In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
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§ 353. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Jamāl al-Islām Yazdī is the author of a diary of Tīmūr’s Indian campaign which was one of the sources of Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī and S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī.
- Rūz-nāmah i g̲h̲azawāt i Hindūstān: Tashkent (see Kahl, pp. 13–14).
Edition: Dnevnik pok̲h̲oda Timura v Indiyu Giyas-ad-Dina Ali. S’ priloz̲h̲eniem sootvyetstvuyus̲h̲c̲h̲ik̲h̲’ otryvkov iz “Zafername” Nizam-ad-Dina S̲h̲ami. (Teksty po istorii Srednei Azii, ed. L.A. Zimin and W. Barthold, No. i, Petrograd, 1915) (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 415 (1928) no. 3333, 430 (1931) no. 913).
Description: Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 54, n. 1.
§ 354. Niẓām [al-Dīn] ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ S̲h̲āmī1 or S̲h̲anbī2 or S̲h̲anb-i-G̲h̲āzānī, 3 a native of Tabrīz, was living at Bag̲h̲dād in 795/1392–3, when it was captured ¶ by Tīmūr, to whom he then paid homage. In 804/1401–2 Tīmūr instructed him to compose in inornate style a history based on the official records of the reign.
- Ẓafar-nāmah, a history of Tīmūr to the end of 806/1404: Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3267 = Tauer 34 (followed by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s D̲h̲ail (see p. 67 supra). ah 828/1425), Rieu i 170 (ah 838/1434. A recension differing slightly from that of the other mss. (see Tauer Vorbericht p. 255), Bag̲h̲dād Kös̲h̲kü 282 = Tauer 32 (in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū (see pp. 66–67 supra.) Transcribed in S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign, and probably for S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, therefore not later than ah 850/1447), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 919= Tauer 33 (in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū. ah 885/1480–1), Blochet iv 2284 (in a ms. apparently containing the last five parts of the Majmūʿah i Hāfiẓ i Abrū. Cire. ad 1530), Browne Coll. H. 7 (12) (modern copy of Rieu i 170).
Edition (forthcoming): Histoire des conquêtes de Tamerlan (Ẓafarnāma) par Niẓāmuddīn Šāmī. Avec des additions de Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū Edition critique … par Felix Tauer (in the series of the Monografie Archivu Orientálního published by the Czechoslovak Oriental Institute at Prague).
Descriptions etc.: (1) BrowneLit. Hist. iii 361–2, (2) Vorbericht über die Edition des Ẓafarnāma von Niẓām Šāmī und der wichtigsten Teile der Geschichtswerke Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū’s. Von Felix Tauer (in Archiv Orientální, vol. iv, no. 2 (Prague, August 1932) pp. 250–6).
Extracts relating to the Indian campaign in L.A. Zimin and W. Barthold’s Dnevnik pok̲h̲oda Timura v Indiyu Giyas-ad-Dina Ali. S’ priloz̲h̲eniem sootvyetstvuyus̲h̲c̲h̲ik̲h̲’ otryvkov iz “Zafername” Nizam-ad-Dina S̲h̲ami (Teksty po istorii Srednei Azii, No. i, St. Petersburg 1915, cf. p. 217 supra).
Edition of the D̲h̲ail i kitāb i Ẓafar-nāmah (cf. pp. 66–67 supra): Continuation du Ẓafarnāma de Niẓāmuddīn Šāmī par Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū éditée d’après les manuscrits de Stamboul par Felix Tauer (in Archiv Orientální, vol. vi (Prague, 1934), pp. 429–65).
[Autobiographical statements in the Ẓafar-nāmah (see Rieu); S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāmah (see Rieu i 171a); Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, p. 90; Rieu i 170–1; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 361–2.]
§ 355. Tīmūr, the son of Amīr Ṭarāg̲h̲āy, Governor of Kas̲h̲, was born near Kas̲h̲ on 25 S̲h̲aʿbān 736/8 April 1336. He was himself appointed Governor of Kas̲h̲ by the invader Tūg̲h̲lāq Tīmūr K̲h̲ān, whom he subsequently defeated in battle. In 771/1370 he made himself ruler of Balk̲h̲. Jatah and K̲h̲wārazm were conquered in the years 771/1369–782/1380. In 782/1380–1 he began a series of campaigns which resulted in the conquest of K̲h̲urāsān, Jurjān, Māzandarān, Sīstān, Harāt, Fārs, ʿIrāq and Ād̲h̲arbāyjān. In 795/1392 began the “Five Years’ Campaign” against the Caspian provinces, Fārs, Armenia, Georgia, Mesopotamia and South Russia. In 800/1398 he set out for India and on 7 ¶ Rabīʿ ii 801/17 Dec. 1398 took Delhi. In 803/1400 he subdued Sīwās, Aleppo, Damascus and Bag̲h̲dād. In 804/1402 he defeated and captured the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd near Angora. In 807/1404 he started on a campaign against China, but died at Otrār on 18 Feb. 1405 at the age of 71, and was buried at Samarqand. [For further information see Ency. Isl. under Tīmūr.]
