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3.4 History of Persia: The Saljūqids
(2,233 words)

In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 335. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū Naṣr Anūs̲h̲irwān b. K̲h̲ālid al-Kās̲h̲ānī was living in retirement at al-Baṣrah when in 498/1104 the Saljūqid Sulṭān M. b. Malik-S̲h̲āh summoned him to Bag̲h̲dād as Treasurer. In 521/1127 he was made Wazīr by the Sulṭān Maḥmūd b. M., but after a year and some months he resigned. From 526/1131–2 to 528/1133–4 he was Wazīr to the Caliph al-Mustars̲h̲id bi’llāh and from that year or the next until 530/1136 to the Sulṭān Masʿūd b. M. He died at Bag̲h̲dād in Ramaḍān 532/May 1138 or in 533/1138–9. It was to Anūs̲h̲irwān that al-Ḥarīrī dedicated his Maqāmāt. [Ibn al-At̲h̲īr al-Kāmil, ed. Tornberg, x 452, 480, xi 9, 29, 47; al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, pp. 413–15; Ibn S̲h̲ākir al-Kutubī ʿUyūn al-tawārīk̲h̲ ms. Camb. Add. 2922, fol. 126a (Arabic text of this notice published by E.G. Browne in jras. 1902 pp. 861–2, English translation in Lit. Hist. ii 360–2); Haft iqlīm no. 936; Majālis al-muʾminīn 436; M. Th. Houtsma Recueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjoucides vol. ii, xi–xxx (information derived almost exclusively from Anūs̲h̲irwān’s own statements as contained in the Zubdat al-Nuṣrah); Browne Lit. Hist. ii 360–2; Ency. Isl. under Anōs̲h̲arwān.]

Futūr zamān al-ṣudūr wa-ṣudūr zamān al-futūr, memoirs of the author’s own time from the reign of Malik-S̲h̲āh (acc. ah 564/1072, d. 485/1092) to the death of Ṭug̲h̲ril b. M., ah 529/1134: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv 8933: no copies recorded.

Amplified Arabic translation: Nuṣrat al-fatrah wa-ʿuṣrat al-fitrah, written ah 579/1183 by ʿImād al-Dīn M. b. M. al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī (d. 597/1201, see Brockelmann i 315, Ency. Isl. under ʿImād al-Dīn), who added an introduction on the earlier Saljūqids, a continuation to the time of writing and, later on, a further continuation to the end of the dynasty, i.e. the death of Ṭug̲h̲ril ii in 590/1194: Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 348, de Slane 2145 (17th cent.).1

Arabic abridgment of ʿImād al-Dīn’s translation: Zubdat al-Nuṣrah wa-nuk̲h̲bat al-ʿUṣrah, begun ah 623/1226 and dedicated to the Aiyūbid al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam b. al-Malik al-ʿĀdil by al-Fatḥ b. ʿAlī b. M. al-Bundārī al-Iṣfahānī2 (for whom see Brockelmann i 321 and Ency. Isl. under Bondārī): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 539, de Slane 2146 (ah 660/1261, copied from an autograph), Bodleian Arab. Cat. i 662 (defective at beginning. ah725/1325).

Editions: (1) Histoire des Seldjoucides de l’Irâq par al-Bondârî d’après Imâd ad-dîn al-kâtib al-Isfahānî. Texte arabe publiépar M. Th. Houtsma. Leyden 1889°* (Recueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjouddes par M. Th. Houtsma, vol. ii). (2) Kitāb Taʾrīk̲h̲ daulat Āl Saljūq (presumably a reprint of the preceding edition), Cairo 1900° (see Fulton-Ellis, col. 368).

