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4 Geography, Etc.
(26,940 words)

In Volume 2: Mathematics; Weights, and Measures; Astronomy, and Astrology; Geography; Medicine; Encyclopaedias, and Miscellanies; Arts and Crafts, Science, Occult Arts

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[Some of the works already mentioned under History (pl. i pp. 46vv, etc.), especially those dealing with particular provinces or towns (e.g. pp. 272–287, 509–612, etc.), and under Biography (pl. i pp. 613vv), especially Biography: Ambassadors, Biography: Places and Biography: Travellers …, contain geographical information, and some of those recorded under Astronomy and Astrology (pl. ii p. 29 onwards) are also in part cosmographical or geographical. A few of the more important are referred to again briefly in the pages that follow.]

Wilber = Recent Persian contributions to the historical geography of Iran. [By] Donald N. Wilber (in Archaeologica orientalia in memoriam Ernst Herzfeld, New York 1952, pp. 267–78).

§ 179. Abū Zaid Aḥmad b. Sahl al-Balk̲h̲ī, born about 235/849–50 at S̲h̲āmistiyān, a village near Balk̲h̲, studied at Bag̲h̲dād under Yaʿqūb b. Isḥāq al-Kindī (for whom see Ency. Isl. under Kindī; Brockelmann i 209, Sptbd. i 372–4; etc.), and died, probably at his birthplace, in 322/934 (see Fihrist (Cairo 1348) pp. 198–9; Irs̲h̲ād al-arīb i pp. 141–52; de Goeje Die Istakhrī-Balkhī Frage (in zdmg. 25 (1871) pp. 42–58), pp. 53–6; Ency. Isl. under Balk̲h̲ī (Huart); Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, pp. 15–18; Brockelmann i p. 229, Sptbd. i p. 408; etc.). His works, said to have been sixty in number and doubtless all in Arabic, included a work on geography entitled probably Ṣuwar al-aqālīm and composed apparently in 308/920–1 or 309/921–2 (see zdmg. 25 (1871) p. 49). This work seems to be lost in its original form, but a second and much enlarged edition is preserved (according to the conclusion reached by de Goeje) in the Masālik al-mamālik written between 318/930 and 321/933 by Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. M. al-Fārisī al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, concerning whom no biographical details are known.

Masālik al-mamālik (beg. al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʾ al-Niʿam wa-Walī al-Ḥamd … a. b. faʾinnī d̲h̲akartu fī kitābī hād̲h̲ā aqālīm al-arḍ ʿalā ’l-mamālik), an Arabic geography: for mss. and editions see Brockelmann i p. 229, Sptbd. i p. 408; etc.

Persian translations, abridgments, or adaptations: (1) Tarjamat al-Masālik wa-’l-mamālik1 (beg. al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʾ al-Niʿam wa-Walī al-Ḥamd … a. b. c̲h̲. g. k̲h̲udāwand i suk̲h̲an kih murād i mā): Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 509, Blochet i 654 (defective at both ends. Early 16th cent.), 655–6 (both 18th cent.), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1646 (ah 1075/1664–5. 20 maps. See Ritter in Der Islam xix/1–2 (1930) p. 56), Āyā Ṣōfyah 3156 (n.d. See Ritter ibid.), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 12–13 nos. 1 (ah 1164/1751), 2 (very defective. Early 19th cent.), Ethé 707 (old, but defective), Eton 55, Flügel ii 1271.

English translation2 (and, in Appendix, No. 1, pp. 283–7, the original Persian of a few passages): Kitāb i Masālik u mamālik taṣnīf i Ibn i Ḥauqal. The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal … Translated from a Manuscript in his own Possession,3 collated with one preserved in the Library of Eton College, by Sir William Ouseley4London 1800°*.

Maps: K. Miller Mappae arabicae, i–v, Stuttgart 1926–31.

(2)
Dībāc̲h̲ah (beg. Hazārān ḥ. u t̲h̲. u s̲h̲. u sp. K̲h̲udāy-rā). “a somewhat abridged but otherwise rather close translation” (Rieu) undertaken at the command of Abū ’l-Mafāk̲h̲ir ʿAlī K̲h̲wājah b. M., Amīr of Jand, near Buk̲h̲ārā, [at some date subsequent to 616/1219, when Jand was taken by Jūc̲h̲ī K̲h̲ān and placed under the rule of ʿAlī K̲h̲wājah] by an anonymous writer5 who supposed the original to be the As̲h̲kāl i ʿālam of Jaihānī:6 Rieu i 415 b (lacunae. 19 maps. Bag̲h̲dād, ah 1251/ 1835–6), 417 b (same lacunae. 19 maps. Kābul, ah 1256/1840).
(3)
Ṣuwar al-buldān (?) (beg. S̲h̲. u sp. i bī-ḥ. u iḥṣā K̲h̲udāwandī rā), a translation made by M. b. Asʿad b. ʿAbd Allāh7 at the command of the Sulṭān i Aʿẓam … Qazān b. al-Amīr al-Kabīr … Tūkultimūr: Bodleian 396 (autograph, ah 670/ 1272(?). Ouseley 373, acquired at S̲h̲īrāz in September 1811).
(4)
[Tarjamah i] Masālik al-mamālik8 (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. k̲h̲. al-samāwāt wa-’l-araḍīn … a. b. c̲h̲. g. Jāmiʿ i īn ṣuwar kih c̲h̲ūn ʿumrī ba-siyāḥat u safar gud̲h̲arānīdam9): Gotha 36 (120 foll., of which 67 are fragments of an ornate ms., the rest, including the first seven, being supplies dated 1014/1606. 20 maps. Cf. zdmg. 25 (1871) p. 52).

Extracts: J.G.L. Kosegarten De Mohammede Ebn Batutaejusque itineribus commentatio …, Jena 1818°*, p. 28 sqq.

(5)
mss. unidentified: Browne Coll. K. 1 (Ṣuwar al-aqālīm, defective at both ends), Browne Suppt. 839 (Ṣ. al-a. ah 1083/ 1672–3), Leningrad Univ. nos. 149, 281 (Salemann-Rosen p. 19), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 17, mss., no. 178 (Masālik u mamālik, defective at both ends, beg…. Islām mulk i C̲h̲īn ast and ending u dar īn ḥudūd c̲h̲unīn kūh-hā dīgar nīst. Described as composed after 308 and before 322 but as containing in the notice of Qazwīn a reference to 898 as the current year), Tashkent Acad. i 691 (M. al-m. Defective at end. 17th cent.).

§ 180. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿUmar al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-Abī ’l-Ḥusain al-Ṣūfī, given in the Cairo catalogue as the author of the ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt described below, is presumably identical with the author of the Ṣuwar al-kawākib (pl. ii § 75), but whether he is really the author of this ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt and whether that is the correct title are matters for further investigation.

ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt (beg. Sp. u st. az ʿadad u ḥisāb afzūn): Cairo p. 506 (ah 1043/1633. 138 foll. Pictures).

§ 181. The Ḥudūd al-ʿālam was begun in 372/982–3 during the reign of Abū ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ M. b. Aḥmad, the Farīg̲h̲ūnid ruler of Gūzgān or Gūzgānān (Jūzajān or Jūzajānān), by an author who does not mention his name.

Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (beg. Sp. K̲h̲udāy i Tuwānā [-yi] Jāwīd rā), a manual of geography: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) 3 (dated 656/1258 and containing also (1) the Jahān-nāmah of M. b. Najīb Bakrān, (2) a short treatise on music by M. b. Maḥmūd b. M. Nīs̲h̲āpūrī, (3) Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Jāmiʿ al-ʿulūm. Formerly in the possession of Major-General A.G. Toumansky).

Editions: (1) Ḥudūd al-ʿālem. Rukopis’ Tumanskogo. S vvedeniem i ukazatelem V. Bartol’da [a facsimile with introduction and index by W. Barthold], Leningrad 1930*. (2) Gāh-nāmah i 1314 ta’līf i Saiyid Jalāl al-Dīn i Ṭihrānī ḥāwī i kitāb i Ḥudūd al-ʿālam min al-mas̲h̲riq ilā ’l-mag̲h̲rib kih ba-sāl i 372 Hijrī i Qamarī taʾlīf s̲h̲udah u jild i siwwum i Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī ḥāwī i tārīk̲h̲ i Malāḥidah, Ṭihrān 1352/ 1933‡.

English translation: Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, “The regions of the world,” a Persian geography … translated and explained by V. Minorsky. With the preface by V.V. Barthold († 1930) translated from the RussianLondon 1937‡ (Gibb Memorial Series, n.s. xi).

Addenda: Addenda to the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam. By V. Minorsky (in bsoas. xvii/2 (1955) pp. 250–70).

§ 182. For the Fārs-nāmah, a history and geography of Fārs written by Ibn al-Balk̲h̲ī at the command of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad the Saljūqid (ah 498–511/1104–17), see pl. i, § 458.

§ 183. The author who wished to perpetuate his memory10 by writing the ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt wa-g̲h̲arāʾib al-maujūdāt,11 but whose name seems to be absent from the preface in all mss. hitherto described, includes in his description of Hamadān a passage (quoted in the Būhār cat., p. 71), which implies that he was born and lived in that town. Some passages from his work are quoted in the ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā (cf. § 187 infra) as from the ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt of Najīb Hamadānī (see Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 245–13, where it is stated that in both works the passages do in fact agree). Ḥ. K̲h̲., who gives the date of composition as 555, calls the author M. b. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad al-Ṭūsī al-Salmānī and in the Browne ms. (but presumably not in the text) the work is “ascribed to” M. b. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmad “aṭ-Ṭírí (? aṭ-Ṭabarí)”12 al-Salmānī.

ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt wa-g̲h̲arāʾib al-maujūdāt, a cosmography dedicated to the [Saljūqid] Sulṭān Ṭughril b. Arslān b. Ṭug̲h̲ril, who reigned from 571/1175 to 590/1193, divided into ten rukns (according to Browne, (1) angels, spirits and celestial bodies, (2) fire, meteors, lightning, rainbows and winds, (3) the earth, waters and mountains, (4) notable cities, countries and buildings, (5) trees, (6) talismans, buried treasures, and the tombs of famous kings and prophets, (7) the psychology, vanity and races of man, prophetic miracles, the natural sciences, especially alchemy and medicine, predestination and the resurrection, (8) the Jinn, and various diabolic creatures, (9) wonderful birds, (10) wonderful beasts and reptiles, concluding with an account of seventy-two dīvs or demons and the talismans appropriate to each)13 and preserved in mss. of which the opening words and the style do not always agree: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 188 (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. K̲h̲āliq[ī] rā kih), Berlin 344* (p. 1058) (beg. Sp. mar K̲h̲udāyī rā kih mā rā ba-maʿrifat i k̲h̲wud bīnā gardānīd u mā rā az qaṭrah i āb padīd āward. ah 685/1286 in part (fol. 166, end of Rukn 4, to fol. 261, end of work)), 344 (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿĀ…. Sp. mar Āfrīdgār i ʿĀlam rā kih kāffah i maujūdāt bar ḥasab i irādat i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲ bi-y-āfrīd. ah 931/1525. Pictures), Blochet ii 814 (ah 790/1388. Pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques, 1898, p. 142), Flügel ii 1446 (beg. Sp…. gardānīd, as in Berlin 344*. ah 835/1431), Cairo p. 505 (beg. as in Ḥ. K̲h̲. ah 975/1567–8. Pictures), Būhār 97 (beg. Sp…. padīd āward, as in Berlin 344*. ah 1025/1616? Pictures), Browne Coll. K. 6 (beg. Ḥ. u sp. K̲h̲udāy rā kih ṣūrat i mā rā az qaṭrah i āb bi-nigās̲h̲t u ba-k̲h̲wudī i k̲h̲wud bar mā t̲h̲anā guft. ah 1085/ 1674–5), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 22–29 nos. 12 (beg. Sp. ān K̲h̲udāy rā kih ʿālam bi-y-āfrīd u banī Ādam rā bar guzīd u guft. 17th cent.), 13 = Rosen Institut 24 (beg. Sp…. padīd āward, as in Būhār 97, then u ba-k̲h̲wudī i k̲h̲wud bar mā t̲h̲anā guft. A different recension. Defective. Bad ms. Late 17th cent.), Bodleian 405 (beg. S̲h̲. u sp. K̲h̲udāwandī rā kih wujūd i mā az mus̲h̲tī k̲h̲āk i tīrah padīd kard. Foll. 31–83, apparently therefore an abridgment), Gotha 35 (beginning not quoted by Pertsch but stated by him to agree neither with the Vienna ms. nor with Ḥ. K̲h̲. Not very old).

Descriptions: (1) Mélanges asiatiques vi (St. Petersburg 1873) pp. 364–81, (2) Būhār pp. 70–4, (3) N.D. Miklukho-Maklai Geograficheskoe sochinenie xiii v. na persidskom yazyke (in Uch. zap. Instituta Vostokovedeniya Akademii Nauk SSSR, ix, 1954, pp. 186–8).

§ 184. The Arabic original of the Faḍāʾil i Balk̲h̲ was composed in 610/1213 by an author whose name, suspiciously inserted over an erasure in the unique ms. of the Persian translation, is given as S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh [b.?] ʿUmar b. Dāwud al-Wāʿiẓ Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Balk̲h̲ī. A ms. dated 676/1278 came into the hands of the Qāḍī Majlis i ʿālī Ṣadr i kabīr Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī ’l-Farīd al-Balk̲h̲ī (whose name likewise is suspiciously substituted for some name erased) and at his command it was translated into Persian by an anonymous writer for the benefit of those who (like the qāḍī!) were ignorant of Arabic.

Faḍāʾil i Balk̲h̲: see pl. i § 471a.

§ 185. M. b. Najīb Bakrān.

Jahān-nāmah, in twenty short faṣls, dedicated to the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. b. Takas̲h̲ (ah 596–617/1200–20):14 Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 29 no. 14 (foll. 16–27a of the Tumansky ms. (cf. pl. ii § 181). ah 663/1265. Cf. Barthold Turkestan, g.m.s. 1928, p. 36; Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, preface, p. vii), Blochet iv 2041 (2) (foll. 164–235, acephalous. ah 833/1430).

Extracts: Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongol’skago nashe stviya, i (St. Petersburg 1900), Teksty, pp. 81–2.

For some references to Russian periodicals see Miklukho-Maklai’s catalogue.

§ 186. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn [?] M. b. Masʿūd al-Masʿūdī: see pl. ii § 89.

Jahān-dānis̲h̲: see pl. ii § 89.

§ 187. The author of the ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā15 (unnamed in the acephalous and prefaceless Leningrad ms., but called Abū ’l-Muʾaiyad Abū Muṭīʿ al-Balk̲h̲ī in the evidently spurious exordium of the Browne ms.) lived in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and composed his work probably in the twenties of the latter century, not earlier at any rate than 617/1220. He seems to have lived under the Īldigizid Atābaks of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān (ah 531–622/1136–1225) and had visited various places in Ād̲h̲arbāyjān as well as Armenia, Arabian ʿIrāq, the Ḥijāz, Ṭabaristān and possibly India. He was at one time a prisoner in Georgia. The spurious exordium of the Browne ms. says that the work was composed for Abū ’l-Qāsim Nūḥ b. Manṣūr [the Sāmānid, ah 366–87/976–97].

ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā (beg. (spuriously) in the Browne ms.: Risālah i ʿAjāʾib al-as̲h̲yāʾ min kalām i Abū Muṭīʿ al-Balk̲h̲īBi-smi ’llāhiC̲h̲. g. Abū ’l-Mu’aiyad A. M. i B…. kih marā az ṭiflī hawas i gardīdan i ʿālamĀg̲h̲āz i kitāb. C̲h̲. g. A. M. i B. kih dar Hindūstān dirak̲h̲tī-st), short anecdotes relating to marvels in India, Spain, Rūm, Syria, Ṭabaristān, Buk̲h̲ārā, etc., followed, at any rate in the Leningrad ms. [foll. 188 b–228 b], by a second part containing short accounts of places alphabetically arranged (the chief authority being Najīb Hamadānī [cf. pl. ii § 183], but original matter of value is included in the work): Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 32 no. 15 (foll. 87–228, defective at both ends, beg. ba-jā [sic lege?] na-nihad az miyān i dirak̲h̲t na-tuwānand āmadan, ending paiwastah az ḥukamāʾ u ʿulamāʾ k̲h̲ālī na-bās̲h̲ad, in the description of Hamadān. 17th cent.), Browne Coll. G. 11 (12) (2) = Houtum-Schindler 42 (2) (foll. 44–72. Modern).

Descriptions: (1) Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1880–8) pp. 493–4, (2) N.D. Miklukho-Maklai Geograficheskoe sochinenie xiii v. na persidskom yazyke (in Uch. Zap. Inst. Vost. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1954, ix pp. 175–96, with extracts in facsimile, pp. 214–19, and Russian translation of the extracts, pp. 196–210).

§ 188. Zakarīyāʾ b. M. b. Maḥmūd al-Qazwīnī, born at Qazwīn circ. 600/1203–4, was living at Damascus in 630/1232–3 and met Ibn al-ʿArabī [who died there in 638/1240]. In the reign of al-Mustaʿṣim, the last ʿAbbāsid Caliph (640–56/1241–58), he was Qāḍī of Wāsiṭ and al-Ḥillah. He died in 682/1283.

[Ibn Tag̲h̲rī-birdī al-Manhal al-ṣāfī (Wiet’s summary, no. 1042); ʿAbd al-Raʾūf al-Munāwī Ṭabaqāt (= al-Kawākib al-durrīyah?) (passage quoted at beginning of a Paris ms. of the Āt̲h̲ār al-bilād [de Slane 2236]); Brockelmann i p. 481, Sptbd. i pp. 882–3; Ency. Isl. under Ḳazwīnī (M. Streck); etc.].

1.
ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt wa-g̲h̲arāʾib al-maujūdāt, a cosmography in Arabic divided into four muqaddamahs and two maqālahs ((1) fī ’l-ʿulwīyāt, on the spheres, stars, time, (2) fī ’l-suflīyāt, on the elements, minerals, plants, animals), and existing in at least four16 different editions ((1) without dedication (mss.: Munich 464 (dated 678/1280), Ahlwardt 6161–2, Rieu Arab. Suppt. 698–9, etc.), (2) enlarged and dedicated to ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Juwainī, for whom see pl. i § 340 (mss.: Gotha 1506–7, etc.), (3) distinguished by two additional naẓars (on the aṣnāf al-nās and the ṣināʿāt) in the chapter on mankind and extant apparently in Persian only (mss.: Flügel 1438–9, etc. (see below), (4) a later recension of no. (3) with additional matter from various sources, adopted by Wüstenfeld as the main basis for his edition (Göttingen 1847°*): Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 188, Brockelmann i p. 481, Sptbd. i p. 882.

Persian translations:17

(a)
without the translator’s name or any statement that it is a translation, beginning with the Arabic doxology of the original (Al-ʿaẓamatu laka etc.) and containing in the author’s preface his name in the form Zakarīyāʾ b. M. b. Maḥmūd al-Kammūnī al-Qazwīnī as well as a dedication (absent from some of the mss.) to ʿIzz al-Dīn S̲h̲āhpūr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān: Bānkīpūr vii 634 (1) (lacks dedication. ah 840/1436), Princeton 65 (ah 865/1460), Flügel ii 1438 (inscribed Tuḥfat al-g̲h̲arāʾib. ah 897/1492), 1439 (ah 948/1542. Good ms.), Rieu i 462 b (ah 965/1558), 463a–464b (5 copies, two of 16th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 126 (ah 974/1566. Prefixed to the Arabic doxology is a Persian preface beginning Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. K̲h̲āliqī rā kih ʿajāʾib i mak̲h̲lūqāt i ʿālam), Berlin 345, 346 and 346* (p. 1059) (the last old), Blochet ii 807–12 (six copies, one 16th-cent.), Bodleian iii 2506 (ah 1007/1599), i 397–8, Edinburgh 362 (lacks dedication. 17th cent.), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 34–6 nos. 16 (17th cent.), 17, Ivanow Curzon 88 (lacks dedication), Ethé 712–13 (both lack dedication), Ross-Browne 279, Mehren p. 10 no. 19 (calligraphic ms.).

Editions: [Ṭihrān] 1264/1848° (234 foll. Illustrations. This edition, however, not yet adequately described, may be of a different translation); Ṭihrān (ba-saʿy u ihtimām i Ḥājjī M. Naṣīr i K̲h̲wānsārī, dar kār-k̲h̲ānah i Karbalāʾī M. Ḥusain), 1283/ 1866–7‡ (pp. 269, [3]. Beginning: Yā Wāhib al-ʿuqūl wa-D̲h̲ū [sic] ’l-mann wa-’l-niʿam Fāṭir al-samāwāt wa-’l-arḍ … dāma ḥamduka. Contains dedication to ʿIzz al-Dīn … S̲h̲āpūr [so, without ibn ʿUt̲h̲mān]. Numerous illustrations).18

(b)
Shorter, more archaic in language, and agreeing more closely with the Arabic than that dedicated to S̲h̲āhpūr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān and giving the author’s name in the form M. b. M. b. M. al-Qazwīnī:19 Rieu ii 464 (lacks first page. ah 845/1441).
(c)
Agreeing closely with the Arabic text and beginning al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʿ al-ʿuqūl wa-’l-arwāḥ: Rieu Suppt. 135 (ah 1205/1791?).
(d)
A modernized and prolix version completed early in S̲h̲aʿbān 954/Sept. 1547 for Ibrāhīm ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āh of Bījāpūr (beginning with the Arabic doxology of the original, al-ʿaẓamatu laka etc., and continuing ammā baʿd dar ʿahd i k̲h̲ilāfat u aiyām i salṭanat i pāds̲h̲āh i ʿālī-jāh); Rieu iii 995a (16th cent.), ii 464 (ah 125 (= 1205/1790?)), Ethé 714 (ad 1854), Princeton 66 (section on botany only. 116 Pictures Early 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 594 no. 54.

