical dictionary of Persian towns and villages in 4 volumes ((1) aliftā’, (2) history of the first fifteen years of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign with a calendar for the year of publication (1295/1878), (3) history of the sixteenth-thirty-second years of the reign, (4) t̲h̲ā’ and jīm, with a chronicle of events in the year of publication (1296/1879) and a calendar).
Editions: (1) Vol. i only (388 pp. ending with Tabrīz), [Ṭihrān ?] 1293/1876 (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 454), (2) 4 vols. (vol. i having 606 pp. and ending with Ṭihrān) [Ṭihrān,] 1294/1877°–1297/1880°.
Extract: Tārīk̲h̲ i Bābil u Nīnawā. Edition: Bombay 1311/1893°.
- al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār, on the history of forty years of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign.
Editions: Ṭihrān 1306/1888–9°*, [Ṭihrān,] 1307/1889° (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv, p. 456).
- ¶ Rūz-nāmah i Īrān.
Edition: Ṭihrān [date ?] (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 130, no. 100 (containing the years 1303/1885–6–1310/1892–3), no. 103 (containing the years 1267/1850–1–1269/1852–3), no. 104 (containing the years 1267/1850–1–1272/185.5–6)).
- Rūz-nāmah, diary of events on the author’s journey with Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh from Tiflīs to Ṭihrān in 1290–1/1873–4 on his return from Europe: Mas̲h̲had iii p. 89.
- Rūz-nāmah i yaumīyah, a diary extending from ah 1298/1880–1 to ah 1313/1895–6: Mas̲h̲had iii pp. 87–9.
§ 445. Mirzā Ḥusain Hamadānī was at first secretary to one of the ministers of the Persian government. He was among those who visited Europe in the suite of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh in 1873, and on his homeward journey he remained for some time at Constantinople. After serving a term of imprisonment in consequence of the troubles of 1291/1874 he obtained employment in the office of Māṇek-jī [son of] Līm-jī Hōs̲h̲ang Hātaryā (see p. 186 supra), at whose request he undertook to write a history of the Bābīs. After completing the first volume he died at Ras̲h̲t in 1299/1881–2.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Jadīd, a history of the rise of Bābism, based on that of Mīrzā Jānī (see p. 266 supra) with supplementary information from other sources and planned originally to consist of two volumes but left incomplete at the author’s death, when only vol. i (extending to the Bāb’s death) had been written: Rieu Suppt. 15 (ah 1298/1881), Browne Coll. F. 55 (given to Browne in 1888. For a description see jras. 1892, pp. 440–4), Leningrad (incomplete. See Collections scientifiques de l’Institut des Langues Orientales de St. Pétersbourg, vol. vi, p. 244, and jras. 1892, pp. 318–19).
English translation: The Táríkh-i-Jadíd or New history of Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad the Báb, by Mírzá Ḥuseyn of Hamadán, translated … by E.G. Browne…, Cambridge 1893o*. At the end of this translation is printed the Persian text (22 pp.) and English translation of A succinct account of the Bábí movement (Mujmal i badīʿ dar waqāʾiʿ i ẓuhūr i manīʿ) written by Mírzá Yaḥyá Ṣubḥ i Azal.
Description: A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb, edited … and translated … by E.G. Browne, vol. ii, Cambridge 1891, pp. 192–7.
Discussion of the authorship: A. Tumanski K voprosu ob avtorak̲h̲ istorii Babidov, izvyestnoi pod imenem Tarik̲h̲e Manukc̲h̲i … ili Tarikhe Dedid … (in Zapiski, St. Petersburg 1893, pp. 33–45. See Browne Materials, p. 187).
[Táríkh i Jadíd, introduction, pp. xxxvii–xli.]
¶ § 446. It was probably in 1886 that an anonymous author (said to be ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ b. Bahāʾ Allāh8) wrote the
- Maqālah i s̲h̲ak̲h̲ṣī saiyāḥ kih dar tafṣīl i qaḍīyah i Bāb nawis̲h̲tah ast, a history of the rise of Bābism or rather of Bahāʾism, since the author treats Bahāʾ Allāh as the Christ of the new dispensation, the Bāb being merely its John the Baptist: Browne Coll. F. 56 (ah 1307/1890. For description see jras. 1892 pp. 663–5).
Editions: (1) Bombay 1308/1890 (see Browne Materials for the study of the Bábí religion, Cambridge 1918, p. 196), (2) A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb, edited … and translated … by E.G. Browne. 2 vols., Cambridge 1891°*.
English translation: see above under Editions (2).
