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3.5 History of Persia: The Mongols
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In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 340. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAṭāʾ, Malik, 1 b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn M. al-Juwainī, a member of an illustrious family belonging to Āzādwār in the district of Juwain in Western K̲h̲urāsān, was born in 623/12252 and was still a youth when he entered the service of the Mongol government in K̲h̲urāsān. Apparently on at least three occasions (ah 644 or 645/1246–7, 647/1249–649/1251 and 649/1251–651/1253) he accompanied the Mongol governor of K̲h̲urāsān, Arg̲h̲ūn Ag̲h̲ā, to Mongolia. He was with Hūlāgū on his campaign against the Assassins (ah 654/1256) and it was he who drew up in writing the terms of surrender and conveyed them in person to the Grand Master, Rukn al-Dīn K̲h̲wurs̲h̲āh, at Maimūn-Diz, the strongest of the castles of Alamūt. He saved from destruction a portion of the fine library preserved in the castle, including the Sarguzas̲h̲t i Saiyidnā, an account of Ḥasan i Ṣabbāḥ, part of which he incorporated in the third volume of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy. In 657/12593 Hūlāgū appointed him Governor (Malik) of Bag̲h̲dād, ʿIrāq and K̲h̲ūzistān, and he is said to have restored tranquillity and prosperity to the province. In Abāqā’s reign (ah 663uzīdah 586; Fawāt al-Wafayāt/1265–680/1281) he and his brother suffered much through the accusations of enemies. On two occasions his financial administration was inquired into, and on the second (ah 680/1281) he was arrested, tortured, and made to pay large sums of money.

Abāqā’s successor, Aḥmad Takūdar, in the year of his accession, ah 681/1282, restored his property and his governorship, but in the same year Aḥmad Takūdar’s nephew Arg̲h̲ūn reopened the inquiry into his administration and confiscated his property. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, hearing of this in Arrān, died of an apoplectic stroke on 4 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 681/6 March 1283.

He was a patron of poets and scholars, and Zakarīyāʾ al-Qazwīnī’s ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt is dedicated to him. Some of “Saʿdī’s” qaṣīdahs were written in his praise.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī, completed ah 658/1260 a history of the Mongols from the rise of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān to the expedition of Hūlāgū K̲h̲ān against the Ismāʿīlīs ah 654/1256 in three volumes (mujallad), viz. (1) the Mongols and their conquests down to the events following the death of Guyūk including the history of the descendants of Jūc̲h̲ī and C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy, (2) the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs and the Mongol governors of K̲h̲urāsān to ah 656/1258, (3) continuation of the history of the Mongols to the overthrow of the Assassins with an account of the sect based chiefly on works found at Alamūt: Ḥ.K̲h̲. vol. ii p. 658 no. 4353, Blochet i 441 (ah 689/1290. Two pictures, described in Revue des Bibliothèques, 1898, p. 1394), 442 (with certain appendices including Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s short account of the siege and capture of Bag̲h̲dād and the Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān (see p. 207 infra). Late 13th or early 14th cent. and 17th cent.), 443 (early 15th cent.), 444 (end of vol. ii, vol. iii and an untitled continuation of the Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān bringing the narrative down to ah 681/1283. Pictures described in Revue des Bibliothèques, 1898, p. 139. ah 841/1437), 445 (ah 938/1531), 446 (vols. i–ii and part of iii. ah 1233/1817), 447 (defective at end. Modern5), iv 2312 (ah 700/1300. Bad ms.), ʿAmūjah Ḥusain 359 = Tauer 321 (ah 698/1299), Fātiḥ = Tauer 322 (ah 743–1343), Gotha 28 (divided into 4 volumes of which i and ii = the usual i and iii–iv the usual ii. ah 799/1397), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (disarranged and apparently defective. ah 982/1574. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 64), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥān Allāh mss. p. 59 no. 958/1 (ah 998/1589–90 (?)), Asʿad 2106 = Tauer 323 (10th/16th cent.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3103 (1) = Tauer 324 (defective at end. 10th/16th cent.), Leyden iii p. 7 no. 916 (European hand. Before ad 1662), Ethé 170 (no division into books. ah 1076/1666), Lālā Ismāʿīl 336 = Tauer 325 (ah 1109/1697–8), Lindesiana p. 168 no. 814 (circ. ad 1700), Flügel ii 956 (vol. i and ii down to circ. ah 611/1214–15. ah 1249/1834), Rieu i 160a (defective at beginning. ah 1277/1860), Bodleian 145 (good ms. N.d.), 146 (“very old and good”), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 13, Chanykov 71, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 727), Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863), p. 54), Salemann-Rosen p. 12 no. 172, Velyaminov-Zernov p. 862 no. 2.