Editions: [Lucknow] 1283/1866°* (586 pp. n.k.); 1290/ 1874* (584 pp. n.k.).

(e)
mss. insufficiently described for identification, but probably in most cases copies of (a): Fātiḥ 4174 (dated 699/ 1299–1300. Photo at Berlin. See Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 882 n.), Lindesiana p. 173 no. 37 (defective. Circ. ad 1500), nos. 3, 2, 1, p. 174 nos. 4 and 374, Bodleian 399 (defective at both ends), Browne Suppt. 854–6, Eton 58, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (1859), p. 732, Chanykov 106), r.a.s. P. 178, Dorn 263 (defective at beginning).

Abridged metrical paraphrase of Maqālah ii (with additions from other sources): G̲h̲arāʾib20 al-dunyā (beg. Ibtidā mī-kunam bah Bi-smi ’llāh), being the second of the four bābs21 of a mat̲h̲nawī entitled Mirʾāt by “Ād̲h̲arī”, who died in 866/ 1461–2:22 Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 1864 (ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1488 no. 45 (calligraphic. “Old”), iii p. 630 no. 295, Bodleian 402 (ah 1015/1617), 403 (much shorter. Pictures), Ethé 711 (shorter redaction, defective. ah 1074/1664), 709 (ah 1135/ 1723), 710, Vollers 937 (ah 1083/1672–3), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 46 no. 30, Blochet ii 813 (ah 1238/1822. Pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques 1899 p. 57), Rehatsek p. 154 no. 98 (ah 1258/1842), Dorn 471, Berlin 91 (2) (extracts only).

2.
Āt̲h̲ār al-bilād wa-ak̲h̲bār al-ʿibād (beg. al-ʿIzz laka wa-’l-jalāl li-kibriyāʾika), an Arabic geography in which, after three or four brief muqaddamahs, the various countries, towns (and their famous men), mountains, rivers, etc., are treated in alphabetical order under each of the Seven Climes, completed apparently in 674/1276 (the date of an autograph referred to below. Cf. Ḥ. K̲h̲. i p. 1552) as an enlarged edition of the author’s ʿAjāʾib al-buldān, which seems to date from 661/1263: Ḥ. K̲h̲. i p. 154, Rieu Arabic Suppt. 697 (transcribed in 729/1329 from an autograph of 674/1276), etc. (for other mss., Wüstenfeld’s edition (Göttingen 1848°*), etc., see Brockelmann i p. 481, Sptbd. i p. 883).

Persian translations:

(a)
Tuḥfat al-ʿajāʾib (beg. H. i bī-h. Ṣāniʿī rã kih ʿajāʾib u g̲h̲arāʾib i ʿālam āt̲h̲ār i arqām) a greatly abridged translation or adaptation made in 928/1522 (so Ethé) or 948/1541–2 (so Rieu) by ʿAlī Ṭāhirī (so Ethé, but ʿAlī Ṭāʾirī according to Rieu): Leningrad Univ. 1214 (?) (ah 870/1465–6.23 Romaskewicz p. 4), Ethé 716 (ah 1056/1646), Rieu iii 1059 (description only).
(b)
Baḥr al-buldān: Rieu iii 1019b (extracts transcribed circ. ad 1850 from a ms. dated D’hārī [= D’hār?], K̲h̲āndēs, ah 1001/1592–3), 1036a (a notice of the same ms. ad 1851).
(c)
(Tarjamah i) Āt̲h̲ār al-bilād wa-ak̲h̲bār al-ʿibād, a much abridged paraphrase (beginning with the Arabic doxology of the original, al-ʿIzz laka etc., and continuing with a short preface, of which Ethé does not mention the opening words): Bodleian 401 (423 foll. ah 1021/1612–13), possibly also Chanykov 107 (beg. al-ʿIzz laka).
(d)
Sair al-bilād (beg. Ḥ. i ʿālī-asās), written in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s reign (1037–68/1628–58) by M. Murād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān for his patron Mūsawī K̲h̲ān (Mīr ʿAlī Aṣg̲h̲ar, d. 1054/ 1644: see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii p. 441, Rieu iii p. 991): Ethé 715, Bodleian 400, Rieu iii 991 b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), possibly also Blochet i 668 (lacks first iqlīm. 17th cent. Called ʿAjāʾib al-buldān24 in the colophon).

§ 189. ʿImād al-Dīn Abū ’l-Fīdāʾ Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlī al-Aiyūbī died in 732/1331 (see Brockelmann ii p. 44, Sptbd. ii p. 44; etc.).

Taqwīm al-buldān: see Brockelmann ii p. 46, Sptbd. ii p. 44.

Persian translation: Tarjamah i T. al-b., by ʿAbd al-ʿAlī b. M. b. Ḥusain Bīrjandī (d. 934/1527–8?: see pl. ii § 121): D̲h̲arīʿah iv p. 90 no. 401 (autograph ms. dated 927/1520–1 in possession of S. Abū ’l-Qāsim Riyāḍī Mūsawī).

Abridged Persian translation: Tarjamah i T. al-b. (beg. Ammā baʿd īn muk̲h̲taṣarī-st dar maʿrifat i misāḥat i arḍ u taqsīm i ān ba-aqālīm), completed in Muḥarram 1047/May–June 1637 by Ganj-ʿAlī Farāhānī by order of Ḥājjī S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Mutaʿāl:25 Blochet i 669 (100 foll. 17th cent.).

§ 190. Ḥamd Allāh Mustaufī Qazwīnī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 111) as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah written in 730/1329–30 and of a Ẓafar-nāmah completed in 735/1334–5.

Nuzhat al-qulūb (beg.: C̲h̲ūn Wāhib i mawāhib i bī-ʿillat), a manual of cosmography and geography written, at any rate partly, in 740/1339–40 (more than once mentioned as the current year) and divided into a fātiḥah (subdivided into a muqaddamah, on the spheres, the heavenly bodies and the elements, and a dībāc̲h̲ah, on the inhabited world, longitude and latitude and the climes), three maqālahs ((1) the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms, (2) man, (3) geography, in four qisms ((i) Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, (ii) Persia in twenty bābs and five appendices (mak̲h̲laṣ or faṣl), namely (a) itineraries, (b) mountains, (c) mines and minerals, (d) rivers, (e) seas and lakes, (iii) lands bordering on Persia and at times subject thereto, (iv) foreign lands never subject to Persia)) and a k̲h̲ātimah (wonders): Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 330, Blochet i 657 (ah 853/1449), 658 (mid-16th cent.), 659–62 (of which 661 (ah 1072/1661–2) contains Pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques 1898 p. 247), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 37–43 nos. 19–25 (of which 20 is dated 962/1555 and 21 (16th cent.?) = Rosen Institut 25), Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (1859), p. 732, vi (1873) p. 96, Chanykov 110), Univ. (see Salemann-Rosen p. 19 nos. 60, 171, 304), Rieu i 418a (16th cent.), 419b (ah 984/1577), 420a–420b (6 copies), ii 811b, Suppt. 136–7, Mis̲h̲kāt ii pp. 671–4 no. 258 (16th cent.), Berlin 347 (old), 348 (ah 1033/1624), 349–52, Majlis 691 (defective. Old), Bodleian 406–12, Flügel ii 1447 (ah 1011/1602–3), Tashkent Acad. i 698 (ah 1025/1616), Lindesiana p. 149 no. 403 (ah 1029/1620), p. 150 no. 927, Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 65 no. 7 (ah 1029/1620), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 43 no. 2 (ah 1046/1636–7), Ellis Coll. M. 132 (ah 1072/1661), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1224 no. 150 (ah 1079/1668–9), i p. 594 nos. 47–8, Browne Suppt. 1307 (ah 1084/1673–4), 1306, 1308–9, Pers. Cat. 121 (ah 1092/ 1681), 122, Coll. K. 2–3 = Houtum-Schindler 40–41, Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 436 (ah 1103/1691), Būhār 98–9, Aumer 201 (ah 1121/1709), r.a.s. P. 182–3, Bānkīpūr vii 633, Dresden p. 82, no. 53, Edinburgh New Coll. p. 7, Ivanow Curzon 89 (to middle of Maqālah 2).

Edition: Bombay 1311/1894° (for criticisms of this edition see G. le Strange’s Mesopotamia and Persia … p. 7, and J. Stephenson’s translation of the zoological section, introd., p. xvi).

Edition and translation of Maqālah i, martabah 3: The zoological section of the Nuzhatu-l-Qulūb of Ḥamdullah al-Mustaufī al-Qazwīnī edited, translated, and annotated hy Lieut.-Colonel J. Stephenson, London (Hertford printed) 1928°* (Oriental Translation Fund, n.s., xxx). For numerous corrections see Les formes turques et mongoles dans la nomenclature zoologique du Nuzhatu-’l-ḳulūb, par Paul Pelliot in bsos. vi/3 (1931) pp. 555–80.26 For reviews see jras. 1930 pp. 123–6 (R.A. Nicholson) and Rivista degli studi orientali xiv/1 p. 90 (M. Guidi).

Edition and translation of Maqālah iii and the K̲h̲ātimah: The geographical part of the Nuzhat-al-Qulūb … edited (translated) by G. le Strange, Leyden and London 1915°*, 1919°* (Gibb Memorial Series, xxiii, 1, 2).

Summary of Maqālah iii, qism 2 [i.e. the twenty bābs dealing with the provinces of Persia together with the five appendices (faṣl or mak̲h̲laṣ) except the third (on mines and minerals) and a few passages in the others relating to places outside Persia]: Mesopotamia and Persia under the Mongols in the fourteenth century A.D. From the Nuzhat-al-Qulūb of Ḥamd-Allāh Mustawfī. By G. le Strange, London 1903°* (Asiatic Society Monographs, v: 134 pp. with map, reprinted with some corrections from the jras. 1902 pp. 47–74, 237–66, 509–36, 733–84).

Extracts: (1) [Bābs 1–6 and 8, i.e. ʿIrāq i ʿArab, ʿIrāq i ʿAjam, Ād̲h̲arbāyjān, Mūg̲h̲ān and Arrān, S̲h̲īrwān, Gurjistān, Armenia] Siasset Namèh … par le Vizir Nizam oul-Moulk. Texte persan édité par C. Schefer, Supplément, Paris 1897°*, pp. 141–230. (2) [Bābs 18–20, i.e. Māzandarān, Qūmis and Gīlān] Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenlānder des Kaspischen Meeres herausgegeben, übersetzt und erlāutert von B. Dorn, pt. 4, St. Petersburg 1858°*, pp. 81–7.

§ 191. An anonymous author,27 who lived in Kirmān and who describes himself as an old and devoted servant of Amīr Mubāriz al-Dīn Muḥammad [the Muẓaffarid, who seized Kirmān in 741/1340 and Fārs in 754/1353 and was blinded by his son S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ujāʿ at Iṣfahān in 760/1359], wrote his untitled compendium of geography in 748/1347–8.

Ṣuwar al-aqālīm (?)28 (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a. b. dar tawārīk̲h̲ mī-āyad kih c̲h̲ūn Iskandar i Failaqūs), a compendium of geography, “too slight to be of much value … made up, in a large proportion, of fabulous legends and childish tales” (Rieu) and divided into two bābs ((1) (a) the terrestrial globe, its dimensions and divisions, (b) the southern hemisphere and the equator, (2) the Seven Climes, from East to West): Blochet i 665 (126 foll. Mid-16th cent.), 666 (ah 1005/1596–7), 664 (ah 1071/1660–1), iv 2184 (3) (Bāb ii, defective at both ends. ah 1274/1857–8. Described by Salemann in Mélanges asiatiques ix (St. Petersburg 1888) pp. 493–504), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 43 no. 27 (86 foll. 16th cent. Cf. Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863) p. 54), Rieu i 421a (acephalous. ah 1059/1649?), 420b (17th cent. Cf. Dorn in Mélanges asiatiques vi (St. Petersburg 1873) p. 574, vii (1876) p. 43), 421a (ah 1256/1840), Ethé 708 (ah 1220/ 1805), Āṣafīyah iii p. 242 no. 142 (?) (Majmūʿah i rubʿ i maskūn i Aflāṭūn [cf. Blochet i p. 385 ult.]), Breslau 22, Ivanow 280 (39 Pictures).

English translation by J. Leyden of the first third of the work: b.m. ms. Add. 26,575.

§ 192. ʿAbd Allāh b. Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲wāfī, known as Ḥāfiz i Abrū, who was born at Harāt and died in 833/1430 at, or near, Zanjān, has already been mentioned (pl. i § 117, 354) as the author of the Majmaʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ and other works.

(Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Ḥāfiz i Abrū)29 (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Mālik al-Mulkī rā kih bi-y-āfrīd āsmānhā30), of which the first and sole extant volume, written at Harāt for S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ (in 817/1414 according to the preface, but there are several references to 820/ 1417 and 821/1418 as the current year, and the history of K̲h̲urāsān is brought down to 823/1420), deals with [1] the shape of the earth, [2] its division among the sons of Noah, [3] its division into seven climes, [4] the Ambient Sea (Muḥīṭ) and its branches (the Baḥr al-Ak̲h̲ḍar or Indian Sea, Baḥr i Qulzum, Baḥr i Ūqiyānūs, Baḥr i Rūm u S̲h̲ām, Baḥr i Banādiqah, Baḥr i Arāq or Black Sea, and Baḥr i Bardīl), [5] lakes, [6] rivers, [7] mountains, [8] areas of countries, [9] Arabia, [10] the Sea of Qulzum and Fārs, [11] the Mag̲h̲rib, [12] Spain, [13] Mediterranean islands, [14] Egypt, [15] Syria, [16] the Mediterranean and its shores, [17] Jazīrah, [18] ʿIrāq, [19] K̲h̲ūzistān, [20] Luristān, [21] Fārs, [22] Governors and Sulṭāns of Fārs to 818/1415–16, [23] Kirmān, [24] Rulers of Kirmān to 820/1417, [25] K̲h̲urāsān, [26] Rulers of K̲h̲urāsān to 823/1420, the last section forming more than half of the whole volume and providing “a connected and very full history of the eastern part of the Persian Empire” (Rieu): D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 115 no. 469, Bodleian 33 (ending with the history of Kirmān and lacking the important sections on K̲h̲urāsān, though the section on Arabia is preceded by “a short account of the different dynasties of Amîrs, who ruled over Khurâsân, viz. the Sâmânides, the Ghaznawides, the Saljûḳides, the Ghûrides and the Khwârizmshâhs”. ah 1044/1634), 149 (a large fragment containing the history of K̲h̲urāsān from Hulāgū’s death in 663/1265 to 823/1420 and (on foll. 168b–173a) a short geographical description of Transoxiana and its principal cities), Rieu i 421b (ah 1056/1646), iii 991a (extensive extracts transcribed about 1850 from Bodleian 33), i.o. 3874, London S.o.a.s. (cf. Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 55 n.7), Dorn p. 282 no. 290 (see Rosen Institut p. 111), Samarqand W. Vyatkin’s private library (see Barthold loc. cit.), Tihrān Ḥājī Malik Library, National Library and S.M. Taqī Mudarris Raḍawī’s private library (see D̲h̲arīʿah, loc. cit.).

§ 193. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd, called (al-madʿū) Bāyazīd, al-Bus̲h̲unkī31 translated into Persian before 840/1436, the date of the Bānkīpūr ms., a cosmographical work similar to Qazwīnī’s ‘ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt.

Arabic original: not yet identified.

Persian translation: (Tarjamah i ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt)32 (beg. Sp. i bī-q. kih maqāṭiʿ i auhām i afhām az idrāk i maṭāliʿ i ān ʿājiz āyad): Bānkīpūr vii 634 (2) (defective at end. Illustrated. ah 840/1436), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1222 no. 354 (ah 1006/1597–8).

§ 194. For the Bahjat al-tawārīk̲h̲, which was completed in 861/1456–7 by S̲h̲ukr Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Rūmī and of which the first bāb is devoted to cosmography, geography and ethnology, see pl. i § 122.

§ 195. Abū ’l-Ḥasan Ṣāʿid b. ʿAlī Jurjānī must have written his geographical work after 850/1447, since he uses the posthumous title K̲h̲āqān i saʿīd anāra ’llāhu burhānahu in speaking of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲. According to Uylenbroek, Iracae Persicae descriptio, p. 5, the date of his death was given as 881/1476–7 in a ms. of Ḥ. K̲h̲. belonging to Baron D’Ohsson.

Masālik i mamālik (?)33 (beg. Sp. u st. K̲h̲udāy rā ʿazza wa-jall kih mā-rā ba-k̲h̲irad), divided into unnumbered fuṣūl on [1] the earth, its form, position, etc., [2] the Seven Climes, [3] stages on the road from Samarqand to K̲h̲itāy as given in the narrative of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s ambassadors (cf. pl. i § 363 (3), (4), (5), (6)), [4] areas of certain countries and distances between certain towns, [5] towns of which the current names differ from those used in books, [6] the migratory tribes, Barbar, Qatā, G̲h̲uzz, Mang̲h̲is̲h̲lāk, K̲h̲alaj and Buk̲h̲ārā, [7] peculiarities of certain countries and their inhabitants, [8] places in which particular diseases prevail, [9] the Arabs and some of their settlements, [10] the Aṣḥāb al-Kahf, [11] seas, [12] lakes, [13] islands, [14] rivers, [15] mountains, [16] deserts, [17] wonders of the world, such as remarkable buildings, statues, talismans and natural objects, [18] minerals, [19] proofs of the spherical shape of the earth, opinions concerning its age, the origin and diverse races of mankind: Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 509, Blochet iv 2332 (2) (ah 990/1582), i 667 (16th cent.), Rieu i 425a (defective at end. 16th cent.), Vatican Pers. 66 (89 foll. 16th cent. Rossi p. 89), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 47 no. 31. ah 1010/1602), Leyden v p. 321 no. 2815 (ah 1034/1624–5), Bodleian 413.

Extracts: Mélanges asiatiques vii (St. Petersburg 1876) pp. 36–43 (ed. Dorn).

§ 196. For the k̲h̲ātimah, or eighth volume, of the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ, which is devoted to geography (beg. Bar raʾy i arbāb i k̲h̲ubrat u aṣḥāb i baṣīrat pūs̲h̲īdah na-mānad) and, as indicated in Aumer’s description of the Munich ms. 202 (ah 994/1586: see Aumer pp. 65–6), deals inter alia with the Creation, the wonders of the inhabited world, seas, lakes, rivers, springs, wells, islands, mountains, deserts, the Seven Climes, S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s embassies to China and Vijayanagar [cf. pl. i § 363, Extracts (3), (4), (5), (6), wonders of the West, and the description of Harāt, see pl. i § 123.34 The date of composition, given in most copies at the end of the article on K̲h̲wārazm, is 900/1494–5 (see Rieu iii p. 1079b).

§ 197. For ʿAbd al-ʿAlī Bīrjandī’s (Abʿād u ajrām) or (ʿAjāʾib al-buldān)35 see pl. ii § 121. Another ms.: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 57–60 no. 53 (16th cent.).

§ 198. For the ik̲h̲titām, or geographical appendix, to the Ḥabīb al-siyar (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. u t̲h̲.-yi Ṣāniʿ i jahān i g̲h̲arābat-āyīn),36 which was completed by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr in 930/1524 and which (to some extent identical with the k̲h̲ātimah to the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ) deals with the wonders of the world (remarkable countries, cities, etc., arranged alphabetically under the Seven Climes, seas, rivers, springs and wells, islands and mountains, strange creatures, men, animals, etc.), see pl. i § 178.

§ 199. Sultān-Muḥammad b. Darwīs̲h̲-Muḥammad al-muftī al-Balk̲h̲ī was both a native and a resident of Balk̲h̲. Among the earliest events of his life which Rieu found recorded in the Majmaʿ al-g̲h̲arāʾib is a journey from Balk̲h̲ to Kābul in 935/ 1528–9.