- Malfūẓāt i Tīmūrī, also called Wāqiʿāt i Tīmūrī (the “Autobiographical memoirs”), an autobiographical record of Tīmūr’s life from his seventh year to his death followed usually by an appendix called Tūzuk i Tīmūrī4 or Tuzūkāt i Tīmūrī (the “Institutes, designs and enterprises”), both now usually regarded as spurious but ostensibly translated from a Turkī original found in the library of Jaʿfar Pās̲h̲ā, Governor of the Yaman, by Mīr Abū Ṭālib Ḥusainī Turbatī, a native of K̲h̲urāsān, who presented this translation to S̲h̲āh-Jahān in 1047/1637–8: 5 Bānkīpūr vi 516 (incomplete. Bears a seal dated ah 1071/1660–1), 515 (19th cent.), Rieu ii 843a (“Institutes, designs and enterprises” only. ah 1081/1671), i 177 (extending to Tīmūr’s death. 19th cent. Four Pictures.), 179b (breaking off in the year 768/1366–7. Early 18th cent.), 179b (Memoirs ending with ah 783. “Designs, Enterprises, Institutes.” ah 1230/1815), 180a (two 18th-cent. copies), 180b (19th cent.), iii 903a (ah 1265/1849), ii 800a (defective. ah 1203/1789), 855a (Institutes. Abridged recension. ah 1208/1793), 855b (Institutes etc. ah 1066/1656), Suppt. 51 (Memoirs, defective at end. ah 1161/1748), Browne Suppt. 1245 (ah 1126/1714. King’s 93), 1246 (n.d. King’s 93*), 308 (“Tuzūkāt.” Christ’s), Houtum-Schindler 54 (3) (defective. ah 1290/1873–4), Lindesiana p. 228 no. 114 (ah 1133/1720–1), p. 227 nos. 427–9 (three copies of the Tuzūkāt), Bodleian 150 (extending to ah 798/1395. Lacking the Institutes etc. ah 1179/1766), Edinburgh 75 (ah 1191/1776), 196 (Institutes etc. only. ah 1118/1707), 197 (Institutes. A seal of 1182/1768), 198 (Institutes), 199 (Institutes. A version differing from the preceding), Ethé 196 (extending to ah 783. With the Tuzūkāt. ah 1196/1782), 197 (a somewhat shorter redaction. ah 1077/1666), 198 (the same shorter redaction. ah 1092/1681 ?), (Tuzūkāt. Shorter redaction), 200 (Tuzūkāt. Shorter redaction), 201 (Tuzūkāt. A still shorter redaction), 202 (Tuzūkāt. Fuller redaction. Defective), i.o. 3876 (Tuzūkāt), Būhār 47 (extending to ah 776. Preceded by Tīmūr’s Dastūr al-ʿamal.6 18th cent.), Rosen Institut 22 (1) (Tuzūkāt. ah 1232/1816–7), Blochet i 465 (ah 1259/1843), 466 (an abridgment. ah 1220/1805), iv 2318 (an abridgment completed by Abū Ṭālib Ḥusainī in 1064/1653–4. ah 1242/1826), r.a.s. P. 96 = Morley 94, P. 97 ¶ (Institutes etc. only ?), P. 98 (Institutes etc. only ?), Morley 94* (“Designs, enterprises and institutes” only. ah 1229/1813), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (two copies. ad 1834 and ah 1261/1845. See Oriental College Magazine vol. ii no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926) p. 66), Chanykov 75 (ah 1264/1848), Riḍā Pās̲h̲ā 223 (1) = Tauer 395 (Tuzūkāt. ah 1272/1856), Ivanow 85 (incomplete. 19th cent.), Berlin 458 (fairly old), Āṣafīyah i p. 234 no. 224 (“Tuzuk i Tīmūrī”, defective), no. 776 (part 2 only), Madras (“Tuzuk i Tīmūrī”. 2 copies), Majlis 574 (Tūzuk), 622 (7) (Tūzuk), Salemann-Rosen p. 13 no. 156 (“Tuzūkāt i Tīmūrī”).
Editions (Tuzūkāt only): (1) Institutes, Political and Military written … by the great Timour …; first translated into Persian by Abu Taulib Alhusseini, and thence into English, with … notes by Major Davy … The whole work published with a preface, indexes … By J. White. Oxford 1783°*. (2) Institutes, political and military of the Emperor Timour. In Persian and English [Major Davy’s translation with J. White’s notes]. Book the first. Calcutta 1785°* (pp. 85. No more published). (3) Kitāb i Qābūs-nāmah [by Kai-Kāʾūs ʿUnṣur al-Maʿālī] … wa-risālah i Tūzuk i Tīmūrī. [Ṭihran,] 1285/1868°. (4) Tārīk̲h̲ i Sulṭān i mabrūr musammā bah Tuzuk i Tīmūr, Bombay 1307/1890° [reprinted from Major Davy’s edition acc. to Edwards].
English translations: (1) (Malfūẓāt only, as far as Tīmūr’s forty-first year) The Mulfuzāt Timūry, or Autobiographical Memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Timūr … translated … by Major C. Stewart. London 1830°* (extending to the year 777/1375–6. Oriental Translation Fund). (2) (Tuzūkāt only) by Major Davy: see above under Editions (1) and (2).
French translation: (Tuzūkāt only) Instituts politiques et militaires de Tamerlan … traduits … sur la version persane d’Abou-Taleb-al-Hosseini … par L. Langlès. Paris 1787°.
Urdu translations: (1) Tazuk i Tīmūrī, by Subḥān-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲. Edition: Delhi 1845*. (2) Tuzuk i Tīmūrī, by M. Faḍl al-Ḥaqq, also called Aḥmad Miyān, of Aḥmadābād. Edition: Bombay 1908*.
Descriptions etc.: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 389–94, iv 559–63. (2) Eine legendäre Geschichte Timurs. Von A. Vambéry (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Bd. 51 (1897) pp. 215–32).
When Abū Ṭālīb’s translation was read to S̲h̲āh-Jahān he noticed errors and divergences from the Ẓafar-nāmah of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī and other histories. He therefore ordered M. Afḍal b. Tarbiyat K̲h̲ān Buk̲h̲ārī7 in the year ¶ 1047/1637–8 to compare it with the Ẓafar-nāmah and the other histories, to delete Abū Ṭālib’s additions, to supply his omissions and to correct his dates.
- Malfūẓāt i Ṣāḥib-Qirān, Afḍal Buk̲h̲ārī’s enlarged and corrected edition of the Memoirs, extending to Tīmūr’s death: Rieu i 179a (18th cent.), iii 975a (ending with ah 801/1399. ad 1851), Blochet i 464 (defective. 18th cent.), Ivanow 86 (late 12th or early 13th cent. H.), Bodleian 151 (n.d.), 152 (ah 1091/1680 ?), Browne Pers. Cat. 69, Ethé 203 (n.d.).
Translation of extracts (relating to the invasion of India): Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 394–477 (translated by E. Chapman and J. Dowson).
Description (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India, iii 392–4.
§ 356. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī “S̲h̲araf” Yazdī, born at Yazd, became a favourite of Sulṭān S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ (reigned 807/1405–850/1447) and especially of his second son Mīrzā Abū ’l-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm Sulṭān (Governor of Fārs from ah 818/1415–16 until his death in 838/1435). When Yūnus K̲h̲ān, the young K̲h̲ān of the Mongols (afterwards father-in-law of ʿUmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mīrzā b. Abī Saʿīd and so maternal grandfather of Bābur), was captured in 832/1428–9 by Ulug̲h̲ Bēg, S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ placed him under the tuition of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn with whom he lived for some years at Yazd. According to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī many of “S̲h̲araf’s” poems are dedicated to Yūnus K̲h̲ān. In 846/1442–3 he was invited to Qum by Mīrzā Sulṭān-Muḥammad, Governor of ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, but in 850/1446–7, when Sulṭān-Muḥammad rebelled, he would not have escaped the execution to which the rebel prince’s counsellors were condemned by S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, if Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. Ulug̲h̲ Bēg had not intervened and sent him to Samarqand on the ground that Ulug̲h̲ Bēg needed his help for his astronomical observations. After S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s death, having received permission from Sulṭān-Muḥammad, then ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, to return to his birthplace, he settled in 853/1449 at Taft, a village near Yazd, and died there in 858/1454.