Editions: (1) The Ta’ríkh-i-Jahán-gushá of ‘Alá’u ’d-Dín ‘Atá Malik-i-Juwainí … edited … by Mírzá Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdu’l-Wahháb-i-Qazwíní, Part i (Chingíz Khán and his successors) Leyden and London 1912°* (Gibb Memorial Series, xvi, 1), Part ii (the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh dynasty), Leyden and London 1916°* (Gibb Mem. Ser., xvi, 2), Part iii (the Assassins) in the press. (2) Taʾrīkh-i Jahān-gushāy of Juwaini, vol. iii, being a facsimile of a MS. dated A.H. 690 belonging to Wahīd-ul-Mulk. With an introduction by Sir E. Denison Ross. London 1931* (Royal Asiatic Society, James G. Forlong Fund, no. 10). (3) Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1311–12/1933‡ (edited by S. Jalāl al-Dīn Ṭihrānī. Vol. i under its own title, vols. ii and iii bound up with, and forming supplements to, S. Jalāl al-Dīn Ṭihrānī’s Gāh-nāmah i 1312 and Gāh-nāmah i 1314 respectively. Vols. i and ii are reprinted from the g.m.s. edition (with consultation of another ms. in the case of vol. i) but without M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introductions and notes. Vol. iii is based on the r.a.s. facsimile and two other mss. The preface to the Gāh-nāmah i 1314 is dated 28 Ābān Māh 1313).

Extracts: (1) [Various extracts from different parts of the work] W. Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, i (Teksty), St. Petersburg 1900°*, pp. 103–119. (2) [On the Uighurs = vol. 1 pp. 39–45 in the g.m.s. edition] Das Kudatku Bilik des Jusuf Chass-Hadschib aus Bälasagun. Theil I. Der Text in Transscription herausgegeben von W. Radloff, St. Petersburg 1891*, Einleitung, pp. xli–xlix (the Persian text edited, with German translation, by C. Salemann). (3) [C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān’s conquests in Transoxiana and K̲h̲urāsān to the fall of Nīs̲h̲āpūr = vol. i pp. 58–140 in the g.m.s. edition] Schefer Chrestomathie persane, tome ii, Paris 1885°*, pp. 106–69.) (4) [The revolt of Maḥmūd Tārābī and the reigns of C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān, his son and grandson = vol. i pp. 84–90 and 226–32 in the g.m.s. edition] Journal asiatique, 4e série, tome xx (Paris, July–Dec. 1852), pp. 370–88 and (French translation) 388–406 (= the third and last instalment of Histoire des Khans mongols du Turkistan et de la Transoxiane, extraite du Habib Essiier de Khondémir [with supplementary extracts from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy], traduite … et accompagnée de notes, par M.C. Defrémery (cf. p. 82 supra). (5) [Two extracts on Burāq Ḥājib = vol. ii p. 201, 1.9,—p. 202,1.15, and pp. 211–214,1.11, in the g.m.s. edition] Recueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seljoucides par M. Th. Houtsma, vol. i, Leyden 1886, pp. xxii–xxvi.

Translations of extracts: (1) [On the Uig̲h̲urs (German)] see Extracts (2) above. (2) [On the Uig̲h̲urs (French)] d’Ohsson Histoire des Mongols, Amsterdam 1852, vol. i, pp. 429–35. (3) [C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān’s capture of Buk̲h̲ārā, the defeat of Jalāl al-Dīn K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh, his flight to India, Mongol invasions of India, etc. (English)] Elliot and Dowson History of India ii pp. 386–402. (4) [The revolt of Maḥmūd Tārābī and the reigns of C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān, his son and grandson (French)] see Extracts (4) above. (5) [On the Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs = vol. ii p. 86, 1. 14—p. 89, 1. 13] d’Ohsson Histoire des Mongols vol. i, pp. 441–3.

Descriptions: (1) Schefer Chrestomathie persane ii (notes) pp. 134–54;(2) Note on the contents of the Taʾrikh-i-jahan-gusha … By E.G. Browne (in jras. 1904, pp. 1–17. (3) Browne Lit. Hist. ii p. 473, iii pp. 65–6. (4) W. Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 39–41.

Abridgment: Tārīk̲h̲ i C̲h̲īngīz K̲h̲ān written ah 779/1377–8 by Sātī b. al-Ḥasan b. Maḥmūd al-Qūnawī: Salemann-Rosen p. 49 no. 950c.

Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān,6 an account of the author’s sufferings when arrested and imprisoned by order of Abāqā in 680/1281–2: Blochet i 442 foll. 220b–231a (ah 841/1437. Cf. Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy, Persian introduction, pp. KṬ–L (short quotation), MD–MḤ (summary of the work), ʿB–ʿD, English introduction, pp. xxviii, xxxvii–xli (summary of the work), lv–lvi), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥān Allāh mss., p. 59 (ah 998/1589–90 (?)), Majlis 755.
An untitled continuation of the preceding, composed in 681/1282 and carrying the narrative down to the accession of Takūdar and the execution of Majd al-Mulk: Blochet i 444 foll. ib–41b (see Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy, Persian introduction, pp. mj, MḤ–NḤ (summary of the work), English introduction, pp. xxxvii–xxxviii, xli–xlvi (summary of the work), lvi).
Some letters, farmāns and other official documents preserved on foll. 178a–192a of a ms. (Rosen Institut 26) containing munshaʾāt mainly by Juwainī’s great-grandfather’s maternal uncle, Muntajab al-Dīn Badīʿ al-Kātib al-Juwainī, secretary to Sulṭān Sanjar (see p. 203 supra, Lubāb al-albāb i 78–80, Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gushāy, Persian introduction, pp. YW–YZ, English introduction, pp. xx–xxi).