Majmaʿ al-g̲h̲arāʾib (beg. Subḥānaka lā ʿilma … Uʿjūbah-nigār i ʿālam … a. b. maʿrūḍ i ḍamīr i munīr), on cosmography, geography, marvels, etc. (very popular, according to Miklukho-Maklai, in Central Asia until the 19th century inclusive), existing apparently in two editions, one dedicated37 to Pīr-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān [i] [b. Jānī Bēg K̲h̲ān, supreme S̲h̲aibānid 963–8/1556–60, ruler of Balk̲h̲ 968–84/1560–66], the other38 to ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān [ii] b. Iskandar [supreme S̲h̲aibānid de facto from 968/1560, de jure 991–1006/1583–98, who subjugated Balk̲h̲ in 981/1573],39 and containing in some (most?) mss. fifteen bābs (probably the original number), but in others sixteen or more up to twenty,40 not always in the same order from ch. 8 onwards and from that point not always identical in content (viz. (1) the celestial spheres, (2) the Prophets and the first four Caliphs, (3) countries and towns in alphabetical order, (4) man and human monstrosities, (5) animals, (6) plants, (7) mountains and springs, (8) [om. Kahl] seas and rivers, (9) [= Kahl (8)] deserts, (10) [= Kahl (9)] churches and cemeteries, (11) [= Kahl (10)] dimensions of some seas and rivers, (12) [= Kahl (11)] distances between towns, [Kahl (12) (om. Rieu, unless included in the preceding ch.) Mecca and the holy places], (13) physiognomy (qiyāfat), (14) [in Rieu unnumbered at end of the work], precious stones, (15) [= Rieu (14)?] dar bayān i riwāyāt i ʿajībah u ḥikāyāt i mutafarriqah i g̲h̲arībah, (16) [= Rieu (14)?] dar g̲h̲arāʾib i laṭāyif, (17) [om. Rieu, unless = Rieu 15] dar ba‘ḍī az tawārīk̲h̲ i ʿajībah u waqāyiʿ i g̲h̲arībah naẓman wa-s̲h̲iʿran, presumably chronograms (cf. Miklukho-Maklai p. 6922), (18) [= Rieu (14) 1] dar d̲h̲ikr i baʿḍī az nawādir i aqwāl, (19) [= Rieu’s omitted k̲h̲ātimah] dar bayān i ajal i ṭabīʿī i baʿḍī az wuḥūs̲h̲ u ṭuyūr, (20) [= Rieu 15?] dar d̲h̲ikr i baʿḍī az tawārīk̲h̲ i g̲h̲arībah i ʿālam az hubūṭ i ḥaḍrat i Ādam … tā īn dam [i.e. ah 983 in Kahl 50]): Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 95 (ah 942, a dubious date, as Semenov says), Blochet ii 817 (acephalous. 15 bābs. ah 1047/1637), Bodleian 415 (acephalous. Bābs 1–5 and most of 6. Bad ms. ah 1085/1674), Mis̲h̲kāt ii pp. 651–4 no. 898 (acephalous. 16 bābs. 17th cent.), Rieu i 426a (15 bābs according to the fihrist, but in the text, after ch. 15 (unfinished), the title (only) of the khātimah is followed by an additional chapter on precious stones (= ch. 14 in Kahl 50). ah 1110/1698. Pictures), iii 992 (lacunae. ah 1262/1846), Ellis Coll. M 394 (18th cent.), Tashkent Acad. i 676 (ah 1215/1801), 677–81, Pub. Lib. (Kahl 50. 20 bābs. ah 1255), Univ. 66 (ah 1263), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 62–74 nos. 55–67 (13 late mss.), Univ. no. 908* (Salemann-Rosen p. 18), nos. 965a, 1204 (both Romaskewicz p. 12).

§ 200. The Tuḥfah i ʿain al-ḥayāt, if that is its correct title, contains in the Bodleian ms. 421 a dedication to a certain Sulṭān Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān. The date of composition is not stated according to Ethé, but the year 968/1560–1 is referred to in connexion with a discussion of eras. At that date a Sulṭān Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān b. Muẓaffar was reigning in Gīlān (see Zambaur Manuel de généalogie … p. 194), and he can scarcely be other than the dedicatee, since, according to Ivanow, “It may be safely taken that the author was an inhabitant of the N.-W. of Persia, and in fact he shows a much better knowledge of those provinces.”

Tuḥfah i ʿain al-ḥayāt (?)41 (beg.: see pl. ii p. 69), a short cosmography in a muqaddamah, “three” (really four) maqālahs (for the subjects of which see pl. ii p. 69) and, in some mss. (e.g. Bodleian 421 and Leningrad Acad. i 54), a k̲h̲ātimah (dar bayān i samt i qiblah): Ivanow Curzon 91 (defective. 75 foll. Late 16th cent.), Bānkīpūr xi 1048 (53 foll. ah 1052/1642), vii 635 (31 foll. 17th cent.), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 60 no. 54 (early 18th cent.), Bodleian 421 (43 foll. Several Pictures. ah 120542/1791?), 1541 (n.d.), probably also Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1205/1790–1. See ocm. x/3 (May 1934) p. 105) and possibly Rehatsek p. 65 no. 15 = Brelvi-Dhabhar p. ix no. 8 (acephalous. ah 977/1569–70).

§ 201. “Ḥukmī”, or “Hikmatī”, s̲h̲āʿir i Turkistān.

S̲h̲ahristān (beg. Ba-nām i K̲h̲udāwand i jān u jahān), a geographical poem, metrically defective and “of little interest”, composed in S̲h̲aʿbān 977/Jan.–Feb. 1570 and containing accounts of Mas̲h̲had, Jām, Bāk̲h̲arz, Sarak̲h̲s, Harāt, Qandahār, Sīstān, Jurjān, ʿIrāq, Māzandarān, Ād̲h̲arbāyjān, Fārs, China, Central Asia, Georgia, Kurdistān and other places: Browne Coll. K. 6 (1) (slightly defective at end. ah 1085/1674–5).

§ 202. In the 10th/16th century was composed:

ʿAjāʾib al-buldān, a cosmographical work (beg. Ṣifat i awwal dar d̲h̲ikr i āfrīnis̲h̲ i dunyā u ʿajāʾibāt i zamīn u āsmānhā): Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques v (1868) p. 457)

§ 203. For the Jad̲h̲b al-qulūb ilā diyār al-maḥbūb, a history and topography of al-Madīnah43 begun there in 998/1589–90 and completed at Delhi in 1001/1592–3 by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī, see pl. i § 607.

§ 204. For the Haft iqlīm, which was completed in 1002/1593–4 by Amīn ibn Aḥmad Rāzī and which, though mainly biographical, contains very brief geographical and historical accounts of the countries, provinces and towns under which the biographies are arranged, see pl. i § 1649.

§ 205. M. Ṭāhir b. Abī ’l-Qāsim, as he calls himself, is called Maulānā Āk̲h̲und K̲h̲wājah M.Ṭ. Balk̲h̲ī in the colophon of the oldest Leningrad ms. and he makes Balk̲h̲ the starting-point of his description of the countries and towns of the world.

ʿAjāʾib al-ṭabaqāt (beg. G̲h̲āyat i saʿādat i abadī), a mainly geographical and cosmographical work in seven ṭabaqahs (which are not always arranged in the same order and which in some mss. are followed by a brief conclusion), composed in the reign of S. Nadir44 Muḥammad Bahādur K̲h̲ān [the Jānid ruler of Buk̲h̲ārā, etc., ah 1051–5/1642–5]: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 79–85 nos. 72 (155 foll. 17th cent.), 73–5 (three 19th-cent. mss.), Ellis Coll. M 281 (276 foll. 18th cent.), r.a.s. P 179 (ah 1234/1818–19), Tashkent Acad. i 686 (ah 1236/1820), 687–9.

§ 206. For the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲, which was completed in 1056/1646–7 by M. Yūsuf b. Raḥmat Allāh Atakī Kanʿānī and of which the k̲h̲ātimah is concerned with geography (in three bābs, (1) on various eras and the Seven Climes, (2) cities, countries, mountains, deserts, seas, lakes, rivers, springs, wells, and islands in ten faṣls, (3) wonders of nature in nineteen faṣls), see pl. i § 144.

§ 207. Mīrzā M. Ṣādiq b. M. Ṣāliḥ Iṣfahānī Āzādānī was born at Sūrat in 1018/1609 and died in Bengal in 1061/1651 (see pl. i § 142). As already mentioned, the fourth mujallad of his Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq (completed in 1048/1638–9) is geographical, but that volume seems to be absent from all the mss. hitherto recorded. In his S̲h̲āhid i ṣādiq (begun in 1054/1644–5: see pl. i § 142) the k̲h̲ātimah is “an alphabetical list of proper names of places and men, with fixation of their spelling,45 and short notices” (Rieu ii 776a), while the 51st faṣl of Bāb iv contains maps of the Seven Climes and an alphabetical list of places with their longitude and latitude. The aforesaid k̲h̲ātimah minus the names of persons is the “Taḥqīq al-iʿrāb” (Bodleian 104) and the 51st faṣl minus the maps is the “Taqwīm al-buldān” (Bodleian 103), of which an English translation (accompanied in the case of the latter only with the Persian text) was published by the Oriental Translation Fund (London 1832°*) under the title of The geographical works of Sádik Isfaháni translated by J.C. from original Persian MSS. [namely Bodleian 104 and 103] in the collection of Sir William Ouseley, the editor.

§ 208. Muṣtafā b. ʿAbd Allāh, called Kātib C̲h̲elebī and Ḥājī K̲h̲alīfah, died in 1067/1647 (see pl. i § 145).

Jihān-numā a geography in Turkish extant in two editions, both uncompleted, viz. (1) begun in 1058/1648 (see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber p. 197), (2) continued after the author’s death by Abū Bakr b. Bahrām and extant not only in ms. but also, as regards pt. 1 (the geography of Asia), in print (Istānbūl 1145/1732, 698 pp. folio: see Babinger pp. 199–200) and in an incomplete Latin translation (Gihan Numa, geographia orientalis ex Turcico in Latinum versa a Matthaeo Norberg, Londini Gothorum [i.e. at Lund, in Sweden] 1818°. Cf. Zenker i no. 1033 and b.m. gen. cat.).

Persian translation: Jahān-numā, prepared in 1259/1843 by Mīr Abū ’l-Qāsim K̲h̲wājah b. Mullā Mīr Badal K̲h̲wājah Bāysūnī Buk̲h̲ārī for Amīr Naṣr Allāh K̲h̲ān [cf. pl. i § 525] on the basis of the Istānbūl edition: Tashkent Acad. i 713 (apparently autograph. 272 foll.).

It is not clear what Latin work46 was the original of:

Tarjamah i Jahān-numā-yi jadīd, or Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi kurah i zamīn, (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. j. ’l-arḍa mihādan … Mabdaʾ i har kalāmī), on the geography of Europe, Africa and Asia (including the Far East) in five maqṣads, described as having been translated in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār (1250–64/ 1834–48) at the request of Mīrzā Taqī K̲h̲ān Wazīr i Niẓām [Farāhānī, d. 9.1.1852: see pl. i § 1483a] from Latin into Turkish by mwsy Z̲h̲ān dāwd [Monsieur Jean David?]47 and then from Turkish into Persian by Mīrzā M. Ḥusain (so Mas̲h̲had cat.), or M. Ḥasan (so D̲h̲arīʿah). b. Ṣādiq b. Maʿṣūm b. ʿĪsā48 Ḥusainī Farāhānī (Dabīr al-Mulk i daulat i Nāṣirī, according to the Mas̲h̲had cat.): D̲h̲arīʿah iv p. 95 no. 439, Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 17, mss., no. 22 (281 foll. ah 1274/1857–8, transcribed by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat”).

§ 209. Walī-Muḥammad b. Bardī [Birdī?] Muḥammad completed the rough copy of his ʿAjāʾib al-buldān in 1083/1672–3.

ʿAjāʾib al-buldān: Eton 59 (ah 1198/1784), 60.

§ 210. M. Mufīd Mustaufī Bāfqī Yazdī (see pl. i §§ 461, 1593).

Muk̲h̲taṣar i Mufīd (beg. K̲h̲irad har kujā ganjī ārad padīd), a geography of Persia, with historical notices relating chiefly to the Imāms and the Ṣafawīs, begun in the Deccan in 1087/ 1676–7 and completed at Lahore in 1091/1680–1: Rieu i 427b (275 foll. Circ. ah 1091/1680, partly autograph).

§ 211. M. Ḥaidar, whose preface speaks of Nūr al-Dīn M. Jahāngīr (ah 1014–37/1605–28) as the reigning sovereign and alleges that the author was one of several persons sent by S̲h̲āh-zādah M. Sulṭān-S̲h̲ujāʿ (S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s second son, b. 1025/1616, d. 1071/1660) to ascertain the marvels of various countries (in his case Kas̲h̲mīr, Tās̲h̲kand, Īrān and Tūrān), cannot have written the S̲h̲ujāʿ i Ḥaidarī before 1049/1639–40, since he mentions S̲h̲āhjahānābād, which was founded in that year.

S̲h̲ujāʿ i Ḥaidarī (beg. Sp. i bī-q. mar K̲h̲āliqī rā kih ṭabaqāt i zamīn u āsmān rā), fabulous accounts of the marvels of various real and imaginary countries: Rieu iii 992a (ah 1238/ 1823), i 427a (19th cent.), Bānkīpūr vii 642 (mid-19th cent.), Browne Suppt. 796 (Corpus 135), Tashkent Acad. i 710 (ah 1323/1905).

Edition (?): 1281/1864–5 (Āṣafīyah i p. 594 no. 9349).

§ 212. Ḥakīm Mahārat K̲h̲ān Iṣfahānī, whose usual place of residence was Delhi, but who had spent two years at Lahore, speaks in the Bahjat al-ʿālam of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s visit to the latter city and of his death [in 1124/1712] as recent events.

Bahjat al-ʿālam (beg. al-Ḥ. l….. wa-baʿd c̲h̲ūn daryāft i g̲h̲arāʾib i mubdaʿāt), descriptions of the Seven Climes (mainly from the Haft iqlīm), followed by a number of special sections relating to Turkey (mainly from the Has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t), India (from the Āʾīn i Akbarī), various towns and tracts (mainly from a work entitled Anīs al-ʿārifīn), islands (mainly from Qazwīnī’s ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt), mountains (from the Tuḥfat al-g̲h̲arāʾib), rivers, springs, and the Mag̲h̲rib, being the first volume (mujallad i awwal) of a work, the second volume of which was to be entitled Rauḍat al-afrāḥ and was to contain translations of several Arabic works, such as the Jarīdat [sic] al-ʿajāʾib, the Tuḥfat al-albāb and the Risālah i aḥwāl i Bahnasā: Ivanow Curzon 95 (129 foll. ah 1175/1762), Ethé 729 (ah 1211/1797), Edinburgh 247 (late 18th cent.), Rieu iii 992a (extracts only. ah 1268/1851).

§ 213. Amīn al-Dīn K̲h̲ān b. S. Abū ’l-Makārim Amīr K̲h̲ān i marḥūm al-Ḥusainī al-Harawī, as he calls himself in the preface to the Maʿlūmāt al-āfāq,50 completed his Ras̲h̲aḥāt al-funūn, an encyclopædia of sciences, in 1123/1711 (see Bānkīpūr ix 915, Lindesiana p. 113 no. 491, Rehatsek p. 201 no. 45, Rieu iii 1055a, Āṣafīyah iii p. 102).

Maʿlūmāt al-āfāq (beg. Bi-smi ’llāhiyaʿnī Karīm i Karam-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ i Raḥmat-gustar), an illustrated geography without numbered divisions, completed after the death [in 1119/1707] of Aurangzēb (who is referred to, on p. 1699, 11 for example, as K̲h̲uld-makān, his posthumous title), devoted largely to fabulous marvels and including at the end a section on the titles and honorific epithets applied to various Indian officials in letters addressed to them and another on the statistics of the Indian provinces: i.o. d.p. 1538 (?) (ah 1226/1811), Rieu iii 1013b (preface, table of contents and extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Bodleian 1332 (extract relating to titles, high offices, and statistics of the ṣūbahs, etc.).

Editions: [Lucknow] 1287/1870* (n.k. 198 pp. Illustrated); Lucknow 1290/1873°* (n.k. 198 pp. Illustrated).

§ 214. For the (Risālah i Sālār-Jang), which was composed in 1150/1737 by Nawwāb Dargāh-Qulī K̲h̲ān Sālār-Jang and which contains an account of Delhi, its buildings, pleasure-grounds, festivals, etc., as well as notices of its contemporary s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, poets, singers and dancers, see pl. i § 1532.

§ 215. S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s wife, Arjmand Bānū Bēgam, entitled Mumtāz-Maḥall and through corruption of this title known popularly in later times as Tāj-Maḥall or Tāj Bībī, died at Burhānpūr on 17 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1040/7 July (o.s.) 1631 and lies entombed at Āgrah in a splendid mausoleum which contemporary historians51 call the Rauḍah i Mumtāz-al-Zamānī but which is now best known as the Tāj Maḥall or the Tāj (cf. Ency. Isl. under Tād̲j̲ Maḥall (Haig)). An account of the Tāj Maḥall and of the inscriptions on some other buildings at Āgrah beginning with a biographical note on Mumtāz-Maḥall, the heading of which sometimes provides a quasi-title, is preserved in a number of mss., which do not always agree closely in content. The oldest of those adequately described is more than a hundred years later than the building of the mausoleum, and the book seems to be an eighteenth-century fabrication without historical value.52

(Tārīk̲h̲ i Rauḍah i Mumtāz-Maḥall), an account of the death of Mumtāz-Maḥall, verses by S̲h̲āh-Jahān in praise of her tomb, certain inscriptions (on Akbar’s tomb, on some large guns and a throne in the Fort at Āgrah, on S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s tomb, on the Mōtī Masjid and the Dīwān i K̲h̲āṣṣ), particulars concerning the semi-precious stones used for the decoration of the Tāj Maḥall, its architects, weights and measurements of the stones and the wood, the climate of Āgrah, inscriptions on the Fort at Āgrah, Akbar’s visit to Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī’s tomb and to Salīm C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, the chronology of the Tīmūrids to ʿAzīz al-Dīn [ʿĀlamgīr ii, ah 1167–73/1754–59], inscriptions on the gate of the Tāj Maḥall, the measurements and cost of its various parts, etc.: Blochet i 679 (48 foll. ah 1180/1766), Rieu i 430a (headed Aḥwāl i Nawwāb Mahd i ʿUlyā Arjmand Bānū Bēgam muk̲h̲āṭab bi-Mumtāz-Maḥall. 18th cent.), 430b (substantially identical. 19th cent.), 431a (nearly the same contents as the preceding. 19th cent.), iii 958b (19th cent.), Ivanow 1622 (beg. Musammā Bānū Bēgam k̲h̲iṭāb Mumtāz-Maḥall. Late 18th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 637 (beg. K̲h̲ulāṣah i aḥwāl i Bānū Bēgam muk̲h̲āṭab bi-Mumtāz-Maḥall. Apparently condensed and incomplete. 20th cent.), Lindesiana p. 198 no. 878 (?) (K̲h̲ulāṣat i Bānū Bēgam Mumtāz-Maḥall. “Incidents in the Life of Mumtāz Mahall.” Circ. ad 1800), Bānkīpūr vii 645 (beg. Āwardah and kih S̲h̲āh-Jahān Bāds̲h̲āh c̲h̲ahār pisar dās̲h̲tand. 45 illustrations. 19th cent.), 646 (ah 1249/1833), 647 (beg. Aḥwāl i k̲h̲ulāṣah (sic?) i Bānū Bēgam muk̲h̲āṭab bah Mumtāz-Maḥall ʿurf Tāj Bībī…. The words Āwardah and kih S̲h̲āh-Jahān etc. come on fol. 2a. 19th cent.), Aberystwyth 20, Āṣafīyah i p. 222 no. 656 (?) (Tārīk̲h̲ i binā-yi Tāj-Ganj u Sikandarah u Mōtī Masjid u Dīwān i K̲h̲āṣṣ). Browne Suppt. 431 (K̲h̲ulāṣah i aḥwāl i Bānū Bēgam etc. Corpus 218), Ethé 2538 (14) (Account of the Tāj Maḥall and its cost,53 apparently a much shorter work), i.o. mss. Per. C. 1, Mehren p. 47 no. 140.

English translations and abstracts: (1) An Account of the Expences attending the Construction of the Roujeh [sic] Taj Mahl, which was commenced in the Fifth Year of the Reign of the Emperor Shah Jehan, and the whole completed in Sixteen Years, Four Months, and Twenty-one Days [signed Tribunus] (in The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785) pp. 380–4), (2) by Maulawī ʿAzīz al-Dīn (see Bengal: past and present, Jan.–March 1930*, p. 72: “Some interesting particulars regarding the building of the Taj Mahal at Agra were contributed by Mr. Chandra Sekhar Das to the Statesman54 of December 29th last. They are taken from a translation by Maulavi Azizuddin of a Persian manuscript: the book was printed at the Victoria Press, [Lahore,] Punjab, in 1854, and a second and a third edition appeared in 1862 and 1869 …”, (3) The Táj. A translation from the Persian.55 (By R.P. Anderson, Colonel, Commanding 34th Regt. n.i. [i.e. Native Infantry]) (in The Calcutta review, vol. lvii (1873) pp. 233–7), (4) A brief history of the Taj and other ancient Agra buildings. Being a translation of an old Persian manuscript, by H.M. Azeez Hassan [i.e. ʿAzīz Ḥasan], Āgrah 1903° (15 pp.).

A small work evidently of the same kind, perhaps an abridgment of that already described, is:

Yādgār i Mug̲h̲ulīyah (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i K̲h̲udāy i Jahān-āfrīn u naʿt i Saiyid al-Mursalīn), “a few anecdotes concerning Mumtāz Maḥall … and Akbar, together with some lists of materials purchased, and the workmen engaged for the construction of the famous Tāj-Maḥall in Agra (the figures seem to be unreliable)”: Ivanow Curzon 100 (7 foll. 20th cent.).

Probably this is the same work as the Tārīk̲h̲ i Tāj Maḥall u maṣārif i taʿmīr i ān, of which the author’s name is given as Mīrzā Mug̲h̲ul Bēg in the Āṣafīyah catalogue, i p. 224 no. 416 (or 419) (ad 1876).

A work, or article, entitled Yād-dās̲h̲t i ʿimārat i Rauḍah i Tāj Maḥall Āgrah was published by M. ʿAbd Allāh C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāʾī as a ḍamīmah to the ocm. xiv/1 (Nov. 1937).