§ 336. Abū Bakr Najm al-Dīn M. b. ʿAlī b. Sulaimān al-Rāwandī belonged to a learned family of Rāwand, near Kās̲h̲ān. Having lost his father while still a boy, he came under the guardianship of his maternal uncle Tāj al-Dīn Aḥmad b. M. b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī, professor in a college at Hamadān and a noted calligraphist. Najm al-Dīn himself became skilled in calligraphy, binding and gilding (tad̲h̲hīb) as well as law and theology, and it was apparently as an artist that he entered the service of the Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ril, the last of the Saljūqids, who reigned from 571/1175 to 590/1194. In 585/1189 he left al-ʿIrāq with another maternal uncle, Zain al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. M. b. ʿAlī al-Rāwandī, who had been sent by the Sulṭān as an envoy to Māzandarān. He returned to Rāwand after six months in Māzandarān and it is probably at this time that he began his period of six years a teacher of the three sons of Amīr Saiyid Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah ʿArabs̲h̲āh, the head of the great ʿAlawī family of Hamadān. In 599/1202 he began to write his Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, which he dedicated on completion to G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Kai-K̲h̲usraw, the Saljūqid Sulṭān of Asia Minor, just after his conquest of Anatolia in 603/1206–7, and he went to Qūniyah himself in order to present it. He was the author of a work in condemnation of the Rāfiḍīs and of another on calligraphy (uṣūl i k̲h̲aṭṭ). It was his intention to write also a separate history of the reign of Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ril and a general history from Adam to his own time. None of these works is known to exist.

Rāhat al-ṣudūr wa-āyat al-surūr, a history of the “Great Saljūqs” from the rise of the dynasty to ah 595/1199, especially important for its account of the last two sovereigns Arsalān and Ṭug̲h̲ril: Blochet i 438 (ah 635/1237).

Edition: The Ráḥat-us-Ṣudúr wa Áyat-us-Surúr … by Muḥammad ibn ʿAlíal-Ráwandí editedby Muḥammad Iqbál, London 1921°* (Gibb Memorial Series, n.s. ii).

Extracts:

(1)
Tableau du règne de Mouīzz eddin Aboul Harith, Sultan SindjarTexte persan publiéavec la traduction française,3 par C. Schefer [= pp. 167–84 in the Gibb Memorial edition] (in Nouveaux Mélanges Orientaux. Mémoires, textes et traductions publiésá l’occasion du septième Congrès International des Orientalistes réuni à Vienne, septembre 1886 (Publications de l’École des Langues Orientales Vivantes, iie série, vol. 19), Paris 1886°*, pp. 1–47.
(2)
[From the beginning to the death of Malik-S̲h̲āh = pp. 86–136 of the Gibb Memorial edition] Siasset Namèh. Traité de gouvernement, composé pour le Sultan Mélik-Châh, par le Vizir Nizam oul-Moulk. Texte persan édité par C. ScheferSupplément. (Publications de l’École des Langues Orientales Vivantes, iiie série, vol. vii, 2e partie), Paris 1897°*, pp. 70–114.

French Translation of an extract: see above under Extracts (1).

Description: Account of a raremanuscript History of the Seljúqsdescribed by E.G. Browne (in jras. 1902, pp. 567–610, 849–87).

Turkish translation: Pt. 3 of the anonymous Tawārīk̲h̲ i Āl i Saljūq compiled in the reign of Murād ii (ah 824/1421–ah 855/1451). mss. at Dresden, Istanbul (3 copies in the Ṭōp Qapū Sarāy), Leningrad (Asiatic Museum) and Leyden (see The Ráḥat-us-Ṣudúr etc. p. xxxvi).

[Autobiographical statements of the author (see M. Iqbāl’s introduction to his edition.)]

§ 337. In the preface to al-ʿUrāḍah fī ’l-ḥikāyat al-Saljūqīyah the author calls himself M. b. M. b. M. b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Niẓām al-Ḥusainī (the words “b. ʿAbd Allāh” occurring in the b.m. ms. but not in the Āyā Ṣūfiyah ms.). Presumably he is identical with the wazīr (at one time evidently a qāḍī) whom Ḥamd Allāh Mustaufī, after praising K̲h̲wājah ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad, goes on to praise at the end of Chapter iv of his Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah (Gibb Mem. Ser. facsimile, pp. 612–13) and whom he calls “S̲h̲ams al-Ḥaqq wa-’l-Dīn … Muḥammad ibn Niẓām al-Ḥusainī al-Yazdī”, but the available evidence does not support Süssheim in his identification of Ibn al-Niẓām with K̲h̲wājah ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. [b. ʿImād al-Dīn M. Hindū i Faryūmadī apparently]. The latter was Wazīr for a short time to Abū Saʿīd, the 9th Īl-K̲h̲ān (reigned ah 717/1317–736/1336), and for a longer time Wazīr, or finance-minister, of K̲h̲urāsān and he died in S̲h̲aʿbān 742/1342. 4

al-ʿUrāḍah fī ’l-ḥikāyat al-Saljūqīyah, an abridgment of the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr (see p. 200 supra) written ah 711/1311–12 in ornate prose: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3019 (1) = Tauer 320 (ah 752/1351), Rieu ii 848b (15th cent.), Blochet iv 2311 (1) (19th cent., presumably a copy of Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3019 (1)).