[Autobiographical statements in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲ā (from which “almost all our knowledge of the author (to 654/1256) and his ancestors is derived” (Ency. Isl.)) and in the Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān and its continuation (for which statements see M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gushā); Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, ed. Quatremère, Paris 1836, pp. 264, 402, 416, ms. Paris. Suppl. pers. 209 (= Blochet i 255), foll. 298a, 312b, 313b, 314a, 316b, 317a (references given by M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī); Waṣṣāf, pp. 59, 98, 119, 142–3 (references given by M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī); al-Nuwairī Nihāyat al-arab (in Arabic) vol. xxv (text quoted in M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction pp. QYW–QYZ and translated in E.G. Browne’s version of this introduction pp. lxxxi–lxxxiii); al-D̲h̲ahabī Tārīk̲h̲ al-Islām (in Arabic), mss. b.m. Or. 53, fol. 21, and Or. 1540, foll. 6a–7a (text quoted in M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction pp. QYḤ–QK and translated in E.G. Browne’s version of this introduction, pp. lxxxxiii–lxxxvi); al-Ṣaqāʿī Tālī kitāb Wafayāt al-aʿyān (in Arabic), ms. Paris, Arabe 2061 (= de Slane 2061) fol. 53 (text quoted in M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction pp. QKA–QKB and translated in E.G. Browne’s version of this introduction, pp. lxxxvi–lxxxviii); Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah 586; Fawāt al-Wafayāt ii p. 45 (text quoted in M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction pp. QKD–QKH and translated in E.G. Browne’s version of that introduction pp. lxxxviii–xci); Ibn Tag̲h̲rī-Birdī al-Manhal al-ṣāfī (in Arabic), ms. Paris (de Slane 2071) fol. 108 (text quoted in M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction pp. QKH–QKW and translated in E.G. Browne’s version of that introduction pp. xci–xcii); Majālis al-muʾminīn 453; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 168; Quatremère Mémoire historique sur la vie et les ouvrages d’Ala-ed-din Atamelik djouaïny (in Fundgruben des Orients, vol. i, Vienna 1809, pp. 220–34); d’Ohsson Histoire des Mongols, Amsterdam 1852, i pp. xvii–xxvii, iii 470, 511–16, 536–8, 582–3; Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, écrite … par Raschid-Eldin, publiéepar M. Quatremère, Paris 1836 (see p. 58 supra), pp. 169–70 (some information about Juwainī’s ancestors); Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der Ilchane, Darmstadt 1842–3, vol. i, pp. 91–2 (and elsewhere: see index); Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 384–6; Schefer Chrestomathie persane ii, Paris 1885, notes, pp. 134–45; Rieu i 160–1; Howorth History of the Mongols iii, London 1888, pp. 219, 220 etc. (see index); Browne Lit. Hist. iii pp. 20, 22, 24; M. K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī’s introduction to his edition of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲ay; Ency Isl. under D̲j̲uwainī (Barthold).]

§ 341. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Kās̲h̲ānī undertook by order of G̲h̲āzān (reigned ah 694/1295–703/1304) and finished in the time of Ūljāytū (reigned ah 703/1304–716/1316) his metrical history of the Mongols, presumably identical with the Tārīk̲h̲ i G̲h̲āzān K̲h̲ān, of which K̲h̲wānd-Amīr speaks. He died in the reign of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd (ah 716/1316–736/1335).

History of the Mongols in verse based on the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲: Blochet iii 1509 (ah 826/1422–3. Pictures (for a description of which see Revue des bibliothèques, 1900, p. 190)).

Description: Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, g.m.s., vol. xii, London 1910, pp. 94–5, 97–8,101–8.

[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 1, p. 10916–18; Haft iqlīm no. 946.]

§ 342. Jamāl al-Dīn7 Abū ’l-Qāsim ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. M. al-Qās̲h̲ānī has already been mentioned (p. 60 supra) as the author of a Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ (?) compiled in Ūljāytū’s reign (ah 703/1304–716/1316).

Tārīk̲h̲ i Ūljāytū Sulṭān, a history of Ūljāytū’s reign: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3019 (3) = Tauer 382 (ah 752/1351), Blochet i 450 (early 19th cent.).

Extracts: Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, g.m.s. vol. xii, Leyden and London 1910, pp. 8, 9–13, 20–1, 23, 33–6, 70, 133, 136–7 (for other references to the work see Blochet’s index).

§ 343. Maḥmūd b. M. known as (al-mus̲h̲tahir bi-) al-Karīm al-Aqsarāʾī wrote in 723/1323

A history of the Saljūqids of Asia Minor and of the Īl-K̲h̲āns Abāqā, Ūljāytū and Abū Saʿīd, preceded by a brief account of Muḥammad and the Caliphs: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3143 = Tauer 478 (ah 734/1334), Yeñī 827 = Tauer 479 (ah 745/1345).