§ 216. For the C̲h̲ahār guls̲h̲an, which was completed by Rāy C̲h̲aturman in 1173/1759–60 and which contains a considerable amount of topographical information, see pl. i § 631.

§ 217. Fatḥ C̲h̲and b. Ūdīt Rāy Kāyat’h Bilgrāmī.

Account of the course of the River Gūmtī56 (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd i bī-ʿadd i Aḥad al-Ṣamad), written in 1180/1766–7 at the request of an unnamed Christian priest or clergyman: Rieu ii 827b (foll. 247–54. ah 1215/1801).

§ 218. M. ʿAbd Allāh, an Indian, who “appears to have travelled with caravans of Tartar merchants”, says that on his return to Calcutta he obtained possession of his ancestral property through the favour of the British authorities. The approximate date of his travels is indicated by his statement that he saw the army of Najīb K̲h̲ān [who died in 1184/1770: cf. pl. i § 909] near Delhi.

An account of journeys to Russia and China (beg. al-H. l…. ammā baʿdahu [sic] ān-kih bandah M. ʿAbd Allāh), little more than an enumeration of the stages on the routes (1) from Buk̲h̲ārā through Orenburg and Qazān to Moscow and Petersburg, (2) from Moscow to Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, (3) from Moscow to Macariev, (4) from Buk̲h̲ārā through Qōqān [K̲h̲ōqand], etc., to Pekin and thence through Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr to Bengal, (5) from Buk̲h̲ārā to Harāt and Mas̲h̲had: Rieu i 381a (8 foll. 18th cent.), Blochet i 651 (15 foll. 19th cent.).

§ 219. “Al-Ḥusainī Kalyakāni” (so Margoliouth).57

ʿAjāʾīb al-buldān, compiled from the ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā of S̲h̲. “Ād̲h̲arī” (see pl. ii § 188) with the use of other works and “finished 1196”:58 Eton 61.

§ 220. For the Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, a geographical, historical and biographical account of the seven climes written mainly in 1192–6/1778–82 by Murtaḍā Ḥusain Bilgrāmī, with a tatimmah or k̲h̲ātimah compiled in 1202/1787, see pl. i § 170.

§ 221. Apparently towards the end of the 18th century an anonymous author who had held a command under two Sik’h chiefs, the late Rājah Salāmat Rāy and his brother Jawāhir Mal, composed:

Ḥaqīqat i makānāt i dū-ābah i C̲h̲aut’h yaʿnī mā-bain i daryā-yi C̲h̲anāb u daryā-yi Bhat, a topographical account of the country between the C̲h̲anāb and the Jihlam and between the Jihlam and the Sind’h (or Indus): Rieu i 429b (foll. 5–20. Late 18th cent.).

§ 222. Mīrzā Aqbal.

Aḥwāl i Bāg̲h̲ i Iram, an account of a wonderful garden in the realm of Ṭīpū Sulṭān (reigned 1782–99: cf. pl. i § 1070); Ethé 2813 (foll. 76–80).

§ 223. Mahārājah Kalyān Sing’h b. S̲h̲itāb Rāy (see pl. i § 967).

ʿAjāʾib al-buldān (beg. Sp. i bī-q. sazāwār i Aḥadī-st kih), composed in 1211/1796 and divided into seven chapters, of which only the last and longest, dealing with Persia, is of much interest: Berlin 356 (54 foll., apparently autograph).

§ 224. [Mirzā] Mug̲h̲ul Bēg b. Muḥammad Bēg went to Calcutta in search of employment and entered the service of Wilford Ṣāḥib,59 on whose behalf he travelled in north-western India and adjacent regions beyond the frontier, collecting topographical information. Among the places personally visited by him, according to his statement at the beginning of Faṣl 4 of his Sair al-bilād were “the Dērajāt, Afg̲h̲ānistān, Kābul, Peshawar and Qās̲h̲qār” (Ellis ms. fol. 128a: u dar ān-c̲h̲ih īn rāqim rā ittifāq i sair uftādah az Dērah-jāt u Afāg̲h̲inistān [sic] u Kābul u Pas̲h̲āwar u Qās̲h̲qār bīs̲h̲ nīst).

Sair al-bilād (beg. Baʿd i tamhīd i ḥamd i Ilāhī … numūdah mī āyad kih bānī i īn nusk̲h̲ah wālā-guhar Wīlfar Ṣāḥib az qaum i Ingilīs az ṭāʾifah i Naṣārā ast. Dar hangāmī-kih k̲h̲āk i Hindūstān pāy-māl i har muʿānid u muk̲h̲ālif gas̲h̲t), a geographical account of the Panjāb, eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, etc., begun in 1205/1790–1 (= īn waqt according to the preface), completed (according to the Ellis ms.) on 15 Muḥarram 1214 “muṭābiq i g̲h̲urrah i Jūlāy 1790 ‘Isawī” [sic, but 15 Muḥarram 1214 corresponded to 19 June 1799], and divided into four faṣls ((1) dar d̲h̲ikr i nawāḥ i Dihlī, (2) dar d̲h̲ikr i baʿḍī nawāḥ i dū-ābah i Antarbēd,60 (3) dar d̲h̲ikr i nawāḥ i Panjāb, (4) dar d̲h̲ikr i lak̲h̲tī az aḥwāl i mamlakat i Fārs [sic] kih ān-ṭaraf i daryā-yi Sind ast61): i.o. 3731, 3746 (from Raverty’s library), Ellis Coll. M 254 (preface and faṣls 3–4 only, much abridged in places. 198 foll. ah 1284/1867. From Raverty’s library, now in that of C.A. Storey).

Translation of Faṣl 4 (with supplementary matter from other sources): Notes on Afghánistán and part of Balúchistán, geographical, ethnographical and historical, extracted from the writings of little known Afghán and Tájzík historians, geographers and genealogists; the histories of the Ghúrís, the Turk sovereigns of the Dihlí kingdom, the Mughal sovereigns of the house of Tímúr, and other Muhammadan chronicles; and from personal observations [but largely from the Sair al-bilād]. By Major H.G. Raverty London 1880–3* (printed by order of the Secretary of State for India in Council).

Evidently similar to the foregoing work is:

“Risālah i Mister Wilford. Extracts and notes from Captain Wilford’s Routes in Afghānistān, Bukhāra, etc. By Mughāl [sic] Beg. Fol. 46…. Dated ad 1806. Size 9 ¼ by 6.” r.a.s. P. 176.

§ 225. It was at the request of Abū ’l-Fatḥ Sulṭān-Muḥammad Mīrzā [who settled at Lucknow in 1210/1795–6: see pl. i § 403] that Band i ʿAlī b. Mīrzā K̲h̲airāt-ʿAlī wrote his Manāzil al-ḥajj in 1214/1799–1800 on the basis of oral information received from Ḥājjī ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Bag̲h̲dādī, who had performed 33 pilgrimages and had been admitted to the presence of the Ṣafawid prince in India.

Manāzil al-ḥajj (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. j. manāzil al-ḥajj), itineraries from Bag̲h̲dād to Mecca, (1) via Najaf, Ḥillah and the S̲h̲ammar country, (2) via Hīt, Aleppo, Damascus, and Jerusalem with brief notes of other routes, via Darʿīyah, Laḥsā, and by sea: Rieu i 429b (early 19th cent.).

§ 226. For the Mirʾāt i āftāb-numā, which was composed in 1218/ 1803–4 by Nawwāb ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān Dihlawī, and of which the second jilwah is geographical (in eight tajallīs, the first seven devoted to the Seven Climes and the eighth to the seas), see pl. i § 175.

§ 227. S. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, of Būs̲h̲ahr, wrote the Arabic original of the Ak̲h̲bārāt i nādirah i iqlīm i Mag̲h̲rib about ad 1803 at the request of his friend, Ḥājj M. Ibrāhīm Parkār [Purkār?]. The anonymous Persian translator received it from the author.

Arabic original: no mss. recorded.

Persian translation: (Ak̲h̲bārāt i nādirah i iqlīm i Mag̲h̲rib) (beg. Man-kih S. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb bās̲h̲andah i diyār i ʿArab am), an account of some marvels of nature in the Mag̲h̲rib, Spain and elsewhere: Rieu ii 864b (foll. 2–14. Early 19th cent.).

§ 228. Mīrzā Jān S̲h̲īrāzī travelled from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān with “Mr. Lochat”62 in July 1811.

(… Bayān i baʿḍī az kaifīyat i ḥālāt u ak̲h̲bār i Dār al-ʿilm i S̲h̲īrāz …), topographical notes on S̲h̲īrāz. Iṣfahān and places between those towns: Bodleian 428 (18 foll.).

§ 229. M. Wāʿiẓ.

Mirʾāt al-jibāl (?) (in the ms. al-jyāl, for which Pertsch reads al-k̲h̲yāl. Beg. Baʿd i ḥ. i wāfir i K̲h̲āliq al-ʿIbād), a description of eighteen fortresses (qalʿajāt) in and bordering on the province (ṣūbah) of Cuttack (Kaṭak), i.e. Orissa, composed at the request of Andrew Stirling63 in 1227/1812: Berlin 1078 (2).

§ 230. Mīr ʿIzzat Allāh was sent by William Moorcroft64 in 1812 on a preliminary tour of the Transhimalayan countries, which he revisited in 1819–24 as Moorcroft’s secretary and interpreter. On the return journey to India he parted from Moorcroft at Qunduz in December 1824 and he died at Kābul in 1825.

(Masīr i ʿIzzat Allāh), or (Aḥwāl i safar i Buk̲h̲ārā), (beg. A. i s. i B.), journal65 of a tour in 1227–8/1812–13 from Delhi via Attock, Kas̲h̲mīr, Tibet, Yārkand, Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, Qōqān [K̲h̲ōqand], and Samarqand to Buk̲h̲ārā, and back via Balk̲h̲, K̲h̲ulm, Bāmiyān, Kābul and Peshawar to Attock: Blochet iv 2181 (ah 1236/1819), i 648 (early 19th cent.), 648 (early 19th cent.), Ethé 2728–9, Rieu iii 982a (early 19th cent.), Suppt. 133 (ah 1249/1833), Bodleian 1858, Edinburgh 91.

Translation: Travels in Central Asia by Meer Izzut-oollah in the years 1812–13. Translated by Captain [P.D.] Henderson.66 Calcutta 1872°*.

Incomplete translation (omitting the stages from India through Kas̲h̲mīr and the return journey from Buk̲h̲ārā): Travels beyond the Himalaya, by Mir Izzet Ullah. [Translated by H.H. Wilson.67] Republished from the Calcutta Oriental Quarterly Magazine, 1825 (in jras. vii (1843) pp. 283–342).

French translation from Wilson’s English: Magasin asiatique, July 1826.

German translation from Wilson’s English: Ritter’s Asien vol. ii.

§ 231. Of unknown authorship is:

Taḥqīq i haft iqlīm (beg. Sp. i bī-q. mar K̲h̲āliqī rā sazad kih zimām), a tract on the definition of the Seven Climes, with a synoptical table, composed at Calcutta for presentation to Thomas Roebuck:68 Browne Pers. Cat. 123 (12 foll.).

§ 232. [Mīrzā] Sangīn Bēg b. ʿAlī Akbar Bēg.

Sair al-manāzil (beg. Miʿmārī kih ba-miʿmārī i Kun), an account of the buildings and inscriptions of Delhi written at the request of Mr. Charles Theophilus Metcalfe:69 Berlin 536 (1) (good drawings. ah 1236/1821), Rieu i 431a (lacking the drawings and defective at end. 19th cent.), 432a (fuller than the preceding. Some drawings. 19th cent.), iii 1024a (circ. ad 1850).

§ 233. An Armenian, Dāwud ibn Ḍādūr az nasl i Malik S̲h̲āh-Naẓar70 az aulād i S̲h̲āpūr (so apparently in the text of Miklukho-Maklai 77), or (as in the Armenian postscript to that ms.) David-Khan Melik Shahnazaryan Shapuryants, or (as in the b.m. catalogue, presumably from the Armenian text of the Notices) Dauith Tsatourean Melik-Shahnazareants, or (as on the title-page of the Notices) Myr-Davoud-Zadour de Melik Schahnazar,71 was sent to France with letters from Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, ʿAbbās Mīrzā and the prime minister Mīrzā M. S̲h̲afīʿ acknowledging a letter dispatched in 1815 by Louis xviii (1814–24) to announce his accession to the throne.

(1)
Etat actuel de la Perse72—par Mir-Davoud-Zadour de Mélik Schahnazar … Imprimé en persan, et traduit en armenien et en françois. Par J. Chahan de Cirbied. Paris 1817 (with a portrait of the author as frontispiece. See Katalog der Bibliothek der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Erster Band: Drucke. Zweite Auflage … Leipzig 1900, p. 353).
(2)
Notices sur l’état actuel de la Perse, en persan, en arménien et en français; par Myr-Dâvoud-Zadour de Melik Schahnazar … et mm. Langlès … (et) Chahan de Cirbièd … Paris 1818° (360 pp. Cf. Ṣabā Bibliographie … p. 9 no. 54, Katalog der … D.M.G. i (Drucke) p. 353, where it is stated that the book has two frontispieces [doubtless portraits]).
(3)
Muk̲h̲taṣar dar bāb i c̲h̲igūnagī i daulat i Farānisah u millat u pāy-tak̲h̲t i īs̲h̲ān kih s̲h̲ahr i Farīz ast, composed in 1234/1818–19: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 87 no. 77 (33 foll. A presentation copy from the author to a Russian friend not later than 11 April 1826), Lindesiana p. 188 no. 365 (ad 1826).

§ 234. Muns̲h̲ī Sadāsuk’h “Niyāz” Dihlawī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 650) as the author of a history of India, the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲, composed in 1234/1818–19.

ʿAjāʾib al-Hind, an account of some remarkable places and marvels in India: Rieu iii 1030b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1844).

§ 235. Apparently of unknown authorship is:

Jān i Manbaʾī an account of Bombay: [Calcutta 1820?°*.]

§ 236. S. Hās̲h̲im ʿAlī al-Riḍawī, whose father, Mīrzā Yūsuf ʿAlī, had accompanied Ṣafdar-Jang from Delhi to Oudh, was born at Bijnaur, a village south of Lucknow,73 in 1177/1763–4.

Mirʾāt al-bilād (beg. al-Ḥ. l. K̲h̲āliq al-ʿIbād), a geographical and historical work composed at Lucknow in 1235/1819–20 and divided into a muqaddamah (on the celestial spheres and the divisions of the globe), seven bābs ((1) the 1st clime, the land of the Zangīs, (2) the 2nd clime, Arabia, with a genealogy of Muḥammad and his descendants under Mecca, a note on the Wahhābīs and their raid on Karbalā in 1216/1801 under Najd, a sketch of ʿAbbāsid history under ʿIrāq and a long notice of the Imām Ḥusain under Karbalā, (3) the 3rd clime, India, with an outline of Indian history to Aḥmad S̲h̲āh’s accession, a summary of the history of Oudh to the accession of S̲h̲āh i Zaman [not Zamān] G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar K̲h̲ān in 1234/ 1819 and accounts of the Saiyids of Naṣīrābād [near Jāʾis: cf. pl. i § 953], the rulers of Bengal, etc., (4) the 4th clime, Persia, with a brief history of the Ṣafawids and their successors to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, (5) the 5th clime, Turkistān and China, with an account of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his descendants, (6) the 6th clime, Rūm, Syria and Egypt, (7) the 7th clime, Europe) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on inhabited countries outside the seven climes, America, the Sāmānids, Buwaihids, Saljūqids, Muẓaffarids, Sarbadārids, Barmecides, Ṭirimmāḥ, His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik and others, wonders of creation, Indian sages): Rieu i 428a (357 foll. 19th cent.)

§ 237. For the Risālah i Saiyid Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḥusainī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, completed in 1237/1822, see pl. i § 1608 and now Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 91 no. 80 (ah 1237/1822, autograph. Presumably the Asiatic Museum ms.).

§ 238. For the Riyāḍ al-siyāḥah completed in 1242/1827 by Zain al-ʿĀbidīn b. Iskan­dar S̲h̲īrwānī see pl. i § 1609 no. (1) and also Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 89–91 nos. 78, 79. For the same author’s Bustān al-siyāḥah, completed in 1247/1832, and his Ḥadāʾiq al-siyāḥah, completed in 1242/1827, see pl. i § 1609 no. (2).

§ 239. For the Yādgār i Bahādurī, which was completed in 1249/1833–4 by Bahādur Sing’h b. Hazārī-Mal, and of which the muqaddamah to the fourth sāniḥah is devoted to geography (mainly Indian), see pl. i § 182.

§ 240. Nawwāb Iqbāl al-Daulah Muḥsin ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. S̲h̲ams al-Daulah Aḥmad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān74 b. Saʿādat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, born 15 March 1808, came to England in January 1838 to urge his claims to the throne of Oudh. Having failed to gain his object, he retired to Bag̲h̲dād (perhaps more precisely Karbalā75) and died there on 21 December 1887. He was created g.c.s.i. in 1882. [Beale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 180; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 215; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) i p. 88. For a portrait at India House see W. Foster Descriptive catalogue of the paintings, statues, etc., in the India Office, 5th ed., London, 1924, p. 101.]

[Iqbāl i Farang] Icbal-e-Furung or British Prosperity: being a short description of the manners, customs, arts, and science of the enlightened British, by Nuwwab Icbal-ood Dowlah Buhadoor, accompanied by a literal translation into the English. Calcutta 1834° (197 pp.; 3 plates).

§ 241. ʿAbd al-Razzāq Iṣfahānī, having found his countrymen crafty and deceitful, went to the Turkish frontier (sarḥadd i Rūm) in the hope of making a congenial friend. There too, however, he remained unsatisfied and he was cherishing the idea of travelling to Europe, when at Tabrīz he made the acquaintance of the British physicians John Cormick76 and John McNeill.77 He greatly enjoyed their society for a time, but both of them left Tabrīz,78 and ʿAbd al-Razzāq transferred himself to Urūmiyah. He was living pleasantly there, when he had the misfortune to meet a former acquaintance, Raḥmat Allāh K̲h̲ān, the Governor of Us̲h̲nūyah,79 who took him to that town. In spite of much kindness on the part of Raḥmat Allāh K̲h̲ān he was unhappy at Us̲h̲nūyah among a people of foreign speech and he wrote the Aḥwāl i Us̲h̲nūyah to occupy his mind and forget his sorrows.

Aḥwāl i Us̲h̲nūyah u Urūmiyah (beg. Gum gas̲h̲tah i wādī i bī-sāmānī ʿAbd al-Razzāq i Iṣfahānī), an account of Us̲h̲nūyah and Urūmiyah and their inhabitants:80 Flügel ii 1273.

Edition with German translation and notes: Der Kurdengau Uschnûje und die Stadt Urûmije. Reiseschilderungen eines Persers, im Originaltexte herausgegeben, übersetzt und erläutert van Dr. Maximilian Bittner. Vienna 1895°* (Sitzungsberichte der kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, phil.-hist. Classe, Bd. cxxxiii, 3).

§ 242. S.M. Riḍā “Najm” Ṭabāṭabā has already been mentioned as the author of works composed in the years 1231–64/ 1816–48 (see pl. i §§ 180, 656, 691, 1212).

K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i lāmiʿ, or Manẓar al-ʿālam, a geographical work: Rieu iii 1014b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

§ 243. Ratan La‘l (the Madrās cat. adds: b. Chapna La‘l81 Kāyat).82

(1)
Maqṭaʿ al-arḍ, composed in 1251/1835–6: Ḥaidarābād 1252/1836–7 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 594 no. 108 and iii p. 242 no. 145, presumably the same work, though in the latter place the author’s name is given as Nawwāb S̲h̲ams al-Umarāʾ Amīr i Kabīr (cf. pl. ii § 48)).
(2)
Risālah i jug̲h̲rāfiyah (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i K̲h̲āliq al-Arḍ wa-l-Samāwāt), composed in 1251/1835–6 for Nawwāb ʿUmdat al-Daulah Bahādur [cf. pl. ii § 166], son of S̲h̲ams al-Umarāʾ Bahādur: Madrās i 510 (ah 1258/1842).

Edition: Risālah dar ʿilm i jug̲h̲rāfiyah, 1252/1836–7 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 242 no. 155, where the place of publication, doubtless Ḥaidarābād, is not stated).

(3)
Tak̲h̲ṭīṭ al-bilād, composed in 1251/1835–6. Edition: 1252 (Āṣafīyah i p. 594 no. 52).

§ 244. Āqā ʿAbbās, a native of S̲h̲īrāz who had seen some military service in Afg̲h̲ānistān, was introduced to R. Leech83 at Multān by the latter’s servants as a man professing some knowledge of farriery and undertook to cure one of his horses. Subsequently, with a Persian writer (ʿAbbās himself being illiterate), two guides and a servant, “all habited and equipped as fakeers,” he left Peshawar on a tour planned by Leech.

(Safar-nāmah i ʿAbbās i S̲h̲īrāzī): presumably now in the Secretariat of the Government of India.

English translation: Journal of a Tour through parts of the Panjab and Affghan­istan [all frontier districts apparently], in 1837. By Agha Abbas of Shiraz, arranged and translated [“partly from his original account written by his companion from his own dictation; and partly from his answers to questions put by myself …”] by Major R. Leech … From the Secretariat of the Government of India (in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, n.s. xii/2 (Calcutta 1843) pp. 564–621).

§ 245. Mullā Abū Ṭāhir K̲h̲wājah i muftī84 i Samarqandī b. Mullā Mīr Abū Saʿīd K̲h̲wājah qāḍī i kalān i wilāyat i Samarqand.