Editions: (1) Cairo 1326/1908 (“Oriental edition” of Süssheim’s text, with Turkish introduction and appendix) (2) Das Geschenk aus der Saldschuḳengeschichte von dem Wesir Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallah b. al-Nitām al-Ḥusainī al-Jazdī. Zum ersten Male herausgegebenvonK. Süssheim, Leyden 1909* (the same Cairo-printed text with Leyden-printed introduction etc. in German).

Descriptions: (1) The Taʾríkh-i-Jahán-gushá … of … Juwaini … Part I … editedby Mírzá Muḥammad … Qazwíní, London 1912 (Gibb Mem. Ser. xvi, 1), Persian introduction, pp. QJ–QD, English introduction pp. lxxv–lxxvi. (2) The Ráḥat-us-Ṣudúrbyar-Ráwandí editedby M. Iqbál, London 1921 (Gibb Mem. Ser. n.s. 2) pp. xxxiv–xxxv.

§ 338. Two other abridgments of al-Rāwandī’s Rāḥat al-ṣudūr may conveniently be recorded here. They are

(1)
a brief history of the Saljūqids appended to the Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī in the Paris ms. Supplément persan 1556 = Blochet i 442. Possibly identical with this is ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥan Allāh, mss. p. 59 no. 985/1 (“Tārīk̲h̲ i salāṭīn i āl i Saljūq (Muk̲h̲aṣar i Rāḥat al-Ṣudūr)” ah 998/1589–90 (?)).

Descriptions: (1) The Taʾríkh-i-Jahán-gushá … of … JuwainíPart Ieditedby Mírzá MuḥammadQazwíní, London 1912 (Gibb Memorial Series xvi, 1), Persian introduction pp. QB–QJ. English introduction pp. lxxv. (2) The Ráḥat-us-Ṣudúrby … ar-Ráwandí editedby M. Iqbál, London 1921 (Gibb Memorial Series, n.s. 2) pp. xxxiii–xxxiv.

(2)
The section on the Saljūqids in Ras̲h̲id al-Dīn’s Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see p. 55 supra). This agrees with the abridgment mentioned above, but it has a d̲h̲ail dealing with the reign of Sultān Ṭug̲h̲ril written in 599/1202–3 by Abū Ḥāmid M. b. Ibrāhīm.

Description: The Rāhat us-Ṣudúr … etc. (as above 11. 22–3), p. xxxv.

§ 339. Here may conveniently be mentioned two collections of letters, farmāns and other official documents throwing light on the history of this period:—

(1)
(Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Muntajab al-Dīn Badīʿ wa-g̲h̲airah,) a collection of letters and other official documents, many of them composed by Muntajab al-Dīn Badīʿ al-Kātib al-Juwainī, who was Secretary to Sulṭān Sanjar (reigned ah 511/1118–552/1157), head of his Dīwān i Rasāʾil and the author of works entitled ʿAtabah i katabah (ms. Cairo p. 466 (? Author not stated, ah 671/1272–3)) and Ruqyat al-qalam (for further information concerning him see Lubāb al-albāb i 78–80, Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy, Persian introduction, pp. YW–YZ, English introduction, pp. xx–xxi, Browne Lit. Hist. ii p. 310): Rosen Institut 26 (14th cent. Full Analysis).

Extracts: Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, vol. i (Teksty), pp. 23–47.

Description: Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 33.