§ 344. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn8 ʿAbd Allāh “S̲h̲araf” 9 S̲h̲īrāzī, the son of ʿIzz al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh, is best known as Waṣṣāf, an abbreviation of the title Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat (the Court Panegyrist, as Browne translates it), which was conferred on him by the Mongol Sulṭān Ūljāytū K̲h̲udā-bandah at Sulṭānīyah on 24 Muḥarram 712/1 June 1312, when his patron the Wazīr Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (for whom see p. 54 supra) presented him to the Sulṭān. He was employed in the collection of revenue for the Mongol government, and enjoyed the patronage both of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and of his son and successor G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn.

Tajziyat al-amṣār wa-tazjiyat al-aʿṣār more commonly called the Tarīk̲h̲ i Waṣṣāf, a turgid history of the Mongol empire in Persia and of some contemporary rulers from ah 656/1258 to 712/1313 with a supplementary volume completed not earlier than 728/1328, intended as a continuation of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahāngus̲h̲āy i Juwainī and divided into five volumes (mujallad), viz. (1) dated 699/1299–1300 and dedicated to G̲h̲āzān. Death of Mangū. Qubilā and Tīmūr in China. Hūlāgū’s taking of Bag̲h̲dād and later conquests. Reigns of Abāqā and Aḥmad Takūdār. (2) Salg̲h̲urī Atābaks in Fārs. Reign of Arg̲h̲ūn. The Atābaks of Lur, Yūsuf-S̲h̲āh and Afrāsiyāb. (3) Gaik̲h̲ātū. Bāydū. Sulṭāns of Kirmān. Sulṭāns of Delhi. G̲h̲āzān’s reign to 700. (4) End of G̲h̲āzān’s reign. Accession of Ūljāytū. Tīmūr Qāʾān’s successors. Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī etc. (5) End of Ūljāytū’s reign. Abū Saʿīd. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī and his successors from 715/1315 to 723/1323: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 156 no. 2337, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3207 = Tauer 326 (vol. iv. ah 711/1312. Autograph), 3204 (3) = Tauer 328 (vols. iv–v. ah 871/1466), 3203 = Tauer 330 (ah 890/1485), 3204 (1) = Tauer 338 (vols. i–ii. Circ. ah 900/1494–5), 3204 (2) = Tauer 339 (vol. iii. Circ. ah 900/1494–5), 3200 = Tauer 342 (10th/16th cent.), 3208 = Tauer 347 (ah 1075/1664–5), 3206 = Tauer 349 (ah 1089/1678), 3202 = Tauer 350 (ah 1093/1682), 3205 = Tauer 356 (ah 1115/1703–4), 3199 = Tauer 362 (ah 1144/1731–2), 3201 = Tauer 365 (ah 1149/1736–7), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3109 = Tauer 327 (vols. i–ii. ah 738/1337), 3108 = Tauer 329 (vols. i–ii. ah 885/1480–1), 3110 = Tauer 331 (vol. ii. ah 895/1490), 3111 = Tauer 334 (vols. iv–v. ah 898/1493), 3107 = Tauer 361 (ah 1144/1731), d.m.g. 14 (vols. i–ii. ah 740/1339–40 (?)), Flügel ii 959 (ah 866/1462), 960 (ah 1175/1762), 961 (ad 1811–12), Bodleian 147 (ah 885/1481), Asʿad 2191 = Tauer 332 (ah 896/1491), 2192 = Tauer 341 (vol. i. 10th/16th cent.), 2203 = Tauer 378 (vol. i, first half. 12th/18th cent.), 2193 = Tauer 379 (vol. iii, defective. Circ. ah 1200/1785–6), Faiḍ Allāh Efendī 1410 = Tauer 333 (ah 898/1493), Muṣṭafā Efendī 621 (2) = Tauer 335 (vols. iv–v. ah 899/1494), 621 (1) = Tauer 337 (vols. i–iii. Circ. ah 900/1494–5), 620 = Tauer 344 (ah 1029/1620), Yeñī 833 = Tauer 336 (9th/15th cent.), Rieu i 161b (15th and (vol. v) 18th cent.), 163b (ah 1090/1679), 163b (vol. i. 16th cent.), 163b (vol. iii. 16th cent.), iii 902b (part of vol. iv. ah 1267/1851), 1022a (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), 1045b (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), Suppt. 49 (vols. i–iii. ah 1067/1656–7), Blochet i 449 (late 15th cent. (vols. i–iii) and late 17th cent. (vols. iv–v)), iv 2313 (vols. i–ii. 17th cent.), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 907 = Tauer 340 (defective at end. ah 907/1501–2), Leyden iii p. 2 no. 908 (vols. i–iii. ah 968/1560–1, ah 973/1565–6, ah 1000/1591–2 etc.), Riḍā Pās̲h̲ā 2324 = Tauer 343 (vol. i. Circ. ah 1000/1640–1), 3114 = Tauer 355 (vol. i. Circ. ah 1100/1688–9), 15 = Tauer 373 (vol. i. 18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 233 no. 825 (circ. ad 1810), no. 407 (circ. ad 1760), no. 935 (ah 1173/1759–60), no. 936 (extracts. ah 1047/1637–8), Yildiz Kös̲h̲kü 11 = Tauer 345 (ah 1051/1641), 258 = Tauer 351 (ah 1097/1686), 4 = Tauer 358 (ah 1127/1715), 109 = Tauer 366–8 (vols. i–iv. ah 1162/1749), 115 = Tauer 370 (ah 1175/1762), 152 = Tauer 380 (vol. i. 13th/19th cent.), Dorn 291 (vols. i–iii. ah 1089/1678 (vol. i)), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (2 copies. See Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 726), Dorn Asiat. Mus. pp. 205, 381, Rosen Inst. 5 (written by Naẓmī-Zādah ah 1115/1703–4), Cairo p. 501 (two copies (1) ah 1092/1681, (2) ah 1192/1778), Calcutta Madrasah 127 (vols. i–ii. 17th cent.), Majlis 239–43 (five mss., one complete, the earliest date being ah 1222/1807), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 76 (ah 1235/1819–20), Berlin 434 (vol. i. ah 1236/1820–1), Princeton 461 (vol. i. ah 1271/1855), Chanykov 72 (vol. i. ah 1271/1855), Bānkīpūr vi 510 (19th cent.), Browne Suppt. 254 (vols. i–iii. N.d.), 255 (defective at end. King’s 95), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 36, Dorn a.m. p. 381, Kahl pp. 6–7, Peshawar 2541, Salemann-Rosen p. 13 nos. 4, 163 (vol. i), 164 (vol. v). In addition to the Stamboul mss. mentioned above sixteen others are described by Tauer.