Samarīyah, on Samarqand, its buildings, the shrines of its saints (with short biographical notices), etc., completed not earlier than 1251/1835–6 (mentioned on p. 3523 as the date of the death of Sulṭān-K̲h̲ān K̲h̲wājah): Tashkent Acad. i 711 (70 foll. ah 1288/1871), Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) pp. 94–7 nos. 82 (ah 1292/1873), 83, 84.

Editions: (1) St. Petersburg 1904° (Samariya, sochinenie Abu-Takhir-KhodzhiTadzhitski tekst. Ed. N.I. Veselovski.85 81 pp. Imperatorski Sanktpeterburgski Universitet. Izdaniya Fakul’teta Vostochnykh Yazykov, no. 21). (2) Samarīyah taʾlīf i A. Ṭ. b. A. S. i Samarqandī, Tihrān 1330–1/1952–3‡ (ed. Iraj Afs̲h̲ār, with a preface by Saʿīd Nafīsī. Based on Veselovski’s edition).

Russian translation: Samariyya, opisanie dreυnostei i musulmanskikh svyatyn’ Samarkanda …, Samarqand 1899 (tr. V.L. Vyatkin. In Spravochnaya knizhka Samarkandskoy oblasti za 1898 g., pp. 153–259).

Uzbek Turkish translation: by ʿAbd al-Muʾmin Sattārī, ed. Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAinī: Tashkent Acad. i 712 (a ms. apparently prepared for the press in 1923).

§ 246. Ḥājī Ilāh-dād,86 a resident of Pas̲h̲āwar, was sent to Dīr by General [Claude Auguste] Court87 with a questionnaire to obtain information about the manners, customs, etc., of the Kāfirs inhabiting the adjacent country of Kāfiristān.88

(Aḥwāl i Kāfiristān),89 General Court’s questions and the answers given by two Kāmōzī Kāfirs, together with the names of the Kāfir tribes and their villages: Blochet i 675 (20 foll. Early 19th cent.), 676 (23 foll. Early 19th cent.).

§ 247. In 1838 an anonymous Indian, probably a Hindu, wrote:

Geographical notes relating mainly to places in or adjacent to north-western India; e.g. Bājaur, Swāt, the Indus and Jihlam, Taxila, Attock, Jamrūd, Ḥasan Abdāl, Fatḥ-Jang, K̲h̲ānpūr, Harāt, Qandahār, etc.: Blochet i 677 (100 foll.).

§ 248. Alexandre Chodźko [pronounced Kodj-ko according to Larousse], a Pole, b. 11 July 180490 at Krzywicze in Lithuania, d. 20 December 1891 at Paris, was a Russian consul in Persia and afterwards Professor of Slavonic Languages and Literatures at the Collège de France. Among his works were (1) Specimens of the popular poetry of Persia, London 1842°* (Oriental Translation Fund), (2) Grammaire persane, Paris 1852*, 2nd ed. Paris 1883°*, (3) Chants populaires slaves, 1865, (4) Théâtre persan. Choix de téaziés ou drames, traduits …, Paris 1878°*. [Larousse du xxe siècle, ii (Paris 1929) p. 234; Edwards coll. 179–80; A.T. Wilson A bibliography of Persia p. 42; Ṣabā Bibliographie française de l’Īrān p. 25 no. 209, etc.; Gabriel Die Erforschung Persiens, pp. 161, 162, 174, etc.]

(Stages on the caravan routes from Harāt to Qandahār, from Qandahār to Kābul and from Mas̲h̲had to K̲h̲īwah, together with information concerning the garrisons of K̲h̲urāsān), drawn up in 1841 on the basis of information received from a caravaneer: Blochet i 652 (4 foll.).

§ 249. In 1846 Ganēs̲h̲ī La‘l accompanied Charles [Stewart] Hardinge [afterwards 2nd Viscount Hardinge] and Captain [Arthur Edward] Hardinge, sons of the Governor General of India, on a journey to Kas̲h̲mīr.

(Diary of a journey to Kas̲h̲mīr), beginning with the departure from Lūd’hiyānah on 28.3.1846 and ending abruptly with the arrival at Sāʾirī, a village in the Simla hills, on 11.6.1846: Rieu iii 982b (70 foll. Circ. ad 1846).

§ 250. Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Naqs̲h̲bandī b. K̲h̲wājah S̲h̲āh Niyāz Kas̲h̲mīrī.

(Route from Kas̲h̲mīr to Yārkand), written at the request of Lord Elphinstone and presented to him in Kas̲h̲mīr in July 1846: Blochet i 674 (25 foll.).

Translation: Route from Kashmír, viâ Ladakh, to Yarkand, by Ahmed Shah Nakshahbandi. Translated from the Persian MS. (by J. Dowson91) (in jras. xii (1850) pp. 372–85).

§ 251. ʿAbd al-Karīm [K̲h̲ān] “Mus̲h̲tāq” Jhajjharī,92 or, as he calls himself in his concluding lines, Karīm K̲h̲ān Jhajjharī, b. Qāsim K̲h̲ān b. Ṭālib K̲h̲ān Afg̲h̲ān Sarban,93 having been invited to England by the Admiralty for the purpose of acquainting himself with the latest astronomical instruments, left Delhi in September 1839 and remained in London until November 1841. A manuscript of the Urdu Siyāḥat-nāmah in which he described this visit to England was in the possession of Garcin de Tassy,94 who published in the Revue de l’Orient for 1865 an abridged French translation of the first two parts (i.e. from Delhi to Calcutta and from Calcutta to London). In D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1261/November 1845 Karīm K̲h̲ān visited the tomb of Quṭb al-Dīn Bak̲h̲tyār Kākī (for whom see pl. i § 1258) and at an interview with the Governor General, Lord Henry Hardinge [sic95], he was asked to write an account of the ancient buildings of Delhi. In compliance with that request he wrote not merely an account of the buildings of Delhi but a work of much wider scope, the Mirʾāt i gītī-numā.

Mirʾāt i gītī-numā (beg. Marātib i ḥ. u sp. i bī-q. taslīm i bār-gāh), a geographical work completed on 1 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1263/17 Feb. 1847 (according to a statement, perhaps corrupted, at the end of one of the b.m. mss., though the other, as well as the i.o. ms., is dated S̲h̲awwāl 1262 [Sept. 1846]) and containing unnumbered sections devoted to [1] opinions of ancient and modern astronomers concerning the solar system, [2] the globe and its divisions, [3] description of Asia (almost entirely concerned with the history and geography of India, including an account of Delhi and its monuments), [4] Africa, [5] Farang, or Europe, [6] America, [7] England: its early history, [8] description of London, [9] history of the E.I.Co.: Rieu iii 994b (ah 1262/1846), 994a (circ. ad 1850), i.o.d.p. 724 (bearing the author’s seal).

§ 252. Ḥakīm i Ilāhī96 Lak’hnawī, or, as in the colophon, Ḥakīm al-Hind Awad’hī.97

Kas̲h̲s̲h̲āf i ʿālam, a compendium of geography: Lucknow 1265/1849* (67 pp. Niẓāmī Pr.).

§ 253. P. Raphael (so Edwards), or Mīrzā Rafāʾīl (so Browne), or Rafaeli (so d.m.g. cat.).

(Jahān-numā), a geography compiled from English works at the request of the S̲h̲āh: Tabrīz 1267/1851° (228 pp., 1 map. Cf. Browne Press and poetry p. 160 (70); Katalog der … Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Erster Band: Drucke, Leipzig 1900, p. 363).

§ 254. In 1269/1852–3 a census of all the houses and other buildings in Ṭihrān was taken by order of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh.

ʿAdad i k̲h̲ānahā u sāʾir i bināhā-yi Dār al-k̲h̲ilāfah i bāhirah i Ṭihrān, … a directory of Ṭihrān giving the character, size and ownership of each house: Browne Coll. K. 9 (9) = Houtum-Schindler 44 (188 foll.).

§ 255. Farhād Mīrzā b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh died in 1305/1888 (see pl. i § 259).

(1)
Hidāyat al-sabīl: see pl. i § 1624.
(2)
Jām i Jam, a translation of William Pinnock’s Comprehensive system of modern geography and history with additions: [Tihrān] 1273/1856° (429 pp. Cf. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 24 no. 109, where the place of printing is given as Bombay; Mas̲h̲had cat. iii, fṣl. 17, ptd. bks., no. 3; Mélanges asiatiques iii p. 49; r.a.s. cat. of ptd. bks. p. 326; jras. 1923 p. 224).

§ 256. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-maʿrūf bi-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn, as he calls himself at the end of the Jawāhir al-ḥaqāʾiq (p. 18112), or Maulawī Saiyid S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-maʿrūf bi-Saiyid S̲h̲āh Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Qādirī Naqawī Wailūrī,98 as he is called on the title-page, wrote also a work entitled Jawāhir al-sulūk, “a scheme of existence, and the duties of the believer, according to the Ṣūfī doctrine” (Arberry), published at Madrās in 1283/1866* (276 pp., 11 charts). Born in 1207/1792–3, he taught in a madrasah founded by himself at Vellore and died at al-Madīnah on 3 Muḥarram 1289/13 March 1872 (see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 222).

Jawāhir al-ḥaqāʾiq, a Ṣūfī cosmography completed at Vellore on 11 Rajab 1273/7 March 1857: Madrās 1274/ 1857–8°* (Maẓhar al-ʿAjāʾib Pr. Pp. [1], 182, [2], 14, [2]; a large folded diagram headed al-dāʾirat al-wujūdīyah as frontispiece; 4 celestial and three terrestrial maps towards end).

§ 257. For the Āt̲h̲ār i Jaʿfarī, a topography and history of Fārs, with a sketch of the history and geography of the world, by M. Jaʿfar K̲h̲ūrmūjī ([Ṭihrān?] 1276/1860°), see pl. i § 462.

§ 258. In 1276/1859–60 was compiled, possibly by order of F.A. Bakulin, Russian consul at Astarābād—

K̲h̲ānah-wār [u] anfās i mamlakat i Astarābād bā jamīʿ i mutaʿalliqāt [sic lege pro mʿlqāt], statistics, mainly demographic, concerning Astarābād and its eight districts (bulūkāt), without preface or conclusion: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 98 no. 8 (probably autograph. 20 foll. Formerly in Bakulin’s possession).

§ 259. [Mīrzā Ibrāhīm99].

Kitāb i Astarābād u Māzandarān u Gīlān u Simnān u Dāmg̲h̲ān wa-g̲h̲airah,100 geographical (also economic, ethnographic and historical) information concerning the towns and districts along the route Tihrān, Simnān, Dāmg̲h̲ān, S̲h̲āhrūd, Astarābād, Māzandarān, Gīlān, begun 29 Ramaḍān 1276/21 April 1860 and completed 20 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1277/31 May 1861: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 99 no. 87 (102 foll. ah 1277/1860–1, apparently autograph. Transcribed for B. Dorn [cf. pl. i § 302]), Browne Coll. Sup. 9 (19 foll. only).

§ 260. For the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i jahān-numā, a history and geography of the world completed in 1280/1863–4 by S. Ilāhī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Ḥusainī Angrēzābādī, see pl. i § 190.

§ 261. Maulawī Abū M. Ḥasan “S̲h̲iʿrī” Qādirī Kas̲h̲mīrī died in 1298/1881 (see pl. i § 1398).

Zubdat al-ak̲h̲bār, a cosmography: Amritsar 1282/1865° (404 pp.).

§ 262. K̲h̲air al-Dīn Bās̲h̲ā al-Tūnisī, of Circassian origin, was born in 1810 and at an early age went to Tūnis, where he rose to high official positions. In 1294/1877 he was invited to Istānbūl by Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd and in 1295/1878 he became Grand Vizier, but he was dismissed after only eight months in office. He died in 1307/1890. [Zaidān Tārīk̲h̲ ādāb al-lug̲h̲at al-ʿArabīyah iv (1914) p. 290; Ency. Isl. under K̲h̲air al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a (Menzel); Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 887; etc.]

Aqwam al-masālik fī maʿrifat aḥwāl al-mamālik, a geographical, political and statistical account of the countries of Europe with a short account of the rest of the world: Tūnis 1284–5/1868° (see Ellis i col. 841).

Persian translation: by Ḥaidar ʿAlī Iṣfahānī mulaqqab bah Fak̲h̲r al-Udabāʾ, Majlis 686.

§ 263. Cornelius Van Alen Van Dyck, b. 1818, d. 13 Nov. 1895, an American medical missionary in Syria, was manager of the mission press at Bairūt from 1857 to 1880 and wrote numerous educational works in Arabic (see Zaidān Tarājim mas̲h̲āhīr al-s̲h̲arq ii pp. 39–53, Tārīk̲h̲ ādāb al-lug̲h̲at al-ʿArabīyah iv pp. 218–19; Sarkīs Dictionnaire encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe coll. 1462–5; Columbia encyclopedia p. 1824; Dictionary of American biography xix p. 186).

al-Mirʾāt al-waḍīyah fī ’l-kurat al-arḍīyah, a general geography printed three times at Bairūt: see Iktifā’ al-qanūʿ bi-mā huwa maṭbūʿ, by Edward Van Dyck (his son), Cairo 1896/1313, p. 402, and Ellis ii col. 736, where an edition of 1852° is recorded.

Persian translation: Kas̲h̲f al-qināʿ ʿan aḥwāl al-aqālīm wa-’l-biqāʿ, by Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Gulpāyagānī, Bombay n.d.° (220 pp.).

§ 264. Mīrzā Mullā ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. M. Laṭīf Mustajirr [sic?] Samarqandī accompanied the Russian orientalist Aleksandr Lyudvigovich Kun (1840–1888) as translator at the time of Major-General A.K. Abramov’s Iskandar-Kul expedition in 1870.

(Rūz-nāmah i ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. M. Laṭīf i Samarqandī), a diary from 25 April to 27 June 1870 written at the request of A.L. Kun and giving a detailed account of the localities on the route of the Iskandar-Kul expedition (the upper Zarafs̲h̲ān from Penjikent to Paldarak, the valleys of the Yag̲h̲nōb and Iskandar-Daryā, the Iskandar-Kul districts): Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 100 nos. 88 (probably autograph. 398 foll. Cf. Mélanges asiatiques x p. 278 no. 106), 89 (transcribed for Kun. 322 foll. Cf. Mélanges asiatiques x p. 279 no. 107).

Probably the same person is the author of:

(Rūz-nāmah i Wīstafkah101 i Muskāb), an account of the Moscow Exhibition of 1872, especially the Turkistān section, by an anonymous Central-Asian who went to Moscow in that year with A.L. Kun: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 102 no. 90 (76 foll.).

§ 265. For the Mirʾāt al-Qāsān, completed in 1288/1871 by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm “Suhail” Ḍarrābī Dunbulī Kās̲h̲ānī, see pl. i § 457.

Edition: Tārīk̲h̲ i Kās̲h̲ān taʾlīf i ʿAbd al-Raḥīm i Ḍarrābī (Suhail i Kās̲h̲ānī) …, Tihrān a.h.s. 1335/1956‡ (ed. Īraj Afs̲h̲ār [cf. pl. i § 1664]. Intis̲h̲ārāt i Farhang i Īrān-zamīn, 2. A second edition with notes and indexes is announced on the last page as in the press).

§ 266. Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān, evidently an officer in the army of the Wakīl al-Mulk102 during a pacification of Balūc̲h̲istān, was sent with ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān in 1282/1865–6 to take the port of Ṭīs in Makrān [Notes …, p. 153]. In 1281/1864–5 he had taken the village of Pīs̲h̲īn after a siege of five days [Notes …, p. 181].

Persian text of his report on Balūc̲h̲istān: [title?], Ṭihrān “July 1875” [= Jumādā ii–Rajab 1292].

English translation: Notes on Persian Belúchistán. From the Persian [report] of Mirza Mehdy Khán. [Submitted to the Persian Government and] Published Teheran, July 1875. [The article signed on p. 154] A. [= Albert] H. [= Houtum] Schindler (in jras. n.s. vol. ix/1 (Oct. 1876) pp. 147–54).

§ 267. Ismāʿīl “Durdī” Iṣfahānī was a son of the poet and calligraphist Mīrzā Ibrāhīm “Sāg̲h̲ar” Iṣfahānī.103 He was the author of Tajārib i k̲h̲wud i man u ārā-yi k̲h̲wud i man … My own experinces [sic] and my own opinions by Aga Mirza Ismail Dordi Ispahanee. June 1884 [“A tract on the political relations of England, Russia, and Persia”, according to Edwards], which was lithographed in 1301/1884° (66 pp.) at [Ḥaidarābād?]. On p. 595 of the Āṣafīyah catalogue, vol. i, which was published in 1332/1914, he is described as maujūd, i.e. still alive. It seems probable that he was then resident in Ḥaidarābād. [D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 157 no. 631, ix/1 p. 321 no. 1900].

Jug̲h̲rāfiyah i ʿālam: 1297/1880 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 594 no. 95, where the place of publication, doubtless Ḥaidarābād, is not stated).

§ 268. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī entitled Ṣanīʿ al-Daulah and afterwards Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah died 19 S̲h̲awwāl 1313/3 April 1896 (see pl. i § 192).

(1)
Maṭlaʿ al-s̲h̲ams, a geographical, historical and biographical account of K̲h̲urāsān and of some places on the way thither, [Tihrān?] 1301–3/1884–6°* (3 vols.): see pl. i § 471; Wilber p. 269.
(2)
Mirʾāt al-buldān i Nāṣirī, an uncompleted alphabetical dictionary of Persian towns and villages in four volumes extending to the letter jīm, [Tihrān?] 1293/1876 (vol. i only, 388 pp. ending with Tabrīz); [Tihrān] 1294–7/1877–80° (4 vols., of which vol. i has 606 pp. and ends with Tihrān (تهران): see pl. i § 444; Wilber p. 269.
(3)
al-Tadwīn fī aḥwāl jibāl S̲h̲arwīn, Tihrān 1311–12/ 1893–4* (pp. 148; 61): see pl. i § 480; Dh̲arīʿah iv p. 18 no. 61; Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 14, ptd. bks. no. 31.

§ 269. Qārī Raḥmat Allāh “Wāḍiḥ” b. ʿĀs̲h̲ūr104 Muḥammad Buk̲h̲ārī (cf. pl. i § 528 no. (6), § 1230) died in 1311/1893 according to Tashkent Acad. i p. 1386. For seven further mss. of his Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb see nos. 332–8 in that catalogue.

G̲h̲arāʾib al-k̲h̲abar fī ʿajāʾib al-safar, or Sawāniḥ al-masālik wa-farāsik̲h̲ al-mamālik, an account of a journey in 1303/1886 to Mecca and al-Madīnah through Turkistān and Persia: Tashkent Acad. i pp. 172–3 nos. 399 (153 foll. ah 1304/ 1886–7, possibly autograph), 400, 401.

§ 270. M. Taqī K̲h̲ān “Ḥakīm” (cf. pl. i §§ 321 (3), 527).

Ganj i dānis̲h̲, a gazetteer of Persia, [Tihrān,] 1305/1887° (573 pp. Cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 456–7).

§ 271. Ḥājj Mīrzā M. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Anṣārī Qarājah-Dāg̲h̲ī wrote a commentary on Fāṭimah’s well-known k̲h̲uṭbah (cf. D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 205 no. 1005). [al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār (quoted in Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 333); Aḥsan al-wadīʿah ii pp. 72–4; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 836.]

Zain al-maʿābid fī faḍīlat al-masājid, on the merits (faḍīlat) of the Ustād S̲h̲āgird Mosque105 at Tabrīz together with nikāt i ḥadīt̲h̲ī u tafsīrī u ak̲h̲lāqī, completed in 1308/1890: Tabrīz 1308/1891 (Mas̲h̲had v p. 275).

§ 272. S. Luṭf-ʿAlī-S̲h̲āh Maudūdī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī.

Armag̲h̲ān i Hindūstān, described in the Ḥaidarābād Coll. cat. p. 37 as “a geography of India”: Ḥaidarābād 1311/ 1893–4 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 594 (under Jug̲h̲rāfiyah), ii p. 836 (under Safar-nāmah)).

§ 273. Ḥasan Fasāʾī S̲h̲īrāzī, b. 1237/1821–2, d. Rajab 1316/ Nov.–Dec. 1898.

Fārs-nāmah i Nāṣirī, a history and geography of Fārs with an index of place-names: Tihrān 1313/1895–6° (2 vols. in 1. 685 pp. Cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iii 162; Wilber p. 270).

Abridged translation of the two sections relating to the tribes in the final chapter: Hajji Mirza Hasan-i-Shirazi on the nomad tribes of Fars in the Fars-nameh-i-Nasiri. By D. Austin Lane106 (in jras. 1923 pp. 209–31).

§ 274. S.M. Naṣīr “Furṣat” Ḥusainī Jahrumī S̲h̲īrāzī107 entitled (mulaqqab) Furṣat al-Daulah was born at S̲h̲īrāz in 1271/1854–5 and died in 1339/1920 (see Āt̲h̲ār i ʿAjam, Bombay 1314°*, pp. 594–6 (an appended biography); Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir ii p. 204 (portrait, titles of nine works, etc.); Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … iv p. 60 penult.; D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 112 no. 443, viii p. 47 no. 124, p. 148 no. 577). For his Buḥūr al-alḥān (Bombay 1332/1914°*) see Edwards col. 583; Arberry p. 79; D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 50.