He was in high repute as a man of learning and piety and as a master of elegant Persian composition. In addition to his poems, he wrote (1) a commentary on the Burdah of al-Būṣīrī, (2) a work on magic squares and lucky numbers entitled Kunh al-murād fī ʿilm al-wafq wa-’l-aʿdād (Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 260 no. 10951), (3) a work on riddles (muʿammā) entitled Ḥulal i muṭarraz (see Blochet ii 1067, Rieu Suppt. 193), (4) an anthology of Arabic and Persian poetry entitled Tuḥfat al-faqīr wa-hadīyat al-ḥaqīr, which is preserved at Calcutta (Būhār 431), (5) a collection of elegant letters, prefaces and other documents (Browne Coll. H. 5 (7). 15th cent.).
- Ẓafar-nāmah, completed ah 828/1424–5 according to the Ḥabīb al-siyar, a florid and stylistically much admired history of Tīmūr and K̲h̲alīl Sulṭān compiled first by Ibrāhīm Sulṭān with the help of amanuenses and others ¶ from the official and other histories of Tīmūr and from the statements of eyewitnesses and then turned into ornate prose by S̲h̲araf al-Dīn, whose intention it was to supplement this first, and only extant (?), maqālah with a second on S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and a third on Ibrāhīm Sulṭān. 8 (Prefixed to it in some manuscripts is an Iftitāḥ or Muqaddimah having the special title Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahāngīr9 on the genealogy of the Turkish K̲h̲āns and the history of Chingīz K̲h̲ān and his descendants compiled ah 822/1419 (but with subsequent additions) from Turkish records by Ibrāhīm Sulṭān and “ornamented” by S̲h̲araf al-Dīn in the same way as the Ẓafar-nāmah itself): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 175, Breslau 18 (defective at beginning. ah 821/142410), Ḥusām al-Dīn 275 = Tauer 396 (ah 840/1436), Blochet iv 2314 (circ. ad 1440), 2315 (mid 15th cent.), 2316 (late 18th cent.), 2320 (2) (Muqaddimah only. ah 1041/1632), i 455 (ah 849/1445), 456 (ah 901/1495), 457–63 (7 copies including 4 of the 16th cent. Of nos. 455–63 and 2314–6 only 462 contains also the Muqaddimah), Rieu i 173a–177a (15 copies, of which one (p. 177a) containing only about the last quarter of the work is dated ah 851/1447, five others are assigned to the 15th cent., two (p. 174b and 175b) contain also the Muqaddimah, and three (p. 176a, ah 929/152b, p. 176b, ah 959/1552 and p. 176b, ah 1009/1600) contain Pictures), iii 903a (15th cent.), 914a (Muqaddimah only. ad 1849), 1045b (extracts only), 1068a (15th cent.), Bodleian 153–8 (of which 153 is dated ah 852/1448 and 154 ah 886/1481, 156 contains also the Muqaddimah, and 157 a Picture), Asʿad 2370 = Tauer 397 (ah 854/1451), 2369 = Tauer 411 (defective at end. 11th/17th cent.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3266 = Tauer 398 (ah 873/1468–9), 3136 = Tauer 403 (ah 917/1511), 3394 = Tauer 407 (ah 991/1583), 3103 (2) = Tauer 412 (only the first 47 leaves of the work. 11th/17th cent.), Fātiḥ 4426 = Tauer 399 (ah 875/1470), 4425 = Tauer 384 and 402 (with Muqaddimah. ah 891/1486), 4427 = Tauer 405 (ah 974/1566), 4428 = Tauer 410 (ah 1088/1677–8 (?)), Eton 179 (Harāt, ah 877/1472–3), 180 (Muqaddimah only. ah 1197/1783), Aumer 243 (not later than ah 878/1473–4), 242 (Muqaddimah only), 244, Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1522 = Tauer 400 (ah 884/1479–80. 2 Pictures), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3029 = Tauer 401 (ah 889/1484), 3031 (1) = Tauer 404 (ah 940/1533–4), 3028 = Tauer 409 (10th/16th cent.), Ivanow 72–80 (of which 72 is dated ¶ ah 885/1480–1 and 80 contains also the Muqaddimah), Curzon 17 (16th cent.), 18, 19 (Muqaddimah only. ah 1067/1656), r.a.s. P. 94 = Morley 92 (ah 891/1486), P. 95 = Morley 93 (defective), Edinburgh 73, 74, 194, 195 (of which 73 and 194 are assigned to the 9th cent. H.), Ethé 173–189 (17 copies, of which 174 is dated ah 901/1496, 173 contains also the Muqaddimah, 187–9 contain the Muqaddimah only, 175 (ah 939/1533) is illustrated with 30 fine Pictures), 2831 (ah 1026/1617. Pictures), 2832, Ross and Browne 7 (with Muqaddimah. 17th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 67–8 (ah 903/1497), Suppt. 847 (ad 1774. Christ’s), Browne Coll. H. 6 (11) = Houtum-Schindler 18 (lacks first and last leaves. 15th cent.), Flügel ii 967 (ah 907/1501), 966 (Muqaddimah only, defective. Not old), Lindesiana p. 220 no. 829 (ah 907/1501–2), no. 830 (circ. ad 1500), no. 828 (circ. ad 1600), p. 221 nos. 224, 226, 899, 166–7, 372, 245, Mas̲h̲had iii p. 97 (described as Maqālah iii extending to Sulṭān M. Bahādur K̲h̲ān and beginning Funūn i sitāyis̲h̲ u sipās i fuzūn az andāzah i wahm u qiyās. ah 922/1516), Dorn 292 (with Muqaddimah. ah 938/1531–2), 293–6 (of which 295 (ah 973/1565) contains Pictures), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (at least 5 more copies. See Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 727, vi (1873) p. 93), Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vi (St. Petersburg 1873), p. 118 and Dorn a.m. p. 205), Dorn a.m. p. 375 (Pictures), Turin 93 (ah 970/1563), Lālā Ismāʿīl 359 = Tauer 385 and 406 (with Muqaddimah. ah 974/1567), Berlin 459 (ah 985/1558), 460, 461, ʿUmūmīyah 4975 = Tauer 386 and 408 (with Muqaddimah. 10th/16th cent.), Majlis 260 (with Muqaddimah. ah 1016/1607–8), 261 (without Muqaddimah), 262 (without Muqaddimah), d.m.g. 9 (17th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 512 (17th cent.), Lālah-lī 2004 = Tauer 413 (17th cent.), Būhār 46 (18th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (18th cent. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926) p. 65), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 15 (?) (apparently the Muqaddimah only), Chanykov 74 (with the Muqaddimah), Leyden iii p. 8 no.917 (defective at both ends), 918 (beginning only, 19 pp.), Madras (2 copies), Mehren 49, Salemann-Rosen p. 16 nos. 146, 855, 928*.
Edition: The Ẓafarnámah by Mauláná Sharfuddín ’Alí of Yazd. Edited [without the Muqaddimah] … by Maujlawí M. Ilahdád. 2 vols. Calcutta 1885–8°* (Bibliotheca Indica).
Extracts: [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqṭāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān] Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lenk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamiche … en 793 … ou 1391 … Par M. Charmoy (in the Mémoires de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6e série, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836*), pp. 172–243 (Persian text), 362–419 (French translation).