Editions: Geschichte Wassaf’s persisch herausgegeben und deutsch übersetzt von Hammer-Purgstall. Vienna 1856°* (vol. i only), Bombay 1269/1853*, Tabrīz 1272/1885–6° (vol. i only), 1314/1896–7 (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 352 (1912), no. 1821), 1315/1897–8 (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 352 (1912) no. 1822), Lahore (vol. i only with omission of Arabic sentences and verses. Ed. by M. Iqbāl for Muns̲h̲ī Fāḍil students). 10

German translation of vol. i by Hammer-Purgstall: see above under Editions.

Turkish commentary: S̲h̲arḥ i Waṣṣāf, by Naẓmī-Zādah (Ḥusain Efendī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, d. 1130/1717–18): Flügel ii 962, 963 (ah 1175/1761–2), 964. Appendix to the preceding: D̲h̲ail i Naẓmī-Zādah: Flügel ii 965 (ah 1126/17/4).

Glossaries: (1) Lug̲h̲at i Waṣṣāf, Turkish explanations, written ah 1118/1706–7 by the above-mentioned Naẓmī-Zādah: Flügel i 100, 101 (ad 1814), (2) Muk̲h̲taṣar i Sharḥ i lug̲h̲at i Waṣṣāf, an abridgment of the preceding, made by Ibrāhīm Ḥanīf in 1174/1760 (see Flügel ii p. 1873–7): Aumer 312 (ah 1174/1760), (3) Mā lā budd li-l-arīb min al-mas̲h̲hūr wa-’l-g̲h̲arīb, Turkish explanations by Mullā Nailī Aḥmad Efendī called Mīrzā-Zādah (d. 1161/1748): Flügel i 102.

Translations of extracts (mainly relating to India): Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 27–54.

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstall in Wiener Jahrbücher, vol. 71, Anz. Bl. pp. 27–31. (2) Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der schönen Redekünste Persiens, Vienna 1818, pp. 243–8. (3) d’Ohsson Histoire des Mongols [3rd ed.], Amsterdam 1852, i pp. xxvii–xxxiii. (4) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 24–7; (5) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 67–8; (6) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 48–9.

[Autobiographical statements (see Rieu i 162); Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 1, p. 113; Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der Ilchane ii, Darmstadt 1843, p. 94 etc. (see index); G. Ouseley Biographical notices of Persian poets, London 1846, pp. 230–5; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i 655; Rieu i 161–2; Ency. Isl. under Waṣṣāf.]

§ 345. It was by order of the Īl-K̲h̲ān Abū Saʿīd (reigned 716/1316–736/1335) that Aḥmad Tabrīzī began his S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah, which he did not complete until 738/1337–8, after spending eight years on its composition.

S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah, a poem on the history of C̲h̲ingīz K̲h̲ān and his successors to ah 738/1337–8: Rieu Suppt. 201 ii (ah 800/1398).

§ 346. It was for the Jalāʾirī or Īlkānī Sulṭān S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Uwais, who reigned ah 756/1355 776/1374, that K̲h̲wājah Nūr al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn began at the age of 50 years his G̲h̲āzānnāmah which he seems to have finished in 763/1361–2. At the age of 14, when still a student, he had been summoned from Tabrīz to treat S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Uwais and had cured him in fourteen days of an illness which had baffled the other physicians. His father K̲h̲wājah S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M. al-Az̲h̲darī was a minister (wazīr) to G̲h̲āzān.