Āt̲h̲ār i ʿAjam, on the archaeology, geography, history, biography, etc., of south-western Persia, completed in 1313/1895–6: Bombay 1314/1896°* (viii, 603 pp. Portrait as frontispiece, map at end. Cf. pl. i § 465; D̲h̲arīʿah i p. 8; Wilber p. 270). Doubtless this work is identical with the Āt̲h̲ār i Salāṭīn i ʿaẓīm al-s̲h̲aʾn i ʿahd i qadīm i bāstān i mamlakat i Īrān described in Harrassowitz’s Litterae orientales, Oct. 1938 p. 10 no. 823 as published at Tihrān in 1354 (“8, 596 p. Mit Illustr. 4°”). The correctness of this description naturally needs verification.

§ 275. ʿAbbās S̲h̲auqī.

Das̲h̲t i Gurgān, on its geography and the Turkmān tribes living there: printed 1314/1896–7 (48 pp. See D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 171 no. 706).

§ 276. Mīrzā S. ʿAlī b. Ḥusain Ḥusainī Tabrīzī, known as (al-maʿrūf bi-) Mīr S. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Ḥijāzī and entitled (wa-’l-mulaqqab min al-Sulṭān Muẓaffar (al-Dīn S̲h̲āh bi-) Waqār108 al-Mulk, was for ten years Persian Consul at Bombay.

Jām i Jam i Hindūstān, or Siyāḥat-nāmah i Waqār al-Mulk, on India, its peoples and their history: Browne Press and poetry p. 164 no. 142, D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 24 no. 108, Tabrīz 1314/1897 (337 pp. Karatay p. 163); Ṭihrān 1322/1904–5 (D̲h̲arīʿah, loc. cit.).

§ 277. Najm al-Daulah Mīrzā ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār K̲h̲ān Iṣfahānī died in 1326/1908 (see pl. ii § 50).

(1)
Kifāyat al-jug̲h̲rāfī i ṭabī‘ī u siyāsī i jadīd: Tihrān 1319/1901–2 (see Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 17, ptd. bks., no. 13; D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 1162).
(2)
al-Riḥlat al-K̲h̲ūzīyah, on a journey to K̲h̲ūzistān undertaken by order of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh from 23 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1298/16 November 1881 to 14 Ramaḍān 1299/30 July 1882: Qum private library of S. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Tabrīzī Marʿas̲h̲ī known as Āqā Najafī109 (see D̲h̲arīʿah x p. 169 no. 328).
(3)
Uṣūl i jug̲h̲rāfiyā: printed 1298/1881 (see D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 180 no. 666).

§ 278. M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Tarbiyat” b. M. Ṣādiq Tabrīzī was born at Tabrīz on 13 Jumādā ii 1294/25 June 1877 (see D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 45) and died at Tihrān on 26 Dai 1318/16(?) January 1940 (cf. pl. i § 1493, where p. 51 should be read; Armag̲h̲ān xx p. 433; etc.).

Zād u būm, a geography of Persia: [Tabrīz,] 1319/1901° (158 pp. Cf. Browne Press and poetry p. 163 (123)).

§ 279. M. ʿAlī Qūrk̲h̲ānac̲h̲ī i Ṣaulat i Niẓām.

Nuk̲h̲bah i Saifīyah, on the geography of Astarābād, Yomūt and Gōklān,110 composed in 1321/1903 by order of S̲h̲āhzādah Ḥājj Saif al-Daulah, Governor of Astarābād: Majlis i 690 (138 foll.).

§ 280. Vasili Vladimirovich Bartol’d (or, alternatively and baptismally, Wilhelm Barthold), the distinguished Russian orientalist, was born at St. Petersburg in November 1869 and died in August 1930 (see V.V. Barthold. Four studies on the history of Central Asia. Translated from the Russian by V. and T. Minorsky, vol. i, Leyden 1956, foreword; The Times 22 Aug. 1930, p. 9g (death), 26 Aug. 1930, p. 14a (appreciation by Sir E. Denison Ross)).

Istoriko-geograficheski obzor Irana: St. Petersburg 1903.

Persian translation: Tad̲h̲kirah i jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi tārīk̲h̲ī i Īrān (English title: W. Barthold. Historico-geographical survey of Iran. Translated from the original Russian by H. Serdadver111). Tihrān a.h.s. 1308/1930* (295 pp. Ittiḥādīyah Pr. Cf. Wilber p. 275).

§ 281. Nādir Mīrzā b. Badīʿ al-Zamān Ispahbad b. Muḥammad-qulī Mīrzā Mulk-ārā-yi T̲h̲ānī b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār (cf. pl. i § 489c) was born circ. 1244/1828–9 (D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 11612) and died in 1303/1885–6 (Oriens 7/1 (1954) p. 2024; Yādgār ii/5 pp. 15–26).

Tārīk̲h̲ u jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi dār al-salṭanah i Tabrīz, or Jug̲h̲rāfī i Tabrīz, the original title according to D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 11610, or Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Muẓaffarī, the title given to its expanded form, a geography and history of Tabrīz to 1302/ 1884–5, extended to 1323/1905 at the request of Muẓaffar al-Dīn S̲h̲āh (1313–24/1896–1907) by Lisān al-Mulk Malik al-Muʾarrik̲h̲īn Hidāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān “Sipihr”112 [b. M. Taqī “Sipihr” Kās̲h̲ānī: cf. D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 1812], after whose death the printing was completed, though according to Minorsky (cf. pl. i § 489c) the work was not issued until circ. 1940: Tihrān 1323/1905 (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 477; Īraj Afs̲h̲ār Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir pp. 12, 14–16, where a short extract is given).

If this Nādir Mīrzā Qājār died in 1303/1885–6, as stated above, he must be a different person from Nādir Mīrzā “T̲h̲uraiyā” Qājār, who wrote:

Tārīk̲h̲ i T̲h̲uraiyā, a history of Tabrīz begun in 1303/1885–6 and completed on 22 Muḥarram 1314/2 July 1896: D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 245 no. 903, where no information is given about any manuscript or printed edition.

§ 282. Of unknown authorship is:

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi mamlakat i Kirmān, in five tanbīhs without preface or conclusion, composed originally in 1296/ 1873, when Murtaḍā-qulī K̲h̲ān was governor, but in the redaction described by Miklukho-Maklai not earlier than 1323/1905–6: Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 103 no. 91 (40 foll.), Univ. 1117* (Romaskewicz p. 5).

§ 283. Prince Nāṣir al-Dīn Tūrā b. Amīr Muẓaffar.

Tuḥfat al-zāʾirīn, descriptions of cemeteries and saints’ graves in Buk̲h̲ārā with biographical information, composed in 1324/1906: Buk̲h̲ārā 1328/1910 (see Semenov Kurzer Abriss p. 9).

§ 284. ʿAbd al-Razzāq K̲h̲ān Sartīp b. Muḥsin b. Karam-ʿAlī Bag̲h̲āyirī (min nawāḥī Sabzawār) Iṣfahānī was born at Iṣfahān in 1286/1869–70 and migrated with his father to Tihrān in 1296/ 1879. He is the author of a large work entitled Tārīk̲h̲ al-wilādah wa-’l-wafāh on the dates of birth and death of eminent Muslims from the early days of Islām to his own time (see D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 295, no. 1094, where the language is not specified and nothing is said about the place and date of publication, if it has been published).

(1)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi ibtidāʾī: Persia 1327/1909 (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 114 no. 462).
(2)
Uṣūl i jug̲h̲rāfiyā: Tihrān (see D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 180).

§ 285. Lisān al-Salṭanah Malik al-Muʾarrik̲h̲īn ʿAbd al-Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. Hidāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān113 b. M. Taqī “Sipihr”114 Kās̲h̲ānī was born in 1288/1871–2 or 1290/1873–4 and died on 28 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1352/21 July 1933 (see D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 297 no. 1107; Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … i p. 42 (Āʾīnah i ʿaib-numā. Portrait), iii p. 56 (S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āhī), etc.; Browne Press and poetry p. 107 (S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āhī); M. ʿAlī Mudarris Raiḥānat al-adab iv p. 81). Two of his works have already been mentioned in this survey (pl. i § 489a). Others are recorded in the D̲h̲arīʿah, e.g. iii p. 236 no. 871 (Tārīk̲h̲ al-anbiyāʾ), p. 297 no. 1107 (Tārīk̲h̲ i yaumīyah i Īrān, 36 volumes), viii p. 18 no. 4 (Dāʾirat al-maʿārif, in five large volumes). Neither mss. nor printed editions of these three works are mentioned in the D̲h̲arīʿah. According to the Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … he wrote about one hundred volumes on history and other subjects.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Kās̲h̲ān, for children, begun in 1328/1910: Maʿārif ii 301 (26 foll.).

§ 286. Mīrzā Sirāj al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-Raʾūf, a Buk̲h̲ārā merchant, wrote:

Tuḥaf i ahl i Buk̲h̲ārā, adventures in foreign lands: Tashkent Acad. i 402 (190 foll. ah 1329/1911, autograph).

Edition: Buk̲h̲ārā, 1330/1912 (see Semenov Kurzer Abriss p. 10).

§ 287. Fak̲h̲r al-Wāʿiẓīn S.M. Bāqir Ḥusainī K̲h̲alk̲h̲ālī died at Ardabīl in 1337/1918–19 (see Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 294).

(1)
Jannāt i t̲h̲amāniyah, an account of Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbalāʾ Kāẓimain, Sāmarrāʾ, and Mas̲h̲had, with a k̲h̲ātimah on Qum, begun in 1327/1909 and completed in 1331/1913: Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 14, mss., no. 28 (ah 1331/ 1913, autograph. Cf. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 150 no. 644).
(2)
Mas̲h̲āhid al-bilād wa-maʿārif al-ʿibād (in Persian?): autograph ms. in possession of S. Abū ’l-Futūḥ ʿAlawī K̲h̲alk̲h̲ālī (Dānis̲h̲mandān …, loc. cit.).

§ 288. Qāḍī S.M. Nūr al-Ḥusain b. Tabāruk Ḥusain.

Āt̲h̲ār i s̲h̲araf, an account, mainly historical, of the province of Bihār: Patna [1914*] (Rājanīti Pr. 100 pp.).

§ 289. Hasan K̲h̲ān Manṭiq al-Mulk (cf. pl. i p. 189 (8)).

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi bā-naqs̲h̲ah: printed (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 114 no. 467).

§ 290. S.M. ʿAlī Jamāl-zādah,115 well-known as a writer of fiction, was born at Iṣfahān in, or about, 1897 and received the later part of his education at Bairūt and in France. For fifteen years he was attached to the Persian legation at Berlin and since 1931 he has been connected with the International Labour Office at Geneva. He wrote for the periodical Kāwah (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 4881) and later edited ʿilm u hunar (Berlin 1917–18).

[Bertel’s Ocherk istorii persidskoi literatury pp. 126–8; Chaikin Kratki ocherk noveishei persidskoi literaturuy pp. 119–23; Ishaque Modern Persian poetry pp. 65, 75–6; Saʿīd Nafīsī S̲h̲āhkārhā-yi nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir i pp. 376–7 (portrait); Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … iv pp. 40–2; D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 21 no. 21, and elsewhere; Cassell’s encyclopaedia of literature, London 1953, vol. ii p. 1843; etc.]

Ganj i s̲h̲āygān yā auḍāʿ i iqtiṣādī i Iran: Berlin 1335/ 1917° (Kāwayānī Pr. 219 pp., 1 map. Edwards col. 610).

§ 291. For al-Iṣfahān [sic], begun in S̲h̲awwāl 1342/May 1924 by Mīr S. ʿAlī Janāb (cf. Browne Press and poetry p. 70 (126); M. Ṣadr Hās̲h̲imī Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … i pp. 245–8), see pl. i § 456c, Wilber p. 270.

§ 292. S. Nūr al-Dīn b. M. S̲h̲arīf b. M. Mūsawī, a descendant of S. Niʿmat Allāh Jazāʾirī (for whom see Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 360–7; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 586) and on his mother’s side a grandson of S̲h̲. M. ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī, was born in 1316/1899.

K̲h̲ūzistān-nāmah, on the geography, history and biography of K̲h̲ūzistān in three large volumes: D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 252 no. 935, vii p. 277 no. 1354 (where nothing is said about mss. or printed editions).

§ 293. Maulawī116 Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Kus̲h̲kakī,117 former editor of Iṣlāḥ, the first Afg̲h̲ān daily newspaper, was born in 1898. He became Secretary to Amān Allāh K̲h̲ān (afterwards King Amān Allāh) in 1924 and from 1930 onwards he was Assistant Secretary to Nādir S̲h̲āh (who reigned 1348–52/1929–33). He was the first editor of the newspaper Ittiḥād i mas̲h̲riqī published twice weekly at Jalālābād from 1919 onwards (cf. Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … i p. 50) and in the autumn of 1924 he was summoned to Kābul to edit Ḥaqīqat, which was published for a few months only during the Mangal insurrection.

[L. Bogdanov Notes on the Afghan periodical press (in Islamic culture iii/1 (Jan. 1929) pp. 126–52) p. 139; International Who’s Who 1950 p. 123.]

Rāh-numā-yi Qaṭag̲h̲an118 u Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān yaʿnī mulak̲h̲k̲h̲aṣ i safar-nāmah i 1301 i Sipah-sālār i G̲h̲āzī Sardār Muḥammad Nādir K̲h̲ān Wazīr i Ḥarbīyah murattabah i janāb i Maulawī Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲ān i Kus̲h̲kakī [so in Kattagan i Badakhshan, preface, p. x, where the place of publication, doubtless Kābul, and the date [a.h.s. 1302/1923–4?] are not mentioned].

Russian translation: Burkhan-ud-Din-Khan-i-Kushkeki. Kattagan i Badakhshan. Dannye po geografii strany … [translated by P.P. Vvedenski, B.I. Dolgopolov and E.V. Levkievski under the general editorship of A.A. Semenov, who has supplied a preface and notes], Tashkent 1926* (Obshchestvo dlya Izucheniya Tadzhikistana i Iranskikh Narodnostei za ego Predelami. Pp. xiii, 248; 34 maps).

§ 294. M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān is the author of Tārīk̲h̲, a school history of the world in modern times (Lahore a.h.s. 1305/1927*), and Tārīk̲h̲ i ʿumūmī, pt. 1 (the ancient world, Lahore a.h.s. 1306/ 1928*: see pl. i § 1668 (22)).

Afg̲h̲ānistān, on the geography of Afg̲h̲ānistān: Lahore a.h.s. 1306/1927* (163 pp. Mufīd i ʿĀmm Pr.).

§ 295. S. Riḍā ʿAlī-zādah translated (from Turkish originals in most cases, if not in all) a number of historical, geographical and other works, some of which have already been mentioned (pl. i p. 121 (6), (7), 160 (3), (5)). Of his Murāsalāt, model letters, at least four editions have been published (Lahore 1344/1926*; 1345/1927*; 1347/1928*; 1353/1934*). For some other works see Arberry p. 430.

(1)
Tārīk̲h̲ i mīlal, a series of popular geographies [translated from the Turkish] and published at Lahore (Mufīd i ʿĀmm Pr.) in 1344/1926*, namely, (1) Z̲h̲āpūniyān (56 pp.); (2) Kōrahyāʾiyān, on eastern Siberia [and Korea?] (47 pp.); (3) C̲h̲īniyān (54 pp.); (4) Faransāwiyān (47 pp.); (5) Ingilīsiyān (56 pp.); (6) Ītāliyān (49 pp.); (7) K̲h̲īwah u Buk̲h̲ārā (56 pp.); (8) Almāniyān (47 pp.); (9) Yahūdiyān (50 pp.).
(2)
Turkistān, a geography of modern Turkistān translated by S. R. ʿA.-z. and edited with a preface by S̲h̲ēr M. K̲h̲ān: Lahore 1345/1927* (373 pp. Mufīd i ʿĀmm Pr.).

§ 296. Raḥīm-zādah Ṣafawī is, inter alia, a historical novelist (cf. Oriens ix/1 (1956) p. 14020). For his Dāstān i Nādir S̲h̲āh i Afs̲h̲ār (pt. 1 (64 pp.) Tihrān a.h.s. 1310/1931–2) see D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 40 no. 70) and for his Dāstān i S̲h̲ahr-bānū (2nd ed. Tihrān a.h.s. 1327/1948–9) op. cit. viii p. 38 no. 56.

(1)
Īrān i iqtiṣādī: Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1308–9/1929–30* (Ittiḥādīyah Pr. 2 vols. Pp. 106; 387).
(2)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrān: published by Amīr Jāhid in Sāl-nāmah i Pārs, vol. 9 (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 114 no. 466).

§ 297. Sulṭān Bahārmast.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi niẓāmī i Īrān: a.h.s. 1309/1930–1 (81 pp. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 118 no. 484).

§ 298. Mīrzā Ḥusain Gul-i-Gulāb is perhaps identical with the H. Gul-i-Gulab who appears in The World of Learning 1952 as Professor of Botany in the Medical Faculty of the University of Tihrān.

Daurah i jug̲h̲rāfiyā: a.h.s. 1310/1931–2 (3 vols. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 1144).

§ 299. Aḥmad Iḥtisābiyān.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi niẓāmī i Īrān. Editions: a.h.s. 1310/1931–2 (554 pp. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 118 no. 483) and another of which the date is not mentioned in the D̲h̲arīʿah.

§ 300. Masʿūd Kaihān is Professor of Persian Geography in the University of Tihrān.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi mufaṣṣal i Īrān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1310–11/ 1931–2 (3 vols. Cf. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 479 and V. Minorsky’s description in Acta Orientalia xvi p. 54 as well as Wilber p. 275).

§ 301. S. Jalāl al-Din b. ʿAlī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Tihrānī (see pl. i § 1539c, ii § 176; D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 218 no. 882).

Iṣfahān, a topographical account of Iṣfahān with short biographies of some celebrities buried there, composed after a visit to the town in Mihr-māh 1311/Sept.–Oct. 1932 and appended as pp. 76–160 to an almanac for 1312 (Gāh-nāmah i 1312, Ṭihrān 1351/1311/1933. Cf. pl. i § 340 (1)).

§ 302. ʿAbbās Iqbāl Ās̲h̲tiyānī was born in 1314/1896–7 and died at Rome on 21 Bahman a.h.s. 1334/10(?) Feb. 1956 (see pl. i § 1453; Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/4 (a.h.s. 1334/1956) pp. 411–16 (obituary by Īraj Afs̲h̲ār, with portrait and list of works)).

(1)
Kullīyāt i ʿilm i jug̲h̲rāfiyā: Tihrān a.h.s. 1312/ 1933–4 (247 pp. See Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/4 (a.h.s. 1334/ 1956) p. 41322).
(2)
Kullīyāt i jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi iqtiṣādī: Tihrān a.h.s. 1315/1936–7 (221 pp. See F. i Ī.-z. p. 4148).
(3)
Tārīk̲h̲ i iktis̲h̲āfāt i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī u tārīk̲h̲ i ʿilm i jug̲h̲rāfiyā: Tihrān a.h.s. 1314/1935–6. (See F. i Ī.-z. p. 4145.)

In addition to these he wrote geographical schoolbooks which have been printed several times (see F. i Ī.-z. p. 41616–18).

§ 303. Ḥusain Nūr Ṣādiqī (b. 24 S̲h̲awwāl 1328/29 Oct. 1910: cf. pl. i § 456d).

Iṣfahān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1316/1937–8 (circ. 260 pp., 41 illustrations. Cf. Wilber p. 271).

§ 304. S. ʿAlī Akbar “Kās̲h̲if” b. Raḍī al-Dīn Burqaʿī Qummī, a descendant of Mūsā ’l-Mubarqaʿ b. Imām M. Taqī, was born at Qum on 11 Ramaḍān 1317/13 January 1900 (see Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir, by M. Bāqir Burqaʿī (his son), i p. 190 (portrait and list of twelve published works); M. ʿAlī Mudarris Tabrīzī Raiḥānat al adab i pp. 153–4 (a different portrait and a list of sixteen works); pl. i § 1582, 454a).

Rāh-numā-yi Qum, Tihrān a.h.s. 1317/1938 (az intis̲h̲ārāt i daftar i Āstānah i Qum. Cf. Wilber p. 271; D̲h̲arīʿah x p. 64 no. 73).

§ 305. Aḥmad Ṭāhirī’s Tārīk̲h̲ i Yazd (pl. i § 457e) was published not at Tihrān but at the Gulbahār Press, Yazd, a.h.s. 1317/1938–9 (see Balāg̲h̲ī Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn, farhang p. 5).

§ 306. For the Tārīk̲h̲ i Yazd, completed a.h.s. 1317/1938–9 by ʿAbd al-Ḥusain “Āyatī” (cf. Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir ii pp. 40–3), see pl. i § 457d; Wilber p. 272.

§ 307. Muk̲h̲bir al-Salṭanah Mahdī-qulī K̲h̲ān Hidāyat b. ʿAlī-qulī K̲h̲ān Muk̲h̲bir al-Daulah b. Riḍā-qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat” Amīr al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Māzandarānī (for the last of whom see pl. i § 1225, etc.) succeeded A.C. Millspaugh [presumably in 1927] as Administrator General of Finances. He was Prime Minister in 1929 [?].

[S. Jalāl al-Dīn Ṭihrānī Gāh-nāmah i 1309 p. 249.]

Tuḥfat al-āfāq: Tihrān a.h.s. 1317/1938–9 (762 pp. D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 114,5 where the language, presumably Persian, is not stated).

Presumably this is the Hidāyat who, with Naiyir and Sīnā, was joint author of:

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi muṣawwar i ʿālam: Persia a.h.s. 1317/ 1938–9 (3 vols. See D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 476).