¶ French translation (abridged): Histoire de Timur-Bec … Écrite en persan, par Cherefeddin Ali … traduite en françois par … Petis de la Croix. Paris 1722°*, Delft 1723*.
English translation (from the French): The History of Timur Bec … Translated into French by … Petis de la Croix … Now faithfully rendered into English [by J. Darby]. London 1723°.
Translations of extracts: (1) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqṭāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān (French)] see above under Extracts. (2) An account of the War between His Majesty Sahib Kiran and Sultan Mahmood, the Lord of Hindiston, and of the Victory of the former over the latter. Translated from the Zuffernamah of Sherif-ul-Alí Yeydee [sic]. By the Secretary [Jas. Cargill].(Journal of the Archæological Society of Delhi, 1853*, pp. 4–27.) (3) [Tīmūr’s invasion of India] Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 479–522 (translated by J. Dowson, mainly but not exclusively from the paraphrase of ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim mentioned below).
Descriptions: (1) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 363–5. (2) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 53–4.
Illustrations: Bihzād and his paintings in the Ẓafar-nāmah MS. [belonging to Robert Garrett]. By Sir Thomas W. Arnold. London 1930*.
Abridgments: (1) Fatḥ-nāmah i Sāḥib-qirānī (beg.: … Ḥamd u sipās i bī-qiyās kih az fatḥ-nāmah), an abridgment, omitting only the less important passages and the poetical pieces, prepared, like the original, for Abū ’l-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm Sulṭān: Ethé 190 (ah 982/1575), 191 (defective), Bodleian 160 (n.d. Opening words different). (2) Tārīk̲h̲ i Tīmūrī (beg.: al-Ḥamdu li-llāh al-ʿAlī al-ḥamīd), completed ah 879/1475 by an anonymous author for Maulānā Burhān al-Dīn of K̲h̲urāsān: Edinburgh 408 (ah 1004/1596 (?)), Salemann-Rosen p. 12 no. 853 (? Tārīk̲h̲ i Tīmūrnāmah).11 (3) A plain paraphrase made at Ajmēr ah 1024/1615 for Jahāngīr by ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim:12 Rieu i 177b (17th cent.), Bodleian 159 (vol. i only (to ah 803/1400–1). N.d.). The extracts in Elliot and Dowson’s History of India are translated mainly from this paraphrase. (4) A version made in 1050/1640 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān: Blochet iv 2317 (defective at end. Latter half of 17th cent.). (5) A simplified version beginning Ba-mūjab i ḥukm i jahānmuṭāʿ: Ivanow Curzon 701 (incomplete. Modern copy). (6) “Histoire en vers moutakarib de Tamerlan, par Shéref ed-Din ‘Ali Yezdi,” Blochet iii 1669 (latter half of 17th cent.).
¶ [Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain (Rieu i 183a) fol. 226; Daulats̲h̲āh 378–81; Laṭāʾif-nāmah (b.m. Add. 7669 fol. 15); Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲ā̱q 330–2; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, 148; Tārīk̲h̲ i Ras̲h̲īdī, tr. Elias and Ross, London 1895, pp. 74, 84–5, 155; Haft iqlīm no. 128 (Bibl. Ind. ed. pp. 173–4); Jāmiʿ i Mufīdī (Rieu i 207) foll. 234–7; Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl no. 51; Muntak̲h̲ab al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 328; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1151; Charmoy Expédition de Timoûr-i-lenk … contre Toqtamiche … (Mémoires de l’Acad Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6me sér., t. iii (1836), pp. 92–3); Hammer Geschichte d. schönen Redekünste Persiens 284; Rieu i 173–5; Bānkīpūr vi p. 168; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 362–5; Ency. Isl. under S̲h̲araf al-Dīn.]
§ 357. It was by order of Sulṭān Abū ’l-Fatḥ Badīʿ al-Zamān Bahādur K̲h̲ān (presumably Sulṭān Ḥusain b. Manṣūr b. Bāyqarā’s son, who was defeated by S̲h̲aibānī in 912/1507) that Sulṭān Aḥmad b. K̲h̲āwand-S̲h̲āh al-Ḥusainī wrote his
- Ẓafar-nāmah, a history of Tīmūr, apparently a mere abridgment and simplification of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāmah: Fātiḥ 4429 = Tauer 420 (early 10th/16th cent.).
§ 358. ʿAbd Allāh “Hātifī” Jāmī, a son of “Jāmī’s” sister, was born at K̲h̲arjird. S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl on his return from the conquest of K̲h̲urāsān in 917/1511–12 visited him there and asked him to compose a poem on his conquests. He had written only a thousand verses of this mat̲h̲nawī, the S̲h̲āh-nāmah i Hātifī or Ismāʿīl-nāmah (for copies of which see Dorn no. 448, r.a.s. P. 305 marg., cf. p. 237 infra), when he died in Muḥarram 927/1521.
Of his dīwān there is apparently a ms. at Cairo (Cat. p. 489) and there are extracts from it on the margin of Rieu Suppt. 275.
His other mat̲h̲nawīs are all extant, viz.
- Lailā Majnūn (Editions: Calcutta 1788°*, Lucknow 1869°*. mss.: Browne Suppt. 1112, 1113, Ethé 1398–1409, Rieu ii 652b, Suppt. 295, Vollers 942).
- S̲h̲īrīn K̲h̲usrau, dedicated to Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr (mss.: Bānkīpūr ii 223, Bodleian 1013–15, Rieu Suppt. 295 etc.).