G̲h̲āzān-nāmah, a metrical history of G̲h̲āzān’s reign (ah 694/1295–703/1304) composed in 758/1357: Browne Coll. V. 28 (8) (ah 873/1469).

§ 347. The Ẓafar-nāmah of Ibrāhīm Sulṭān and S̲h̲araf al-Din ʿAlī Yazdī, completed in 828/1424–5, has an Iftitāḥ or Muqaddimah bearing the special title Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahāngīr and dealing with the genealogy of the Turkish K̲h̲āns and the history of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his descendants. It was compiled in 822/1419 and added to in subsequent years. For further information concerning it and for the manuscripts in which it is contained see pp. 221–224 infra.

§ 348. Muḥammad Ṭarāg̲h̲āy, usually called Ulug̲h̲ Bēg,11 ruler, astronomer, man of letters and bibliophile, was the eldest son of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and was born at Sulṭānīyah on 19 Jumādā i 796/22 March 1394. In 812/1409 his father appointed him Governor of Samarqand and in the long period of his governorship he beautified the city with fine buildings and made it a great centre of culture. On his father’s death on 25 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 850/12 March 1447 he succeeded to the throne, but on 10 Ramaḍān 853/1449 he was put to death by his rebellious son ʿAbd al-Laṭīf after a stormy reign of two years and eight months.

Ulūs i arbaʿah i C̲h̲ingīzī,12 an apparently non-extant account of the four ulūs written in the time of Ulug̲h̲ Bēg, ostensibly, it seems, by him, and at any rate often quoted as his work. On it are based
the account of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his ancestors in the ninth maqālah of K̲h̲wānd-Amīr’s K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ak̲h̲bār (for which see pp. 78–80 supra),
S̲h̲ajarat al-Atrāk,13 an anonymous history of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān (to whom more than a third of the work is devoted), his ancestors and his descendants down to the time of Tīmūr (and even later, since, according to ʿAbdul Muqtadir, ah 831 and, according to Rieu, ah 851, are dates mentioned), described by Barthold as an abridgment of Ulug̲h̲ Bēg’s work: Bānkīpūr vi 511 (17th cent.), Ethé 172 (ah 1204/1789–90), Rieu i 164 (19th cent.). According to Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 56, n. 5, “There is now a third copy in the British Museum, Or. 8106, ff. 340–513, from which Miles’s translation was made; Add. 26,190 seems to have been copied from Or. 8106.”

Extracts: Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, vol. i (Teksty) pp. 162–4.

Abridged English translation: The Shajrat ul Atrak, or genealogical tree of the Turks and Tatars; translated and abridged by Col. Miles. London 1838°.

Descriptions: (1) Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, pp. 86, 92 (see also index under Tarikh-i oulous arbaa-i Tchinkkizi). (2) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 56–7.

[S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ẓafar-nāmah i 679 etc. (see Barthold Uluġ Beg und seine Zeit, p. 55 foll.); Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see Barthold op. cit.); Mujmal i Faṣīḥī (see Barthold op. cit.); Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain (cf. Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre: Matla-assaadeïn … Par M. Quatremère (Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi, tome xiv, pt. 1 (Paris, 1843)), pp. 76, 81, 82 etc., and Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols de Fadl Allah Rashid ed-Din, g.m.s. vol. xii, Leyden and London 1910, pp. 87–91); Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 361–6 (partly translated in Browne Lit. Hist. iii 501–3); Rauḍāt al-jannāt fī auṣāf madīnat Harāt (extracts translated by Barbier de Meynard in Journal asiatique, 5e série, vol. xx (July–Dec. 1862), pp. 277–84); Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, p. 151 etc.; D. Price Chronological retrospect (see p. 48 supra) iii pp. 177, 487, 489, 491–2, 498, 526, 533, 542, 544–8, 569–74; L.P.E.A. Sédillot Prolégomènes des Tables astronomiques d’Oloug-Beg publiés avec notes et variantes …, Paris 1847, pp. cxxv–cxxxi; Rieu ii 456; Brockelmann ii 212–13 (where some further references will be found); W. Barthold Uluġ-Bek i ego vremya, Petrograd 1918, German trans. Uluġ Beg und seine Zeit, deutsche Bearbeitung von Walther Hinz, Leipzig (d.m.g.) 1935 (where numerous references to Oriental authorities will be found); Browne Lit. Hist. iii 386–90, 501–3; L. Bouvat L’empire mongol (2ème phase), Paris 1927, pp. 123–9; Ency. Isl. under Ulug̲h̲ Beg (Bouvat). For the inscription on Ulug̲h̲ Bēg’s tombstone see Der Islam xii (1922), p. 149, where H. Ritter refers to earlier publication in the astronomical journal Sirius for Sept., 1920, and by Blochet in the Revue archéologique, 1897, p. 204.]