§ 308. ʿAlī Aṣg̲h̲ar S̲h̲amīm.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi ʿumūmī: Persia a.h.s. 1317/1938–9 (D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 474).

Jointly with Naṣr Allāh “Falsafī” he composed:

(1)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi mufaṣṣal i iqtiṣādī, in two volumes ((1) Persia, (2) Great Britain, France and Germany): a.h.s. 1318/1939–40 (D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 478).
(2)
Daurah i jug̲h̲rāfiyā, in five volumes (D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 277 no. 1177, where the date of publication is not stated).

§ 309. Abū ’l-Qāsim S̲h̲ukrāʾī.

Tārīk̲h̲c̲h̲ah i qismatī az bināhā-yi tārīk̲h̲ī i kis̲h̲war, dealing, according to Wilber (p. 276), with a limited number of the more renowned sites, the descriptions based upon published material, the illustrations characteristically unsatisfactory: Iṣfahān a.h.s. 1318/1939.

§ 310. ʿAbbās Kadīwar is the author of a Tārīk̲h̲ i Gīlān printed a.h.s. 1319/1940–1 (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 1166).

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Gīlān: D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 116 no. 475 (where no further particulars are given).

§ 311. “Ras̲h̲īd” Yāsamī119 (cf. pl. i § 1237, 1235a) died on 2 S̲h̲aʿbān 1370/18 Urdībihis̲h̲t 1330/10 May 1951 (see S. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd K̲h̲alk̲h̲ālī Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi muʿāṣir i Īrān, Tihrān a.h.s. 1333/1954–5, p. 181; S.M. ʿAlī Rauḍātī Zindagānī i … āyat Allāh i C̲h̲ahārsūqī, Iṣfahān [1372/1953?] p. 91).

Kurd u paiwastagī i niz̲h̲ādī u tārīk̲h̲ī i ū: Tihrān [n.d.] (see Wilber p. 273).

§ 312. M. Bahman Bahman-Bēgī.

ʿUrf u ʿādat dar ʿas̲h̲āyir i Fārs, a “quite fascinating book” (Wilber): [Tihrān?]120 a.h.s. 1324/1946‡ (90 + 3 pp. Chāpk̲h̲ānah i S̲h̲irkat i Maṭbūʿāt (see back wrapper). Az intis̲h̲ārāt i “Bungāh i Ād̲h̲ar”, K̲h̲iyābān i Saʿdī (so on both title-page and front wrapper, but in my copy these words have been covered with gummed paper). Wilber p. 273).

§ 313. Maḥmūd Bāwar.

Kūhgīlūyah u īlāt i an: Gach-sārān a.h.s. 1324/1945‡ (154 pp. With map, portraits, views and genealogical tables. Portraits of the author on p. 43 and facing pp, 114 and 152).

§ 314. Muhandis M. ʿAlī Muk̲h̲bir “Furūg̲h̲” [S̲h̲īrāzī] b. S̲h̲. M. Kāẓim Fasāʾī was born a.h.s. 1288/1909–10 at S̲h̲īrāz. In 1313/ 1934–5 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs appointed him surveyor (muhandis i naqs̲h̲ah-bardār) to the commissions for the delimitation of the Persian frontiers. [Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir ii p. 215 (portrait).]

(1)
Āt̲h̲ār i tārīk̲h̲ī i Fārs (in Yādgār v/3 (Tihrān a.h.s. 1327) pp. 9–24, v/4–5 (a.h.s. 1327) pp. 9–27. Cf. Wilber p. 274).
(2)
Marzhā-yi Īrān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1324/1945‡ (134 pp. 9 maps. No index).
(3)
Naqs̲h̲ah-bardārī i ʿilmī u ʿamalī: mentioned without date of publication in Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir ii p. 215.
(4)
Naqs̲h̲ah i Īrān: mentioned ibid.

§ 315. General ʿAlī Razm-ārā b. Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Razm-ārā, a professional soldier born a.h.s. 1280/1901–2 and educated at Saint-Cyr, became Army Chief of Staff and finally, in June 1950, Prime Minister. He was assassinated on 7 March 1951 (see The Times 8.3.51; the Daily Telegraph 8.3.51 (portrait)). In the course of his military career he had acquired an extensive knowledge of the geography of his country. Of his published works on this subject the most important is:

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi niẓāmī i Īrān, in numerous volumes (some nineteen121 according to Wilber p. 275) devoted to particular parts of the country (e.g. Eastern Ād̲h̲arbāyjān, 116 pp., Tihrān a.h.s. 1320, Western Ād̲h̲arbāyjān, 103 pp., a.h.s. 1320, Fārs, 207 pp., a.h.s. 1321),122 published, according to Wilber, in the years 1320–5/1941–6, and “of unique value”, though unindexed and poorly edited (see Wilber p. 2763–6, where inconsistent spellings and contradictory statements are referred to).

§ 316. Ḥusain Baṣīrī is presumably identical with H. Bassiri who appears as Director of the Anthropological Museum, Teheran, in The World of Learning, 1955, p. 609.

Rāhnumā-yi Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd: Tihrān a.h.s. 1325/1946 (cf. Wilber p. 273; Probsthain’s Orientalia nova, no. 2 (1946–48) p. 26).

§ 317. K.A. Dānis̲h̲jū.

K̲h̲ūzistān u K̲h̲ūzistāniyān, “an unpretentious account of the author’s travels …” (Wilber): Tihrān a.h.s. 1326/1947 (68 pp. D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 277 no. 1354; Wilber p. 274).

§ 318. Iqbāl Yag̲h̲māʾī.

(1)
Bisṭām u Bāyazīd i Bisṭāmī: Tihrān a.h.s. 1317/ 1938–9 (see Wilber p. 272).
(2)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi tārīk̲h̲ī i Dāmg̲h̲ān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1326/1947–8 (cf. Wilber p. 272).

§ 319. Aḥmad Barīmānī, born at Sārī a.h.s. 1284/1905–6, went to Russia in 1307/1928–9 at the expense of the Perso-Soviet Fishery Company (S̲h̲irkat i S̲h̲īlāt i Īrān u S̲h̲ūrawī) to study ikhthyology and fishery. After his return to Persia he devoted a year to investigations on the south shore of the Caspian Sea and he was subsequently Director of Fisheries in Māzandarān, Gurgān and Gīlān (see ʿAbbās S̲h̲āyān Māzandarān ii pp. 165–6).

Daryā-yi K̲h̲azar yā Daryā-yi Māzandarān, on the history, geography, biology, etc., of the Caspian Sea: Tihrān a.h.s. 1326/1947 (see Wilber p. 274; Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 2 (1946–8) p. 402; D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 147, where the date is given as 1327).

§ 320. ʿAbbās S̲h̲āyān (see pl. i § 1555a).

Māzandarān, in three volumes ((1) auḍāʿ i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī u tārīk̲h̲ī, printed (see Māzandarān ii p. 199), but apparently unprocurable,123 (2) s̲h̲arḥ i aḥwāl i rijāl i muʿāṣir (Tihrān, a.h.s. 1327/1949: see pl. i § 1555a), (3) s̲h̲arḥ i ʿas̲h̲āʾir i būmī u g̲h̲air i būmī i Māzandarān, ādāb u rusūm i maḥallī, amt̲h̲ilah u ḥikāyāt, dānis̲h̲mandān u s̲h̲uʿarāʾī-kih taʾlīfāt i ba-c̲h̲āp rasīdah na-dārand, described in Māzandarān ii p. 199 as not yet printed).

§ 321. Maḥmūd Dānis̲h̲war “Jahān-gard i Īrānī.”

Dīdanīhā u s̲h̲anīdanīhā-yi Īrān, an account of travels in Persia, with special reference to local customs and beliefs, in the years 1324–26/1945–47: Tihrān a.h.s. 1327–29–/1948–50–, in progress? (vol. i (K̲h̲ūzistān, Lāristān, etc.), vol. ii (Fārs (continued), Iṣfahān, Kurdistān, etc.). Illustrated. Firdausī Pr. Cf. D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 290).

§ 322. Dr. Bahman Karīmī,124 described as Fārig̲h̲ al-taḥṣīl i Dār al-Muʿallimīn i ʿĀlī on the wrappers, and as Līsānsiyah125 dar adabīyāt on the title-pages, of at least two of his early publications, has already been mentioned once or twice, and could have been mentioned more often, in the present survey, since he was editor of the S̲h̲īrāz-nāmah (Tihrān a.h.s. 1310/ah 1350/ad 1932: cf. pl. i § 459), the Niẓām al-tawārīk̲h̲ ([Tihrān] a.h.s. 1313/1934–5) and the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ [i Ras̲h̲īdī], vol. ii (Tihrān a.h.s. 1313/1934–5). Among other works edited by him is the Miʿrāj-nāmah (cf. pl. i p. 161, n. 161) ascribed to Ibn Sīnā (Ras̲h̲t a.h.s. 1312/ah 1352 [ad 1934‡]) and he has also published Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim i Qāʾim-maqām, a short biography126 (64 pp., Tihrān [circ. 1950?]), on the back of the front wrapper of which are printed the titles of ten earlier publications of his. He went as representative of the Persian Archaeological Service with Sir Aurel Stein on the tour described in the latter’s Old routes of western Iran (London 1940).

(1)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi tārīk̲h̲ī i mufaṣṣal127 i g̲h̲arb i Īrān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1316 [1937–8] (so D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 115 no. 470), or 1317/1938 (so Wilber p. 276).
(2)
Rāh-hā-yi bāstānī u pāy-tak̲h̲t-hā-yī qadīmī i g̲h̲arb i Īrān (Rapport résumé de quinze mois de voyage … Les anciennes routes de l’Iran), an account of the author’s tour with Sir Aurel Stein: Tihrān a.h.s. 1329/1950 (2 vols. With summary in French. Cf. Wilber p. 276; Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 3 (1949–51) p. 46 no. 712; Thornton’s cat. no. 327/502).
(3)
Rāh-numā-yi āthār i tārīk̲h̲ī i S̲h̲īrāz: Tihrān a.h.s. 1327/1948 (see Wilber p. 273).

§ 323. S. ʿAbd al-Ḥujjah Balāg̲h̲ī,128 as a poet “Ḥujjat” and “Balāg̲h̲ī”, b. Ḥasan Ḥusainī ʿUraiḍī129 was born at Nāʾīn on 24 S̲h̲aʿbān 1302 [1885] (so Ansāb … p. 138), or 1313/a.h.s. 1274 [1896] (so in Tad̲h̲kirat al-qubūr, 2nd ed., preface, p. xi), or 1322 [1904] (so in Tad̲h̲kirah i shuʿarā-yi muʿāṣir i Iṣfahān p. 92) and was educated at Nāʾīn, Iṣfahān and Qum. Then in Tihrān he became the disciple of S̲h̲ams al-ʿUrafāʾ130 and subsequently of D̲h̲ū ’l-Riʾāsatain.131 After the latter’s death he proclaimed himself Quṭb i Silsilah i Niʿmat-Allāhī. In S. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mahdawī’s Tad̲h̲kirah … he is described as having been resident for some years in Tihrān.

[Autobiographical information in Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn i pp. 60–3 (portrait), Ansāb i k̲h̲ānadānhā-yi mardum i Nāʾīn pp. 138–9; S. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mahdawī Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi muʿāṣir i Iṣfahān, Iṣfahān a.h.s. 1334/1955, pp. 92–3 (portrait) as well as pp. xi–xiii (portrait) in the same author’s preface to the 2nd ed. of ʿAbd al-Karīm Jazī’s Tad̲h̲kirat al-qubūr (cf. pl. i § 1539b).]

(1)
Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn, in three maqāms ((a) pp. 1–53, portraits, views, etc., (b) pp. 60–230, geography, biography, and history, (c) [=jild ii], pp. [229, duplicated]–400, dar taḥrīr i tad̲h̲akkurāt i lāzimah, [preceded by separately paginated tables of contents and corrections both to vol. i (pp. xi) and vol. ii (pp. iii)], to which is appended in the same volume but separately paginated (vi (table of contents), 135, [1]):
(2)
Farhang i Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn, [=jild iii], additions and corrections: Tihrān 1369/1949–50‡ (vols. i and ii are evidently a second edition (though not so described on the title-pages), since the tables of contents give references to a c̲h̲āp i awwal and a c̲h̲āp i duwwum).
(3)
Ansāb i k̲h̲ānadānhā-yi mardum i Nāʾīn[= Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn, jild iv], in two daurahs ((1) an alphabetical dictionary of Nāʾīnī families (Imāmī, Pīr-niyā, Pīr-zādah, Ṭabāṭabāʾī Saiyids, etc.) with biographies of their more distinguished members, (2) (p. 134), an alphabetical dictionary of persons, (a) mentioned in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn but not in the Ansāb, with references to the former, (b) mentioned in the Farhang i Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn but not in the Ansāb, with references to the former, (c) not mentioned previously, (d) already mentioned, but now needing supplementary treatment), a k̲h̲ātimah (p. 164), dar tad̲h̲akkurāt i lāzimah, a takmilah (p. 166), further biographical information, taṣāwīr, 37 pictures, mainly portraits, followed by S̲h̲iṭranj al-ʿurafāʾ (= Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn, jild v), a chessboard-like diagram with directions for its use in taking omens, and finally a table of contents (pp. 187–95) and a list of corrections (p. 196): Tihrān 1369–70/1950–1‡ (196 pp. Maẓāhirī Pr.).
(4)
Tārīk̲h̲ u jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi muk̲h̲taṣar i Kās̲h̲mar: printed.
(5)
Tārīk̲h̲ i Najaf i As̲h̲raf u Ḥīrah (of which only vol. i has been printed).
(6)
Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ fī maqāmāt S̲h̲ams al-ʿUrafāʾ, or Zindagānī i S̲h̲ams al-ʿUrafāʾ in three parts, (a) pp. 1–59, Sair i s̲h̲arīʿat u ḥaqīqat dar Īrān, ending with an account of S̲h̲ams al-ʿUrafāʾ (cf. pl. ii § 323), (b) pp. 60–107, Tad̲h̲kirah i gūyā, reproductions of portraits preserved in the k̲h̲ānaqāh of S̲h̲ams al-ʿUrafāʾ in Tihrān, (c) pp. 113–280, alphabetically arranged biographies as far as the letter Ḥ of the persons whose portraits form the Tad̲h̲kirah i gūyā (and of some others), to be continued as vol. ii of the Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ when funds are available: Tihrān ah 1369/1950‡ (vol. i. 292 pp. (281–92 being a table of contents). Maẓāhirī Pr.).

In addition to the foregoing the lists of his works132 mention the following (among others) as having been printed: (1) Miqlād al-ras̲h̲ād fī ’l-muʾannat̲h̲āt al-samāʿīyah wa-’l-aḍdād, in two parts, the first in Arabic, the second in Persian, Gulbahār Press [Iṣfahān?] ah 1343/1924–5 (see Farhang i Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn pp. 4, 62), (2) Zindagānī i ʿAlī b. Sahl i Iṣfahānī, (3) Tārīk̲h̲ i anbiyāʾ i ulū ’l-ʿazm, and (4) Naqd al-Rauḍāt, or Ag̲h̲lāṭ al-Rauḍāt.133

Among his unpublished works is mentioned Dāʾirat al-maʿārif, a Persian translation in six volumes of Ḥusain Nūrī’s134 Arabic biography of M. Bāqir Majlisī entitled al-Faiḍ al-qudsī (see Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ, plate facing p. 24).

§ 324. The Persian Ministry of the Interior has published:

Asāmī i dihāt i kis̲h̲war, a list of 41,521 villages arranged according to administrative divisions without any general index: Tihrān a.h.s. 1323/1944–5 (see D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 240 n. 1 and Jug̲h̲rāfiyā u asāmī i dihāt i kis̲h̲war, vol. ii, preface, p. 1126).

An enlarged and improved edition of that work is:

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā u asāmī i dihāt i kis̲h̲war (so on the title-pages), or Asāmī i dihāt u jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi kis̲h̲war (so in the prefaces), the names of villages (without transliteration and, except in rare cases, without any indication of the vocalization) arranged alphabetically under their dihistāns, which in turn are similarly grouped under the s̲h̲ahristāns and these latter under the ustāns, which are in the order of their official numbers, each ustān and each s̲h̲ahristān being prefaced by a brief geographical and historical introduction (without any general index): Tihrān a.h.s. 1329–31/1950–2 (3 vols., devoted respectively to ustāns 1–4, 5–8 and 9, 10. With folding maps of the ustāns. Az Nas̲h̲rīyāt i Idārah i Āmār u Sar-s̲h̲umārī. Majlis Pr.).

§ 325. S. Nūr al-Dīn Imām, a descendant of S. ʿAbd Allāh S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī (cf. pl. i § 486) and the grandson, great-grandson, and great-great-grandson of imām-jumʿahs (whence presumably the family name Imām), was born at S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar on 1 Muḥarram 1317/ 12 May 1899 and died there on 25 Urdībihis̲h̲t 1324/15[?] May 1945, after devoting twenty years to the collection of materials for a history of K̲h̲ūzistān. After his death his younger brother S.M. ʿAlī Imām S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī undertook the work of preparing these materials for the press. [Tārīk̲h̲ i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī …, preface, where portraits of the joint authors are given on pp. vii and ix.]

Tārīk̲h̲ i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i K̲h̲ūzistān, the first of two parts (jild) of the first (preliminary) volume (mujallad), to be followed, if circumstances are favourable, by the second preliminary jild (on the economic and cultural history) and by the four remaining mujalladāt (on the political history): [Tihrān] a.h.s. 1331/1953‡ (286 pp. Illustrated. Genealogical tree of the author at beginning: map at end. Muʾassasah i Maṭbūʿātī i Amīr i Kabīr).

§ 326. Karīm Nīk-zād Amīr-Ḥusainī, is an official of the Archaeological Service at Iṣfahān.135

(1)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā u tārīk̲h̲ i C̲h̲ahār Maḥāll u Bak̲h̲tyārī:136 [Iṣfahān] a.h.s. 1331/1952‡ (vol. i, pp. [x], 177, [5], (Sāmān, p. 98, C̲h̲āls̲h̲utur or C̲h̲ālis̲h̲tur, p. 137, Is̲h̲kaftik, p. 174, and Zāniyān, p. 175).137 Portrait, presumably of the author, on p. [178]. Preface (pp. v–vii) by Jaʿfar Āl i Ibrāhīm. Gītī Press).
(2)
Tārīk̲h̲-c̲h̲ah i bināhā-yi tārīk̲h̲ī i Iṣfahān: mentioned without further particulars in Mahdawī’s Tad̲h̲kirah … [see pl. ii § 323] p. 76.

§ 327. ʿAlī Sāmī had been Director of the Archaeological Institute of Persepolis (Raʾīs i Bungāh i ʿilmī i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd) for fourteen years in March 1954, when R.N. Sharp’s translation of his “brief and summary accounts” of Persepolis was published. A portrait is given at the end of his Āt̲h̲ār i bāstānī i julgah i Marw-das̲h̲t, and on the back of the front cover of the same work there is a list of his other works, namely (1) Guzāris̲h̲ i ḥaffārīhā-yi Pāsārgād, (2) K̲h̲aṭṭ u taḥawwul i ān dar s̲h̲arq i bāstān … [S̲h̲īrāz a.h.s. 1329/1950–1: see Thornton’s cat. no. 335/1517], (3) Pāsārgād … [i.e. no. (2) below], (4) Guzāris̲h̲ i ḥaffārīhā-yi dah-sālah i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd, and (5) in preparation, S̲h̲arḥ i mufaṣṣal i āt̲h̲ār i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd.

(1)
At̲h̲ār i bāstānī i julgah i Marw-das̲h̲t: [S̲h̲īrāz] a.h.s. 1331/1953‡ (206 pp. Illustrated. Muṣṭafawī Pr.).
(2)
Pāsārgād, yā qadīmtarīn pāy-tak̲h̲t i Kis̲h̲war i S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āhī i Īrān: S̲h̲īrāz [a.h.s. 1330/1951‡] (120 pp.; plates, plans, folding map. Maʿrifat Bookshop. Muṣṭafawī Pr.).

English translation: Pasargadae. The oldest imperial capital of Iran … Translated by R.N. Sharp.138 S̲h̲īrāz (Publications of the Learned Society of Pars, no. 4. See Luzac’s O.L. lxvii/3 (July–Sept. 1956) p. 45).

(3)
Persepolis (Takht-i-Jamshid) by Ali Sami … Translated [not from a published work,139 but from “brief and summary accounts” prepared by ʿAlī Sāmī for translation (see his introduction)] by the Reverend R.N. Sharp, M.A., Cantab.140 … [with an introduction of two pages by ʿAlī Sāmī], S̲h̲īrāz 1954‡ (71 pp. Numerous plates, folding plan. Publication No. 2 of the Learned Society of Pars. Musavi Printing Office): 2nd ed. S̲h̲īrāz (see Luzac’s Oriental List, lxvii/3 (July–Sept. 1956) p. 46; Afs̲h̲ār 1333 p. 19).