- Haft manẓar (mss.: Aumer 106, Bodleian 1016, Rieu ii 653a, Suppt. 295, 305, etc.) and
- Tīmūr-nāmah, sometimes called Ẓafar-nāmah, or Ẓafarnāmah i Tīmūrī, on the exploits of Tīmūr written in imitation of “Niẓāmī’s” Sikandar-nāmah: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3820, iv 8017, Sprenger 253, Rieu Suppt. 295 iv (circ. ad 1500), 297 (ah 945/1538. Pictures), Rieu ii 6536 (16th cent. Pictures), 654b (a fuller recension, defective. 16th cent. Pictures), 654b (16th cent.), 654b (16th cent.), 654b (ah 1085/1674), 655a, Ethé 1410 (ah 927/1521), 1411 (ah 999/1590–1), 1412 (ah 1027/1618), 1413–16 (1415 copied by M. al-Qiwām al-S̲h̲īrāzī), Blochet iii 1785 (early 16th cent.), 1800 ¶ (ah 978/1570–1), 1801 (ah 985/1577), 1802 (ah 988/1580. Pictures), 1803 (late 16th cent. Pictures (for a description of which see Revue des bibliothèques, 1898, p. 328)), 1804 (ah 1012/1604), 1805 (early 17th cent.), 1806 (ah 1053/1643), 1807 (late 17th cent.), iv 2466 (1st half of 16th cent.), Bodleian 1006 (ah 934/1528. Pictures), 1007 (ah 983/1576), 1008–12 (of which 1011 contains Pictures), Majlis 328 (ah 947/1540–1), Princeton 418 (ah 949/1542), Browne Pers. Cat. 280 (ah 950/1544. Pictures), 281 (ah 980/1573. Pictures), 282, 278 iii (16th–17th cent.), Suppt. 344 (n.d. King’s 85), Browne Coll, v 79 (9) (ah 960/1553 ?), Ivanow 649 (ah 958/1551), 650–2 (of which 651 dated ah 1041 contains 3 Pictures), Curzon 244 (17th cent.), Stockholm Riedel 38 (ah 960/1553), Dorn 444 (ah 963/1555–6), 445 (ah 987/1579), 446, 447 (Pictures), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 733), Būhār 353 (ah 968/1560–1), 354 (ah 970/1562), d.m.g. 43 (ah 969/1562), 44 (transcript of Berlin 908), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3746 = Tauer 421 (ah 973/1566), Adabīyāt Kutubk̲h̲ānah-sī 2694 = Tauer 422 (ah 979/1572), Lālā Ismāʿīl 303 = Tauer 423 (ah 979/1572), 302 = Tauer 426 (ah 990/1582), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3030 (1) = Tauer 424 (ah 982/1574–5 (?)), 3284 = Tauer 427 (10th/16th cent.), Leyden ii p. 122 no. 685 (ah 984/1576–7), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1519 = Tauer 425 (ah 989/1581), 1520 = Tauer 430, Bānkīpūr ii 225 (16th cent.), Hamburg 179 (before ah 1014/1605), 180 (ornate copy), Bombay Univ. p. 256 (ah 1052/1642–3 (?)), Lindesiana p. 146 no. 274 (circ. ad 1650), p. 147 no. 224 (circ. ad 1650), no. 74 (circ. ad 1710), no. 218, Berlin 18 ii 8 (b) (ah 1077/1666), 908 (n.d.), 909, de Jong 171 (ah 1097/1685–6), K̲h̲āliṣ Efendī 4107 = Tauer 428 (11th/17th cent.), Maḥmūd Efendī 5217 = Tauer 429 (defective at end. 11th/17th cent.), Upsala Zetterstéen 456 (ah 1269/1852–3), Āṣafīyah i p. 234 nos. 48, 204 and 236, Aumer 104, 105, Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 85, Fātiḥ 4430 = Tauer 431, Madras 145, Mas̲h̲had iii p. 95, r.a.s. P. 305, Rehatsek p. 69 no. 4.
Edition: Ẓafar-nāmah i Hātifī, Lucknow 1869°*.
Brief prose summary: Muk̲h̲taṣar i Tīmūr-nāmah, by Ḥusain-Dōst Sanbhalī (for whom see Rieu i 372a), Ivanow 1757 (ah 1223).
[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, Juzʾ 3, p. 346; Bābur-nāmah tr. A.S. Beveridge i 288; Wāqiʿāt i Bāburī (passage quoted by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in Oriental College Magazine, vol. x, no. 3 (May 1934), p. 145); Tuḥfah i Sāmī, Ṣaḥīfah v ed. Iqbāl Ḥusain, Patna 1934, pp. 20–5; Haft iqlīm no. 671; ʿAbd al-Nabī Mai-k̲h̲ānah pp. 103–6; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū no. 45; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ no. 827; Majmaʿ al-nafāʾis; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 158; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām no. 76; Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm, H, no. 47; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 3036; Hammer-Purgstall Redekünste p. 355; Nis̲h̲tar i ʿis̲h̲q; ¶ Ouseley Biographical notices p. 143; Sprenger 253; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 54; Rieu ii 652; G.i.P. ii 237, 246–8; Bānkīpūr ii 222; Ency. Isl. under Hātifī; Browne Lit. Hist. iv 227–9.]
- Tārīk̲h̲ i Tīmūrī (author and subject not stated): Āṣafīyah i p. 224 no. 476.
- Tīmūr-nāmah (beg. Har āfrīdaʾī kih suk̲h̲un ibtidā kunad), a history of Tīmūr written ah 1124/1712 in the reign of Muʿizz al-Dīn [Jahāndār S̲h̲āh] b. S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam b. Aurangzēb: Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (ah 1235/1820. See Mélanges asiatiques, v (St. Petersburg 1868) p. 457).
- Tīmūr-nāmah i naẓm: Salemann-Rosen p. 13 no. 925b.
§ 360. An unknown contemporary of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s, most probably an official in his service, wrote
A prolix (119 foll.) and ornate history of Tīmūr’s empire during a period of rather more than a year (S̲h̲aʿbān 807/Feb. 1405–Ramaḍān 808/Feb. 1406) after Tīmūr’s death, called by Barthold “the Anonym of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲”13 and beginning Afḍal i ḥamd u sipās u akmal i s̲h̲ukr i bī-qiyās: Rieu i 180b (lacking nearly all the section on the sabab i taʾlīf i kitāb. 15th cent.).
§ 361. In 813/1410 Tāj al-Salmānī was ordered by S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ to complete the Tīmūr-nāmah [i.e. the Ẓafar-nāmah of Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī. See p. 218 supra]. The result of his labours exists in a
- (D̲h̲ail i Ẓafar-nāmah), a history of the last days of Tīmur’s life and of the first years of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign (Muḥarram ah 807/1404–813/1410–11): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv, p. 176, 1. 3, Lālā Ismāʿīl 304 = Tauer 414 (slightly defective at beginning. ah 988/1580), Fātiḥ 4305 = Tauer 415 (about three-quarters of the work. 12th/18th cent.).
§ 362. Mīrzā M. Qāsim “Qāsimī” Junābādī (or Junābad̲h̲ī or Gūnābādī) belonged to a Saiyid family in which the kalāntarī of Gūnābād (N.E. of Tūn in K̲h̲urāsān) was hereditary. Leaving that office to his brother, Mīr Abū ’l-Fatḥ, he adopted the life of a faqīr and devoted his leisure to poetry. According to the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām he was a pupil of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Manṣūr S̲h̲irāzī, and this is possible ¶ since the latter died in 948/1541–2 (see Rieu ii 826, Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 3513), but he cannot have held discussions with Mullā ʿAlī Qūs̲h̲jī in the presence of Mīrzā Ulug̲h̲ Bēg (who died in 853/1449). He was the author of (1) S̲h̲ahnāmah [i māḍī,14 or S̲h̲ah-nāmah i Ismāʿīl, as it may conveniently be called], a mat̲h̲nawī on the history of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl the Ṣafawī, begun in his reign but completed in 940/1533–4 (for further particulars see p. 238 infra). (2) S̲h̲ah-nāmah [i Nawwāb i Aʿlā,15 or S̲h̲ah-nāmah i Ṭahmāsp, as it may conveniently be called], a mat̲h̲nawī on the history of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp in 4,500 lines, extending in the defective British Museum ms. to ah 967/1559–60 (for further particulars see p. 239 infra). (3) S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲nāmah (see below). (4) Lailā Majnūn, dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl (mss.: Ethé 1437 (2), Ivanow Curzon 253 (1)). (5) K̲h̲usrau S̲h̲īrīn, composed ah 950/1543–4 and dedicated to Sām Mīrzā (mss.: Ethé 1437 (4), Ivanow Curzon 253 (4)). (6) Zubdat al-as̲h̲ʿār, in the metre of the Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār. (7) Gūy u c̲h̲augān (or Kār-nāmah, a poem describing a game of polo played by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl (ms.: Ethé 1437 (3), Ivanow 253 (3)). (8) ʿĀs̲h̲iq u Maʿs̲h̲ūq.