(2)
al-Tawassul ilā ’l-tarassul, a collection of official letters and similar documents referring to the years 578–9/1182–4 by Bahāʾ al-Dīn M. b. al-Muʾaiyad al-Bag̲h̲dādī,5 who while resident in Nasā was summoned by the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh Takas̲h̲ (reigned ah 567/1172–596/1200) and appointed head of the Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ: Leyden i p. 169 no. 286 (ah 668/1269–70), p. 172 no. 287 (ah 850/1446–7), Blochet ii 1051 (1) (defective at beginning. ah 684/1285–6).

Extracts: Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, vol. i (Teksty), pp. 73–80.

Description: Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 33–4.]

next chapter: 3.5 The Mongols

Notes

^ Back to text1. The Oxford ms. Laud B. 113 (Bodleian Arab. Cat. i 662) contains al-Bundārī’s abridgment (see M. Th. Houtsma Recueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjoucides, vol. ii pp. xxxix–xl).

^ Back to text2. al-Bundārī is the author of an Arabic translation of Firdausī’s S̲h̲āh-nāmah.

^ Back to text3. This translation, according to Barthold (Turkestan, London 1928, p. 29, n. 2), “unfortunately abounds in errors which entirely alter the sense; it is sufficient to state that the phrase ‘dar sir kas firistādand’ (they sent a man secretly) is translated ‘députa à Serkes’, and it is further explained in a note that Serkes is a town in the district of Kish (pp. 19, 35).”

^ Back to text4. A fairly full account of K̲h̲wājah ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. is given by Süssheim in the Einleitung to his edition of the ʿUrāḍah. This account is based on ʿAbd Allāh al-Qās̲h̲ānī’s Tārīk̲h̲ i Ūljāytū Sulṭān [mss. Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3019 (3) = Tauer 382, Blochet i 450. A passage in which ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. is referred to is quoted from this work by Blochet in his Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, pp. 33–6], Ḥamd Allāh’s Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah [g.m.s. facsimile, pp. 610–11], the same author’s Ẓafar-nāmah [see p. 62 supra], the anonymous continuation of Ibn Isfandiyār’s Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭabaristān [Browne’s abridged translation, g.m.s., p. 264], [Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s ?] continuation of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ [see pp. 55–57 supra. Two passages in which ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. is mentioned are quoted from this work by Blochet in his Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, pp. 37–8, 46 [?]], the Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain, Ẓahīr al-Dīn al-Marʿas̲h̲ī’s Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭabaristān [see p. 283 infra], the Rauḍat al-ṣafaʾ [see p. 71 supra], K̲h̲wānd-Amīr’s Dastūr al-wuzarāʾ [Browne Coll. J. 11 fol. 158], the same author’s Ḥabīb al-siyar [see p. 80 supra], d’Ohsson’s Histoire des Mongols [Amsterdam 1852, vol. iv, pp. 700, 713], and Hammer-Purgstall’s Geschichte der Ilchane [ii pp. 296, 309, 325]. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. was a patron of the poet Ibn i Yamīn and much information about him will be found in Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī’s Aḥwāl i Ibn i Yamīn (Ṭihrān, a.h.s. 1303/1924–5), pp. 10–35. Cf. also Daulats̲h̲āh 273, 275, 278, 279, Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols pp. 15, 34, 35, 37, 38, 41–3, 46 [?], 48 [?], Browne Lit. Hist. iii 215. That ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn’s father was called Muḥammad appears from a verse of Ibn i Yamīn’s quoted on p. 12 of Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī’s work and that ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn died in S̲h̲aʿbān 742 is stated in some verses of the same poet quoted ibidem, p. 29.

^ Back to text5. According to a passage in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah (which does not occur in the Gibb Mem. Ser. facsimile (notice of Majd al-Dīn Bag̲h̲dādī p. 788) but which is) quoted by Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, vol. i (Teksty) p. 153, he was the brother of a well-known s̲h̲aik̲h̲, Majd al-Dīn (S̲h̲araf b. al-Muʾaiyad) al-Bag̲h̲dādī, who was put to death by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh in 613/1216–17 (other authorities give different dates). For Majd al-Dīn see Lubāb al-albāb i p. 230 and (notes) pp. 349–50, Nafaḥāt al-uns 487–92, Haft iqlīm no. 1402, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ no. 125, etc.

Cite this page
“3.4 History of Persia: The Saljūqids”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 29 March 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_10203040>
First published online: 2021



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