§ 447. Mīrzā ʿAbbās-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Sipihr” b. M. Taqī Lisān al-Mulk Kās̲h̲ānī has already been mentioned (p. 178 supra) as the author of works entitled Aḥwāl i ḥaḍrat i Bāqir (on the life of the Imām M. al-Bāqir) and Ṭirāz al-mud̲h̲ahhab (a life of Zainab).
- Tad̲h̲kirah i mubārakah i Nāṣirī, verse and prose eulogies of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh and the events of his reign.
Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1304/1887°.
§ 448. Muẓaffar al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Qājār, the second son of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, was born in 1853, succeeded to the throne in 1896 and died on 8 January 1907. His reign was marked by financial difficulties necessitating loans from Russia and by growing political discontent, which led to popular demands for reform. The first Majlis, or Parliament, was opened by the S̲h̲āh on 7 October 1906 and the Constitution (Qānūn i asāsī) was ratified by him on 30 December 1906. In 1900, 1902 and 1905 he visited Europe.
- Safar-nāmah i mubārak i s̲h̲āhans̲h̲āhī, the diary (rūznāmah) written on his visit to Europe in 1900.
Edition: Safar-nāmah i S̲h̲āh i Irān, Allahabad 1915*.
[Browne The Persian revolution pp. 98–132 and elsewhere (Portrait facing p. 98); Sykes History of Persia ii, pp. 374–405; Ency. Isl. under Muẓaffar al-Dīn.]
§ 449. Mīrzā G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain Adīb Afḍal al-Mulk S̲h̲īrāzī Zandī died in 1348/1929–30.
- ¶ Afḍal al-tawārīk̲h̲, a history of the first years of Muẓaffar-al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign, from D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1313/April 1896 to the end of 1317/April 1900: Majlis 216 (autograph).
§ 450. Mīrzā M. Nāẓim al-Islām Kirmānī claims to have been one of the founders of the Anjuman i mak̲h̲fī, a revolutionary society, which held its first meeting on 18 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1322/23 Feb. 1905. He edited the weekly newspaper Naurūz, first published at Ṭihrān in 1320/1902–3, and the Kaukab i durrī i Nāṣirī, which published the twelfth number of its third year in Rabīʿ ii 1325/June 1907.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i bīdārī i Īrāniyān, a history of the constitutionalist movement in Persia, of which vol. i, extending to the Hijrat i ṣug̲h̲rā (Dec. 1905), was completed in 1328/1910 and vol. ii in 1330/1912 (see Browne Lit. Hist. iv 446).
Edition: place ? date ? (see Browne, loc. cit.).
[Browne The Persian revolution, Cambridge 1910, p. 420, The press and poetry of modern Persia, Cambridge 1914, pp. 128, 150.]
§ 451. Miscellaneous works relating to the recent history of Persia:—
- Ik̲h̲tināq i Īrān (so at the head of the left-hand pages: on the cover Tārīk̲h̲ i Īrān), a translation of The Strangling of Persia by W. Morgan Shuster. Edition: Bombay 1340/1921 ‡.
- (Risālah dar tadābir i dīplōmāsī i panjāh-sālah i daulatain i Rūs u Ingilīs dar Īrān u Afg̲h̲ānistān), a translation made in 1303/1885–6 from an English original: Majlis 762.
- Strangling of Persia, The, by W. Morgan Shuster: see above Ik̲h̲tināq i Iran.
- Tārīk̲h̲ i nahḍat i Īrān, by Ḥ. Mudīr Ḥallāj.
Edition: Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1312/1933‡.
next chapter: 3.14 Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī
^ Back to text1. Sometimes incorrectly called the Aḥsan al-tawārīk̲h̲.
^ Back to text2. This is a Kurdish tribal name.
^ Back to text3. For this Turkish version see Zenker i 929, Babinger Stambuler Buchwesen im 18. Jahrhundert, Leipzig 1919, p. 13.
^ Back to text4. For Mīrzā Buzurg see Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 43b, Safīnat al-maḥmūd (Rieu Suppt. 122) fol. 33a, Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 110a, Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124) fol. 209a.
^ Back to text5. For this event, which occurred at Ṭihrān on 11 Feb. 1829, see R.G. Watson History of Persia pp. 247–57, Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 312.
^ Back to text6. For ʿAbbās Mīrzā (b. 1203/1789, d. 1249/1833) see Ency. 1sl. under ʿAbbās Mīrzā.
^ Back to text7. So on the title-pages of the Ḥaqāʾiq al-ak̲h̲bār i Nāṣirī.
^ Back to text8. See Browne Materials for the study of the Bābī religion, p. 4, n. 1.