Nos. (1), (4), (5) and (7) are mentioned by Sām Mīrzā in his Tuḥfah i Sāmī written in 957. According to ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah “Kāmī” Qazwīnī’s statement in the Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir,16 Nos. (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) and (7) were mentioned in a letter to Akbar which “Qāsimī” wrote at Kās̲h̲ān on an occasion when “Kāmī” met him there and which the latter presumably conveyed to Akbar. No. (8) is mentioned in the Haft āsmān.
The date of “Qāsimī’s” death does not seem to be recorded. In the Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir, begun in 973/1565–6 and completed in 989/1581–2, he is spoken of as still alive. According to the Haft iqlīm (cited by Rieu) he made over his fortune in extreme old age to the Shrine of the Imām ʿAlī Riḍā at Mas̲h̲had.
- S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī on the history of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ composed in 950/1543–4 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp: Sprenger 449 = Ivanow Curzon 253 (2) (ah 982/1574–5), Blochet iii 1828 (ah 992–3/1584–5), 1829 (ah 1091/1680), Rieu ii 661a (ah 1180/1767), Ethé 1437 (5).
[Tuḥfah i sāmī; Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir (quoted in Haft āsmān p. 136); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār (abridgment, no. 609, see Sprenger p. 44); Haft iqlīm no. 809; K̲h̲azīnah i ganj i Ilāhī (Sprenger p. 83); Safīah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū (Bodleian 376) no. 80; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 163 (Bombay ed., p. 71); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390, no. 58, Bānkīpūr viii p. 144, no. 38); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 216; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2028 (probably no. 2026 also); Sprenger p. 534; Rieu ii 661b.]
¶ § 363. Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Jalāl al-Din Ishāq Samarqandī was born at Harāt ah 816/1413 and died there ah 887/1482. His father was Qāḍī and Imām in S̲h̲ah-Ruk̲h̲’s camp. He himself was first presented to S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ in 841/1437–8 at the age of twenty-five, when he dedicated to him a commentary on ʿAḍud al-Dīn al-Ījī’s treatise on the particles and pronouns. In 845/1441 S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ sent him on a mission to South India, where he visited the Zamorin of Calicut and the King of Vijayanagar, returning in 848/1444. His experiences on this journey are described in the second volume of the Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain. In 850/1446–7 S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, who died in this year, sent him on an embassy to Gīlān. In 867/1462 Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd appointed him S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s monastery (k̲h̲ānaqāh) at Harāt.
- Maṭlaʿ i saʿdain wa-majmaʿ i baḥrain, a history of the Tīmūrids from 704/1304–5 to 875/147017 in two qisms or daftars ((i) from the birth of the Īl-K̲h̲ān Abū Saʿīd to the death of Tīmūr and the accession of K̲h̲alīl Sulṭān in Samarqand ah 807/1404, (ii) from the accession of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ in Harāt ah 807/1404 to the second accession of Abū ’l-Ghāzī Sulṭān Ḥusain ah 875/1470), based, up to the year 830/1426–7, largely on Hafiẓ i Abrū18 and written, it seems (see the Bānkīpūr Catalogue vi p. 170), with the co-operation of Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī (for whom see p. 217 supra) and others: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v 12261, Fātiḥ 4371 (2) = Tauer 419 (see Tauer’s Addenda et corrigenda) (probably part of the Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain, extending from ah 831/1427–8 to ah 875/1470. 9th/15th cent.), Rieu i 181b (Daftar i. ah 900/1495), 183a (Daftar ii. ah 1056/1646), iii 1046a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Blochet i 468 (Daftar ii. ah 900/1494–5 and ah 911/1505–6), 469 (Daftar ii. ah 1051/1641), 470 (Daftar ii. 17th cent.), iv 2319 (Daftars i–ii. ah 923/1517–924/1518), Breslau 19 (ah 929/1523), Flügel ii 968 (ah 949/1542–950/1543), 969 (Daftar ii. ah 1033/1624), Asʿad 2098 = Tauer 416 (Daftar i. ah 970/1562, copied from an autograph), 2125 = Tauer 418 (breaks off in 841/1437–8. 17th cent.), Dorn 297 (ah 971/1563), 298 (ah 972/1564–5), 299 (ah 988/1580), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (2 copies. See Mélanges asiatiques ¶ iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 727), Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863) p. 54, vi (1873) p. 120 and Dorn a.m. p. 205), Aumer 245 (Daftar i. ah 988/1580), 246 (Daftar i. ah 1000/1591–2), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3086 = Tauer 417 (Daftar i. 16th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 70 (Daftar i. ah 1065/1655), Suppt. 1206 (Daftar i. N.d. Daftar ii, defective at end), 1207 (ah 989/1582. 19 Christ’s), Ivanow 81 (ah 991/1583), 82 (18th cent.), 83 (defective. 18th cent.), 84 (Daftar ii. 19th cent.), Ethé 192 (Daftar i. ah 1000/1592 or 1024/1615), 193 (Daftar ii. ah 992/1584), 194 (Daftar ii. ah 1010/1601–2), 195 (Daftar ii. N.d.), Bodleian 163 (ah 1015/1606), 164 (Daftar ii. ah 992/1584), Eton 169 (“Vol. i. Covers 704–875” (sic). ah 995/1587), 170 (Daftar ii), 171 (Daftar ii), Majlis 273 (ah 1015/1606–7), Browne Coll. H. 8 (15) = Houtum-Schindler 17 (ah 1019/1610), Bānkīpūr vi 513 (Daftar i. ah 1087/1676), 514 (Daftar ii. 16th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 254 no. 320 (ah 1299/1881–2), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 107, Cairo p. 500 (n.d.), p. 508 (Daftar ii apparently. N.d.), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 101 (defective), r.a.s. P. 99 = Morley 95 (Daftar ii), Salemann-Rosen p. 19 nos. 157, 943 (Daftar ii).