§ 349. M. Ḥaidar, commonly called Mīrzā Ḥaidar [Bābur calls him Ḥaidar Mīrzā], (of the) Dūg̲h̲lāt14 (tribe), was born in 905/1499–1500 at Tās̲h̲kand, where his father, M.Ḥusain Kūrakān, was Governor for Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān, of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar. After his father’s death he went in 915/1509 to his cousin Bābur, the son of a sister of his mother’s, at Kābul. In 918/1512, however, he joined Sulṭān Saʿīd K̲h̲ān, who became K̲h̲ān of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar in 920/1533, and who sent him in command of expeditions to Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, Tibet and elsewhere. When ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān succeeded Sulṭān Saʿīd K̲h̲ān in 939/1533, he fled to Lahore. In 946 he joined Humāyūn at Āgrah and fought with him at Kanauj against S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh. In 948/1541 he conquered Kas̲h̲mīr and founded a practically independent kingdom. In 958/1551 he was killed by rebels. [I am indebted to Sir Denison Ross for the information that the anonymous Turkī Jahān-nāmah, a metrical treatise on geography, belonging to the Hartmann collection (m.s.o.s. vii (1904), Zweite Abteilung, p. 10, no. 83 (“Diwan des Ahmed Jasawī” [sic]) has been proved by A. Zeki Validi to be a work of Mīrzā Ḥaidar written by him during his stay in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, ad 1508–9]

Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī, in two daftars (i) completed in Kas̲h̲mīr ah 952/1546, on the history of the Mongol rulers of Mug̲h̲ūlistān and Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar from the time of Tug̲h̲luqtimūr (acc. 748/1347–8) to that of ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd (after whom the work is named); (ii) the author’s memoirs to ah 948/1541, the date of composition: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 132 no. 2221, Āṣafīyah i p. 224 no. 657 (ah 999/1590–1), Rieu i 164b (17th cent.), 168b (17th cent.), iii 902b (defective. Circ. ad 1850), 903a (extracts from Daftar i. 17th cent.), 903a (abstract. Circ. ad 1850), 1030b (extracts. Circ. ad 1844), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (2 copies, one dated ah 1042/1632–3, the other very defective. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926) p. 65 and vol. x, no. 3 (May 1934) pp. 138–9), Blochet i 451 (ah 1076/1665), 452 (fragment of Daftar i. 19th cent.), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (2 copies, one old and good, the other modern. See Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868) pp. 456–7 and ix (St. Petersburg 1888) pp. 321–85), Salemann-Rosen p 12 no. 272, Browne Suppt. 236 (ah 1272), 237 (n.d.), 238 (Christ’s), Ivanow 210 (defective. ah 1272), Ethé 2848 (n.d.), i.o. 3735, 3845.

Turkī translation by M. Ṣādiq Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī: 15 Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1888) p. 383. Two partial translations into Turkī (one ms. containing Part ii and the other a portion of Part ii) are mentioned as in the possession of the British and Foreign Bible Society by N. Elias in his preface to the English translation, pp. ix–x.

English translation: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlát. A history of the Moghuls of Central Asia. An English version edited, with commentary, notes and map by N. EliasThe translation by E. Denison Ross. London 1895°*, 1898*. (Review by W. Barthold in Zapiski Vostochnago Otdyeleniya Imperatorskago Russkago Arkheologicheskago Obshchestva, x, 215 et seq.)

Abridged English translation by W. Erskine: b.m. ms. Add. 26,612, foll. 55–166.

Extracts: (1) [A number of extracts both in Persian text and Turkī translation] V.V. Velyaminov-Zernov Izslyedovanie o Kasimovskikh Tsaryakh i Tsarevichakh (Trudy Vostochnago Otdyeleniya Imperatorskago Arkheologicheskago Obshchestva, ix–xi) ii, St. Petersburg 1864*, pp. 140–5, 156–7, 162–3, 168–91, 198, 203–28. (2) [Biographies of scholars, poets, calligraphists, painters, etc. edited with notes by C. Salemann] Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1888) pp. 323–80. (3) [the same biographies edited by M. S̲h̲afīʿ] Oriental College Magazine, vol. x, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1934), pp. 150–70.

Translations of extracts: (1) [Account of the kingdom of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar as abridged from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī in the Haft iqlīm] E. Quatremère Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre: Matla-assaadeïn (for which see p. 232 infra), pp. 474–88. (2) [The defeat of Humāyūn at Kanauj] Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 130–5.

Descriptions: (1) W. Erskine A history of India underBáber and Humáyun, London 1854, i pp. 38–192 (Summary of Daftar i), Appendix B pp. 537–9. (2) Velyaminov-Zernov op. cit., pp. 130 et seq. (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 127–9. (4) Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1888) pp. 321–3.