Edition: The earlier part of Daftar ii (nearly to the end of ah 813, 192 pp.) edited by M. S̲h̲afīʿ has been published piecemeal in the Oriental College Magazine (vol. ix no. 3 (Lahore, May 1933), no. 4 (August 1933), vol. x no. 1 (November 1933)). The publication of this edition seems to have been discontinued.
French translation: by A. Galland, in ms. at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (see Quatremère Notice de l’ouvrage persan … p. 13. For a published extract from this translation see below under Translations of extracts (5)).
Extracts: (1) [Events in Māzandarān etc. from ah 760/1359 onwards] B. Dorn Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenländer des Kaspischen Meeres, St. Petersburg 1850–8°*, Theil iv, pp. 154–237. (2) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqṭāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān] Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lenk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamiche … en 793 … ou 1391 … Par M. Charmoy in the Mémoires de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6e série, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836*), pp. 245–69 (Persian text), 422–40 (French translation). (3) An account of embassies and letters that passed [in the years 811/1408–9, 815/1412–13, 820/1417–18 and 822/1419–20] between the Emperor of China and Sultan Shahrokh, Son of Amir Timur. Extracted from the Matla us Sadein of Abdur Rezak and translated by William Chambers (in The Asiatick miscellany, vol. i, ¶ Calcutta 1785°*, pp. 71–97 (Persian text with English translation), 98–113 (notes). (4) [S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s embassy to China in 823/1420–825/142220] K̲h̲wānd-Amīr Ḥabīb al-siyar, Bombay 1857°*, K̲h̲ātimah. pp. 10–17 (abridged and with numerous verbal alterations). (5) [The same embassy to China] Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre Matla-assaadeïn … Par M. Quatremère (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi…. tome xiv (Paris 1843°*)), pp. 308–41 (Persian text), 387–426 (French translation). (6)[S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s embassy to Calicut and Vijayanagar in 845/1441–848/1444] Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre Matla-assaadeïn … Par M. Quatremère (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi …, tome xiv (Paris 1843°*)), pp. 341–80 (Persian text), 427–73 (French translation).
Translations of extracts: (1) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqṭāmish K̲h̲ān (French)] see above under Extracts (2). (2) [S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign to ah 820/1417 followed by a few passages relating to Chinese embassies in 822–4 (French)] Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre Matla-assaadeïn … Par M. Quatremère (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi …, tome xiv (Paris 1843°*)), pp. 19–304. (3) [Embassies and correspondence between S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and China in 811/1408–9, 815/1412–13, 820/1417–18 and 822/1419–20 (English)] see above under Extracts (3). (4)[The embassy to China in 823–5 (Turkī)] Tārīk̲h̲ i K̲h̲iṭāy or Rūz-nāmah i Maulānā G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn i naqqās̲h̲ Īlc̲h̲ī i K̲h̲iṭāy, a Turkī translation made in 900/1494–5 by Ḥājjī b. M. Ardistānī for the Turkish governor of Ardistān: Browne Hand-list 482, Florence Biblioteca Laurenziana (see Quatremère, Notice de l’ouvrage persan … p. 10). (5) [The same embassy to China (French. An abridged translation by Galland)] Ambassade de S’chahrok, fils de Tamerlan, et d’autres princes ses voisins, à l’Empereur du Khatai (in Relations de divers voyages curieux … données au public par les soins de feu M. Melchisedec Thevenot … Nouvelle édition … Tome second contenant la III.et IV. partie. Paris 1696°*.21 (6) [The same embassy to China (French. Galland’s abridged translation with numerous verbal alterations)] Histoire générale des voyages … [By A.F. Prévost.] Nouvelle édition. Vol. ix, The Hague 1799*, pp. 394–412. (7) [The embassy to China ¶ (French, doubtless Galland’s abridged translation22)] Ambassades réciproques d’un Roi des Indes, de la Perse … et d’un Empereur de la Chine. Traduites du persan … par L. Langlès. London 1788°. (8) [The embassy to China (English, an abridged translation from Quatremère’s French)] Cathay and the way thither; being a collection of medieval notices of China, translated and edited by Colonel Henry Yule, vol. i, London (Hakluyt Society) 1866, pp. cxcix–ccxi. (9) [The embassy to Calicut and Vijayanagar (French. Galland’s abridged translation: see p. 232, n. 254, supra)] Voyage de la Perse dans l’ Inde, pendant les années 845, 846, 847 et 848 de l’hégire, 1442, 1443 et 1444 de l’ère vulgaire, par A’bd-oûlrizâq, ambassadeur de Châh-Rokh … auprès du roi de Bisnagor. Extrait et traduit [or rather, epitomised] du Mathla’a Sa’adéïn … (par L. Langlès) (in Collection portative de voyages traduits de différentes langues orientales et européennes, tome ii, Paris 1797°). (10) [The embassy to Calicut and Vijayanagar (French)] see above under Extracts (5). (11) [The embassy to Calicut and Vijayanagar (English, translated from Quatremère’s French)] Narrative of the journey of Abd-er-Razzak … (in India in the Fifteenth Century. Being a collection of narratives of voyages to India … now first translated into English. Edited … by R.H. Major, London 1859°* (Hakluyt Society’s Publications, no. 22), pp. 1–49). (12) [The embassy to Calicut and Vijayanagar, with omissions. (English)] Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 95–126. 23 (13) [A few extracts from the account of the Indian embassy] R. Sewell A forgotten empire (Vijayanagar), London 1900*, pp. 73–5, 87–95.
Descriptions: (1) Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre: Matla-assaadeïn … par M. Quatremère (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi …, tom., xiv (Paris 1843°*), pp. 1–514. 24 (2) Hammer-Purgstall in Wiener Jahrbücher vol. 71, Anz. Blatt., pp. 32–47. (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 89–93. (4) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 56.
[Autobiographical statements in the Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain (see Quatremère’s article mentioned below, Rieu i 182, etc.); Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, p. 335 (English translation in Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 89–90); Haft iqlīm no. 1440; E. Quatremère in Notices et extraits, xiv (Paris 1843) pp. 3–7; Elliot and Dowson ¶ History of India iv 89–90; Rieu i 181–2; Ency. Isl. under ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ; Bānkīpūr vi p. 171; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 428–30.]
§ 364. In 830/1426–7 was composed by order of Sulṭān S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲
- Muʿizz al-ansāb fī s̲h̲ajarat al-ansāb, genealogical tables of the families of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and Tīmūr: Blochet i 467 (lacunæ. 16th cent.), Rieu i 183a (defective. 18th cent.).
Extracts: Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, vol. i (Teksty) p. 159.
Descriptions: (1) d’Ohsson Histoire des Mongols i pp. xlv–xlvi. (2) Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols (see p. 60 supra), pp. 64, 86. (3) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 55.
§ 365. In the reign of Aurangzēb (ah 1068/1658–1118/1707) a certain Salmān Qazwīnī wrote his
- Jawāhir al-tawārīk̲h̲, a history of the Mug̲h̲als from Adam to ah 1037/1627 in the reign of Jahāngīr, the account of Tīmūr and his descendants to Sulṭān Ḥusain Mīrzā occupying more than half of the space: Bodleian 168.