[Autobiographical statements in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī (see the index to Ross’s translation); Bābur-nāmah, ed. Beveridge, p. 11; The Bābur-nāmah in English p. 22 etc.; Haft iqlīm no. 1557 (French translation of this passage on pp. 488–9 of Quatremère’s Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre: Matlaassaadeïn (for which see p. 232 infra); Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī; Akbar-nāmah tr. Beveridge i 402–6 (and elsewhere: see index); Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann i p. 460; Firis̲h̲tah, Bombay 1831, ii pp. 476–82; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii 48–9; Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 127–9; Rieu i 165–7; Ency. Isl. under Ḥaidar-Mīrzā (Barthold).]

§ 350. Here may be mentioned a number of other works relating to the Mongols:—

Iskandar-nāmah, written by a certain Amīr ʿAbd Allāh for Iskandar K̲h̲ān b. Imām-Qulī K̲h̲ān, a history of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his nearest descendants, based on a Turkish Tārīk̲h̲ i G̲h̲āzānī and having at the end an account of Central Asian events in S̲h̲aibānid times to ah 927/1520–1: Tashkent (see Kahl, p. 20, and Semenov Ukazatel’ p. 9).
Tuḥfah i Sāmī, by S. Muẓaffar Kābulī, a history of the Mug̲h̲ul race extending (in the only recorded ms., which is defective at the end) to circ. ah 904/1498–9, preceded by a history of the Prophets, Imāms, Caliphs etc.: Bodleian 165 (defective at end).
Large fragment (235 foll.) of a detailed history of the Mongols, especially C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān, in flowery style beginning with Yāfit̲h̲ and breaking off in the account of Ogotāy’s death ah 637 /1239: Bodleian 144 (good vocalized copy).
Fragment (foll. 568b–617) beginning with G̲h̲āzān’s death ah 703/1304 and ending ah 767/1365 in the reign of K̲h̲wājah ʿAlī Muʾaiyad the Sarbadār: Bodleian 148.
Large fragment (173 foll.) identified by Barthold (see Ency. Isl. under Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū) as part of the geographical work of Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū (for which see p. 66, n. 28, supra) and containing a history from Hūlāgū’s death ah 663/1265 to the sixteenth year of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign ah 823/1420: Bodleian 149.
Fragments relating to the history of the Īl-K̲h̲āns, the Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs, the Muẓaffarids, Tīmūr etc., perhaps extracts from the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ (see p. 71 supra): Bodleian 162.

next chapter: 3.6 The Muẓaffarids


^ Back to text1. This title is explained below.

^ Back to text2. According to al-D̲h̲ahabī.

^ Back to text3. This is the date given by Juwainī himself in the Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān. Ras̲h̲id al-Dīn and others give ah 661/1262–3, the year in which his brother, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M., was appointed Ṣāḥib-Dīwān (Minister of Finance).

^ Back to text4. Cf. also Blochet Les enluminures des manuscrits orientaux, turcs, arabes, persans de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris 1926, pp. 87–9, pl. xli.

^ Back to text5. At the end of this ms. is the date Rajab 659 (not ah 1259 as stated by Blochet), which may be the date of the original from which this ms. was copied (see the g.m.s. edition, p. lxxviii).

^ Back to text6. The Tasliyat al-ik̲h̲wān is not in Arabic as stated by Barthold in the Ency.Isl.

^ Back to text7. So according to Ḥamd Allāh, who in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah, p. 8, calls the author Jamāl al-Dīn Abū ’l-Qāsim Kās̲h̲ī.

^ Back to text8. According to K̲h̲wānd-Amīr.

^ Back to text9. For his dīwān see Sprenger 510.

^ Back to text10. For corrections of the text of this edition see an article entitled Taṣḥīḥ i Tārīk̲h̲ i Waṣṣāf by S. Aulād-Ḥusain “S̲h̲ādān” Bilgrāmī in the Oriental College Magazine vol. iv, no. 2 (Lahore, Feb. 1928) pp. 73–80.

^ Back to text11. Properly a title equivalent to “Amīr i kabīr” (see Barthold Uluġ Beg und seine Zeit, pp. 56–7).

^ Back to text12. Cf. Barthold Uluġ Beg und seine Zeit, p. 170: “die „Geschichte der vier Uluse“ (Ta’rīch-e arba‘ ulūs), d.h. der vier Reiche, die sich nach dem Zerfall des Mongolen-Reiches gebildet hatten: 1. der „Grossen Jurte“ d.h. Chinas und der Mongolei, 2. des Dschūtschidenreiches (der Goldenen Horde), 3. Persiens unter der Herrschaft der Nachkommen Hūlāgūs, und 4. Mittelasiens unter der Herrschaft der Nachkommen Tschaġatājs.” An account of the work, based on K̲h̲wānd-Amīr’s quotations and the S̲h̲ajarat al-Atrāk, is given by Barthold, op. cit. pp. 170–2.

^ Back to text13. Rieu’s statement that this title is not mentioned in the work is incorrect (see Bānkīpūr, vi pp. 163–4).

^ Back to text14. See Ency. Isl. under Dūg̲h̲lāt.

^ Back to text15. According to Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1888), p. 384, n. 13, this author wrote in 1182/1768–9 a history of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar entitled Tad̲h̲kirah i K̲h̲wājagān.

Cite this page
“3.5 History of Persia: The Mongols”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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