§ 366. It was for Wazīr al-Daulah M. Wazīr K̲h̲ān, second Nawwāb of Ṭōnk (ad 1834–1864), that Mīrzā Dīn Muḥammad K̲h̲urāsānī wrote his
- Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-k̲h̲awāqīn, a history of the Mongols, of Tīmūr, and some dynasties contemporary with them, based, it seems, mainly on the S̲h̲ajarat al-Atrāk (see p. 212 supra) and the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ: Rieu i 183b (19th cent.).
[Rieu i 183b, iii 1082a.]
§ 367. A magnificent and beautifully illustrated manuscript at Bānkīpūr, slightly defective at the beginning and defective also at the end and elsewhere, is apparently the only copy of an unknown author’s work on Tīmūr and his successors to the time of Akbar, in whose reign the manuscript was written. The title is not definitely known, the words Tārīk̲h̲ i k̲h̲ānadān i Tīmūrīyah, which are written on the manuscript, being doubtless only a description, but ʿAbd al-Muqtadir has suggested that perhaps the work may be the C̲h̲ingīz-nāmah, one of the nine works mentioned by Abū ’l-Faḍl as having been illustrated for Akbar by his court painters and the only one of the nine not hitherto identified. This conjecture would be easier to accept, if the work contained any account of C̲h̲ingīz.
- (Tārīk̲h̲ i k̲h̲ānadān i Tīmūrīyah), a history of Tīmūr (foll. 7–134), his successors to Sulṭān Ḥusain Mīrzā (foll. 136–234), Bābur (foll. 238–73), ¶ Humāyūn (foll. 273–95), Akbar to the 22nd year of the reign (foll. 295–338): Bānkīpūr vii 551 (defective at both ends. Fine illustrations by artists of Akbar’s time. Note in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s hand). Reproductions of the illustrations in this manuscript were made some years ago by order of the Bihar and Orissa Government and copies were distributed to a number of libraries.
§ 368. For M. ʿAbd al-Qādir K̲h̲ān’s Ōymāq i Mug̲h̲ul, a history of the Mongols with special reference to the Mug̲h̲als of India, see the subsection History: India: Tīmūrids.
next chapter: 3.8 The Qarā-Quyūnlū
^ Back to text1. In his preface the author calls himself Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī, probably in allusion to S̲h̲ām, a quarter of Tabrīz (see Nuzhat al-qulūb, tr. le Strange, pp. 79, 80, 81). ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī calls him Niẓām al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ.
^ Back to text2. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī calls him Maulānā Niẓām al-Dīn S̲h̲anbī.
^ Back to text3. Mīr K̲h̲wānd and K̲h̲wānd-Amīr call him Maulānā Niẓām al-Dīn S̲h̲anb-i-G̲h̲āzānī. S̲h̲anb i G̲h̲āzān was a domed tomb built for himself by G̲h̲āzān 2 miles S.W. of Tabrīz (see Rieu iii p. 1081b, Vullers Lexicon, s.v. s̲h̲anb).
^ Back to text4. This title is in some mss. given to the whole work.
^ Back to text5. See ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, pt. 2, p. 288, Rieu iii 1081b.
^ Back to text6. For this Dastūr al-ʿamal see also Lindesiana p. 131 no. 764 (circ. ad 1800).
^ Back to text7. A skilled horseman and an accomplished writer, who held faujdārīs in the Deccan and who died in 1061/1651 or 1062/1652 (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i 489–90, Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī (Rieu iii 1895) fol. 196, Rieu iii 1082a).
^ Back to text8. The Mas̲h̲had ms. mentioned below is described as a copy of Maqālah iii.
^ Back to text9. “This Muḳaddimah bears a great likeness, as regards matter and arrangement, to the work known as Ulūs Arbaʿah and the Ninth Maḳālah of Khulāṣat ul-Akhbār” (Rieu i p. 175a).
^ Back to text10. This date is presumably incorrect.
^ Back to text11. The ms. Browne Coll. H. 5 (7) which bears this title is a collection of letters and prefaces including at least three or four from the pen of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī.
^ Back to text12. See p. 128, n. 114, supra.
^ Back to text13. See Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 54, n. 3, where references are given to [Zimin and Barthold’s] Teksty po istorii Srednei Azii [St. Petersburg 1915 (cf. p. 217 supra], introduction, pp. xxxiii sq., and Zapiski [Vostoc̲h̲nago Otdyeleniya Imperatorskago Russkago Ark̲h̲eologic̲h̲eskago Obs̲h̲c̲h̲estva] xxiii, 20 sq.
^ Back to text14. So called by the author himself in his letter to Akbar mentioned below.
^ Back to text15. So called by the author himself in his letter to Akbar mentioned below.
^ Back to text16. Quoted in the Haft āsmān, p. 136.
^ Back to text17. According to Rieu two years are incidentally mentioned in the body of the work as the dates of composition, ah 872 towards the beginning and ah 875 towards the end. In the author’s colophon transcribed in the b.m. ms. Or. 1291 (Rieu i 183a) 27 Muḥarram ah 880 is given as the date on which he completed the original copy. ah 874 is mentioned as the current year on p. 190 of the extract translated by Quatremère in Notices extraits (see p. 231 infra).
^ Back to text18. “So ist zum Beispiel das bekannte Geschichtswerk Maṭla‘u-s-sa‘dayn … für die Jahre 736–830 nichts anderes, als ein Auszug aus dem Zubdatu-t-tawārīḫ …” (F. Tauer in Archiv Orientàlnì iv No. 2 (Aug. 1932 p. 254).
^ Back to text19. Transcribed from an autograph according to M. S̲h̲afīʿ in the preface to his edition mentioned below.
^ Back to text20. ʿAbd al-Razzāq’s account of this embassy is an abridgment of the diary of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn i naqqās̲h̲. Another abridgment, less short than ʿAbd al-Razzāq’s, was inserted by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū in his Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see p. 67 supra). This has now been published with notes by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in the Oriental College Magazine, vol. vii, no. 1 (Lahore, Nov. 1930), pp. 1–66.
^ Back to text21. Presumably this narrative is contained also in the Paris edition of 1663–72°.
^ Back to text22. Cf. India in the Fifteenth Century, London 1857 (Hakluyt Society) p. lxix, where it is stated that Galland’s version of ʿAbd al-Razzāq’s account of his embassy to India was inserted by Langlès in the Collection portative de voyages.
^ Back to text23. Translated probably by C.J. Oldfield, b.c.s., revised by Elliot.
^ Back to text24. The beginning of this article (a part corresponding to pp. 1–55) appeared originally in the Journal asiatique, 3e série, tome 2 (July–Dec. 1836), pp. 193–233. 338–64.