§ 328. The Geographical Section of the General Staff of the Persian Army (Dāyirah i Jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i Sitād i Artis̲h̲) under the superintendence of its chief (Raʾīs), General Ḥusain-ʿAlī Razmārā,141 and with the collaboration of numerous officers,142 whose names are recorded in the prefaces, has prepared and published:

Farhang i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i Iran (ābādīhā),143 a dictionary in ten volumes, each devoted to a single ustān,144 under which the places are arranged in alphabetical order with information concerning the pronunciation of the name (indicated by a transliteration in the roman character,145 except in vol. i, where only 98 names146 are so transliterated at the end of the volume) and other matters up to twenty-five in number (listed in vol. i p. [vi]), such as position, population, industry, climate, historic buildings and crops (unfortunately without any general index to the whole work): [Tihrān] a.h.s. 1328–32/1949–53‡ (10 vols. Folding maps of the s̲h̲ahristāns and, from vol. iv onwards, views of ancient buildings, etc. Az intis̲h̲ārāt i Dāyirah i Jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i Sitād i Artis̲h̲. C̲h̲āp-k̲h̲ānah i Artis̲h̲. See Wilber p. 276; Farhang i Īrān-zamīn ii (1333/1954–5) p. 290 (a review of vol. x (Iṣfahān, Yazd)); bsoas. xix/1 (1957) pp. 58–9 (a description by V. Minorsky)).

Other publications of the Geographical Section are:

(1)
Rāh-numā-yi Hamadān, prepared for the millenary of Ibn Sīnā by Muṣṭafawī (cf. p. 158 infra), Jawād Kāmbīz (Mudīr i Dāʾirah i Ḥaffārī u Āt̲h̲ār i Millī dar Idārah i Kull i Bāstān-s̲h̲ināsī (see Muṣṭafawī’s Hagmatānah, preface, p. xi), doubtless the same person as Dj. Cambyse, who appears in The world of learning 1956 as one of the curators of the Archæological Museum, Tihrān), Ṣādiq Waḥdat, Prof. D̲h̲abīḥ Allāh Ṣafā and others: [Tihrān?] a.h.s. 1331/1952–3‡ (54 pp., plates, 2 maps. Chāp i Tābān).

English translation: by “H.A.S. Pessyan”, “Tihrān, 1953” (51 pp., plan and plates. See Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 4/1 (1952–5) p. 73/1323).

(2)
Rāh-numā-yi s̲h̲ahr i Tihrān: a.h.s. 1328/1950 (see Farhang i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i Irān, vol. iii, preface, pp. i, iii, in the second of which places the Geographical Section was stated to be preparing separate guides for each s̲h̲ahristān and a general guide to Persia).

§ 329. S.M. Taqī Muṣṭafawī, Director General of Archæology (Raʾīs i Idārah i Kull i Bāstān-s̲h̲ināsī)147 and since 1327/1948148 Secretary of the Persian Archæological Society (Dabīr i Anjuman i Āt̲h̲ār i Millī), was at one time Director of the Archæological Institute of Persepolis (Raʾīs i Bungāh i ʿilmī i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd).

(1)
Hagmatānah: āt̲h̲ār i tārīk̲h̲ī i Hamadān u faṣlī dar bārah i Abū ʿAlī i Sīnā, [Tihrān?] a.h.s. 1332/1953‡ (278 pp. Illustrated. C̲h̲āp i Tābān).
(2)
S̲h̲arḥ i ijmālī i āt̲h̲ār i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd:Tihrān 1954” (51 pp., plan and plates. See Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 4/1 (1952–5) p. 73/1324).

It has already been mentioned (pl. ii 328 (1)) that he was one of the contributors to the Rāh-numā-yi Hamadān. Another publication containing contributions from his pen is the Guzāris̲h̲hā-yi bāstān-s̲h̲ināsī issued under his editorship (for vols. i and ii of which (Tihrān a.h.s. 1329–30/1951–2, with plates and maps) see Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 4/1 (1952–5) p. 73/1321 and Thornton’s cat. 331 [1955] p. 27/912 and for a review of vol. iii (Tihrān a.h.s. 1334; 546 pp.) Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iv/3 (a.h.s. 1335) p. 307).

§ 330. Dr. Muḥammad Mukrī, the son of ʿAbd Allāh Ḥasan-Ṣafarī, is a Bābā-Mīrī149 Mukrī Kurd born at Kirmāns̲h̲āh a.h.s. 1298/1910–11. He is, or was, Director of Education for the Īlāt and ʿAs̲h̲āyir (cf. ʿAs̲h̲āyir i Kurd, i, preface, p. i (… riyāsat i idārah i taʿlīmāt i īlāt u ʿas̲h̲āyir); Suk̲h̲anwarān i nāmī i muʿāṣir p. 217 (portrait); another portrait on dust cover of the Farhang i Fārsī). Seventeen of his published works, including articles contributed to periodicals, are enumerated in a list printed on the back of the title-page of the ʿAs̲h̲āyir i Kurd, vol. i. Several are concerned with Kurdistān, its literature and dialects (cf. Farhang i Īrān-zamīn i/1 (1332) p. 29, iii/1 (1334) p. 89). Others are (1) Farhang i Fārsī,150 vol. i (alif-d̲h̲āl), Tihrān 1333/1954 (for a review see Farhang i Īrān-zamīn ii (1333/ 1954–5) p. 290) and (2) Andarz i K̲h̲usrau i Qubādān (Pahlawī text with introduction, translation, notes and glossary), Tihrān 1326, 2nd ed. 1329.

ʿAs̲h̲āyir i Kurd. 1. Īl i Sinjābī: tārīk̲h̲-c̲h̲ah, jug̲h̲rāfiyā, tīrah-hā. [Tihrān a.h.s. 1333/1954–5.151 2nd ed.152] (127 pp. Kitāb-k̲h̲ānah i Dānis̲h̲).

§ 331. Fatḥ Allāh Ḥakīmī is Professor of Political and Military Geography in the Military University (Dānis̲h̲-gāh i Jang) at Tihrān.

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi siyāsī u niẓāmī i mamālik i ham-jiwār: Tihrān a.h.s. 1333/1955‡ (198 pp.; several plates; 1 map; portrait of author at end. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42).

§ 332. Jalāl Āl-Aḥmad153 is the author of Dīd u bāz-dīd (“majmūʿah i dāstān” (Afs̲h̲ār), Tihrān 1324/1945: cf. Probsthain’s Orientalia nova 1 (1944–6) p. 15; 2nd ed. (with the same author’s Haft maqālah, 1st ed.), Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 23a) and of Sargud̲h̲as̲h̲t i Kandūhā (a tale: cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 23a). He has published translations of two works by André Gide, namely, Bāz-gas̲h̲t az S̲h̲ūrawī (Afs̲h̲ār 1333 p. 3b) and Māʾidah-hā-yi zamīnī (Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 34b).

Aurāzān: waḍʿ i maḥall, ādāb u rusūm, fulk-lōr, lahjah (English title at other end of the book: Owrāzān: topography, dialect, folklore &c). [on a village, pop. 684, in upper Ṭāliqān,154 s̲h̲ahristān of Tihrān]: Tihrān a.h.s. 1333/1954‡ (63 pp. Dar rāh i dānis̲h̲ (Towards learning), 4. Ketab-Khaneh Danesh. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 29. For a review see Farhang i Īrān-zamīn ii (a.h.s. 1333/1954–5) p. 288).

§ 333. Taqī Bahrāmī, Professor of the Principles of Breeding in the Faculty of Agriculture in the University of Tihrān,155 is the author of numerous books and pamphlets on agriculture (see the list printed on the two pages following p. 678 in the Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi kas̲h̲āwarzī i Īrān).

Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi kas̲h̲āwarzī i Īrān: Tihrān a.h.s. 1333/ 1954–5 (678 pp. Tihrān Univ. Publications, no. 234. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42).

§ 334. Ḥasan ʿĀbidī, muhandis i ṣanāyiʿ u kār-k̲h̲ānah-hā.

Iṣfahān az liḥāẓ i ijtimāʿī u iqtiṣādī: [Iṣfahān] a.h.s. 1334/1955‡ (244 pp. ʿIrfān Press. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42).

§ 335. Ismāʿīl Dībāj.

Rāhnumā-yi āt̲h̲ār i tārīk̲h̲ī i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān i s̲h̲arqī: Tabrīz a.h.s. 1334/1955‡ (S̲h̲afaq Pr. 102 pp., 25 plates. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 46b).

§ 336. Aḥmad Iqtidārī is the author of Farhang i Lāristānī (a glossary of 5,000 words in the dialects of Lāristān. Tihrān a.h.s. 1334. 296 pp. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334/1955–6 p. 29a; Thornton’s cat. 335 [1956], no. 1278) and of articles on Lārī proverbs and Lārī dū-baitīs (for both of which see Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/1 (1334) p. 91a).

Lāristān i kuhan: taḥqīq dar bārah i Lāristān i qadīm, on the geography,156 history and biography of Lāristān (including, on pp. 150–205, chronologically arranged biographies of Lārī scholars compiled by M. Amīn K̲h̲unjī): Tihrān a.h.s. 1334/ 1955‡ (221 pp. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42).

§ 337. Ḥabīb-Allāh Ṣamadī, Mūzah-dār i Mūzah i Īrān i Bāstān (= H. Samadi, who appears in The World of learning, 1956, as one of the four curators of the Archæological Museum, Tihran).

(1)
Rāh-numā-yi Mūzah i Āstān i Quds i Raḍawī (a publication of the Shrine of Imām Riḍā at Mas̲h̲had. 80 pp. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 46b. Cf. Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/4 (a.h.s. 1334) p. 397).
(2)
Wīrānah-hā-yi S̲h̲ūs̲h̲: [Tihrān?] (preface dated S̲h̲ūs̲h̲, Bahman-māh 1333 [Jan.–Feb. 1955‡]. 88 pp. Illustrated. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 46b. Cf. Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/1 (a.h.s. 1334) p. 102).

§ 338. G̲h̲ulām-Riḍā Riyāḍī.

Rāh-numā-yi Mas̲h̲had: Zawwār’s Bookshop [Tihrān], a.h.s. 1334/1955‡ (280 pp. Illustrations. 1 map. Cf. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42b).

§ 339. ʿAlī Naqī Bihrūzī published in 1320–2/1942–3 in the Tihrān periodical Gulhā-yi rangārang a number of articles relating to tales, proverbs and songs in the dialect of S̲h̲irāz (see Afs̲h̲ār Kitāb-s̲h̲ināsī i zabānhā u lahjah-hā-yi Īrānī (in Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/1 (1334)) p. 85).

S̲h̲ahr i S̲h̲īrāz yā k̲h̲āl i ruk̲h̲ i haft kis̲h̲war:S̲h̲īrāz (224 pp. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42a).

§ 340. Mahdī Bāmdād.

Āt̲h̲ār i tārīk̲h̲ī i Kalāt u Sarak̲h̲s: Tihrān (46 pp. Anjuman i Āt̲h̲ār i Millī, publication no. 30. See Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 46b).

§ 341. Manūc̲h̲ihr Sutūdah (Manoochehr Sotoodeh according to the English title-page of Jams̲h̲īd Surūs̲h̲ Surūs̲h̲iyān’s Farhang i Bih-dīnān edited by him, Tihrān 1956) is the author of Farhang i Gīlakī (Tihrān a.h.s. 1332/1953–4, 272 pp., a publication of the Anjuman i Īrān-s̲h̲ināsī) and of several articles on Gīlakī proverbs, songs, etc. (see Afs̲h̲ār Kitāb-s̲h̲ināsī i zabānhā u lahjah-hā-yi Īrānī (in Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/1 (1334)) p. 90).

(1)
Qalʿah i Alamūt (in Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iii/1 (a.h.s. 1334/1955) pp. 5–21).
(2)
Qaṣrān i Raiy (in Yādgār v/10 (a.h.s. 1328/1949) pp. 55–64).

[The mention of these two articles (and a few others) does not by any means imply that I have systematically examined the Persian and other periodicals. This will be a task for my successors which may well yield a fairly rich harvest.]

§ 342. Bāstānī Pārīzī.

Rāh-numā-yi āt̲h̲ār i tārīk̲h̲ī i Kirmān, an appendix (125 pp.) to the Farhang i Ustān i Has̲h̲tum (sāl i taḥṣīlī 1334–5): see Farhang i Īrān-zamīn iv/3 (1335) p. 310.

§ 344. Appendix.

(1)
Āmār i sāliyānah i rūdk̲h̲ānah-hā-yi Īrān, no. 6 (161 pp. Bungāh i Mustaqill i Ābyārī. Afs̲h̲ār 1334 p. 42).
(2)
Daftar-chah i masāfāt i rāh-numā-yi kis̲h̲war: Tihrān 1327/1948 (212 pp. Az nas̲h̲rīyāt i Wizārat i Rāh. Reviewed very briefly in Yādgār v/8–9 (a.h.s. 1327/1948) p. 153).
(3)
Hazār mazār, a popular title for the Arabic work S̲h̲add al-izār: see pl. i § 1559.
(4)
Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Balūc̲h̲istān, composed circ. 1315/ 1897–8 by S̲h̲. Maḥmūd Afḍal al-Mulk b. M. Jaʿfar Kirmānī (b. 1267/1850–1, d. at Iṣfahān 1322/1904–5: see a short biography (with portrait) by his nephew ʿAṭāʾ al-Mulk Rūḥī in Yādgār v/8–9 pp. 86–9), who served under Ḥājī G̲h̲ulām-Riḍā K̲h̲ān Āṣaf al-Daulah, Governor of Kirmān and Balūc̲h̲istān, during a pacification of the latter province:157 Yādgār v/8–9 (a.h.s. 1328/1949) pp. 85–113.
(5)
Kitāb-c̲h̲ah i Rān i Kūh u Langarūd: Browne Coll. Sup. 8 (16 foll., sent by H.L. Rabino to E.G. Browne on 11.4.1914).

next chapter: 5.1 Medicine (1)

Notes

^ Back to text1. This title is given, ostensibly at least in the translator’s own words, at the end of Flügel ii 1271. The colophon of that ms. describes it as a work of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī. According to the colophon of the Leningrad Acad. ms. C 610 (Miklukho-Maklai i 1) the translator was Abū ’l-Maḥāsin M. b. Ṣāʿid (or Saʿd, or Saʿīd) b. M. Nak̲h̲c̲h̲uwānī known as Ibn i Sāwajī [who in the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās (ah 985–1038/1587–1629) translated the magical work Ḥall al-mus̲h̲kilāt (see Ibn Sīnā Kunūz al-muʿazzimīn, Tihrān a.h.s. 1331, editor’s introduction, p. 12, Edwards col. 684 (Ṭamṭam), D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 74, and, for other translations, Edwards col. 133 (Āṣaf), Ethé 2804 (2))].

^ Back to text2. Beg.: Praise be to God, the origin of all good! and may the blessing of God be on Mohammed, the Prince of Prophets! Thus says the author of the work: “My design …”

^ Back to text3. 212 pp., lacking the last leaf and purchased “about three years ago”: see Ouseley’s trans. pp. iii ult., 281. This ms. is not among the Ouseley mss. in the Bodleian, which are the collection of Sir William Ouseley’s brother, Sir Gore Ouseley (1770–1844: see dnb. and Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography p. 324).

^ Back to text4. 1767–1842: see the dnb.

^ Back to text5. Apparently called ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Salām in a clumsily worded subscription in the later of the two mss. described by Rieu.

^ Back to text6. For Jaihānī see A false Jaihānī by V. Minorsky in bsoas xiii/1 (1949) pp. 89–96, and the authorities there cited.

^ Back to text7. I.e. evidently M. b. As. b. ʿA. A. Ḥanafī Tustarī, for whom see pl. i § 202.

^ Back to text8. So in the preface.

^ Back to text9. Cf. Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, ed. de Goeje, p. 2 n.b., where 81/2 lines are quoted from the beginning.

^ Back to text10. Gotha 35 fol. 1b: u nām i muṣannif ba-d-ān bāqī bi-mānad.

^ Back to text11. The same title as that chosen in the next century by Qazwīnī.

^ Back to text12. Possibly al-Ṭabarsī (or al-Ṭabrisī).

^ Back to text13. The headings ((1) fī ʿajāʾib al-ajrām al-ʿulwīyah, (2) fī ’l-ʿajāʾib al-ḥādit̲h̲ah bain al-samāʾ wa-’l-arḍ; etc.) are given in the Berlin cat. p. 366 and in the Vienna cat. ii p. 514, and more fully in Persian from the preface in the Gotha cat. pp. 59–60.

^ Back to text14. The date 665/1266–7 given by Blochet as that of the completion of the work by the author is presumably a date of transcription reproduced in a later ms.

^ Back to text15. This title occurs on fol. 188b (presumably at the beginning of “Part ii”) in the Leningrad ms. The work is called ʿAjāʾib al-as̲h̲yāʾ in the spurious exordium of the Browne ms., but ʿAjāʾib al-dunyā seems to occur elsewhere in that ms., since Browne gives it as an alternative title.

^ Back to text16. See J. Ruska’s Ḳazwīnīstudien (in Der Islam iv (1913) pp. 14–66 and 236–62), where four editions are distinguished on the basis of an examination of the chapters relating to minerals and mankind.

^ Back to text17. The classification which follows is merely tentative.

^ Back to text18. “Von den mir bekannt gewordenen persischen Übersetzungen gibt die schwer lesbare Handschrift Q [i.e. Berlin 345] den besten Text, P [i.e. Berlin 346] scheint weiter vom Original abzuliegen, T [i.e. the Ṭihrān lithograph of 1283] ist ein schon stark verdorbener Text, der aber doch, wie mir scheint, näher zu Q als zu P gehört.” (Ruska in Der Islam iv/2 (1913) p. 260.) In the chapter on minerals “Die lithographierte Ausgabe von Teheran [1283] … ist die lückenhafteste; so fehlen z.B. sāmtliche magnetischen Steine, und zahlreiche Artikel sind stark gekürzt” (ibid. iv/1–2 p. 17).

^ Back to text19. “The same form of name is found in an addition to Haj. Khal., vol. iv p. 189, in the Bodleian ms., and in other copies; see de Sacy’s Chrestomathie, vol. iii p. 444” (Rieu ii p. 464a).

^ Back to text20. ʿAjāʾib in some of the mss. (incorrectly, it seems).

^ Back to text21. Bāb 1, entitled Ṭāmmat al-kubrā (beg. K̲h̲āliq al-k̲h̲alqi wa-hwa Maulānā), is a kind of preliminary discourse (apparently unconnected with Qazwīnī’s work) on creation in general (ms.: Ethé 709 (1)). Bāb 3, entitled ʿAjāʾib al-aʿlā (no mss. recorded?), corresponds, according to Ethé, with Maqālah i of Qazwīnī’s work and deals with the ʿulwīyāt. Bāb 4, entitled Saʿy al-Ṣafā (or Saʿy i Ṣafā. No mss. recorded?) is apparently the work written by the author at Mecca containing an account of the Kaʿbah and the ceremonies of the pilgrimage (see Sprenger p. 315; Daulat-S̲h̲āh p. 399 penult.; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah p. 241).

^ Back to text22. S̲h̲. Jalāl al-Dīn [?] Ḥamzah [?] Isfarāyinī, a disciple of S. Niʿmat Allāh Walī [d. 834/1431: see pl. i § 1269, no. (1), etc.] and a panegyrist of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ [d. 850/1447] and other rulers, went to India after a pilgrimage to Mecca and lived for a time at the court of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Bahmanī [reigned 825–38/1422–35]. On his return to Isfarāyin, where he died in 866/1461–2, he fulfilled a promise made to Aḥmad S̲h̲āh by sending to Bīdar periodical instalments of a Bahman- nāmah [no mss. recorded?], in which, according to Firis̲h̲tah, he narrated the history down to the reign of Humāyūn S̲h̲āh Bahmanī [862–5/1457–61], later continuations being the work of “Naẓīrī”, “Sāmiʿī” and other poets. For his life see Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 398–412; Laṭāʾif-nāmah pp. 18–22; Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq no. 73; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, p. 173; Haft iqlīm no. 788; Majālis al-muʾminīn pp. 306–9 (towards end of Majlis 6); Firis̲h̲tah i pp. 32523–326; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 21–4; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 35; Sprenger pp. 315–6; Rieu i 43; Bānkīpūr xvi p. 50. For his Ṣūfī work, the Jawāhir al-asrār, written in 840/1436–7, see Sprenger 75, Ivanow-Curzon 429–30, Rieu i 43, Blochet i 123, Bānkīpūr xvi 1380, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 17 no. 92 (perhaps also p. 14 no. 49), Bodleian 1269, Majlis 758, Āṣafīyah iii p. 194 no. 1502, and for his dīwān, or selections from it, see Sprenger 74, Mehren 117, Blochet iii 1969, 1974, Dorn 472, Ivanow 606, Bodleian 884, Dresden 177 (3).

^ Back to text23. It will be noticed that this date is inconsistent with the dates given elsewhere for ʿAlī Ṭāhirī’s translation.

^ Back to text24. Cf. pl. ii § 197, 200, 202, 209.

^ Back to text25. ʿAbd al-MʿĀL according to Blochet, whose transliteration is Abd el-Moual.

^ Back to text26. Cf. Mongol’skie nazvaniya zhivotnykh v trude Khamdallakha Kazvini, by N.N. Poppe (in Zapiski Kollegii Vostokovedov i (1925) pp. 195–208).

^ Back to text27. M. b. Yaḥyā according to J.H. Kramers in the article D̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā, Ency. Isl. Suppt. p. 70a, where a reference is given to “Salemann, Mélanges Asiatiques, x [read ix?] 493 sqq.”. A Ṣuwar al-aqālīm, “written in India by Muḥammad B. Yaḥyā” (Rieu i p. 423a) is mentioned by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū as one of the sources for his geographical work. Blochet doubted whether that work could be identical with the Ṣ. al-a. (?) composed in 748, since the latter work was apparently written in Kirmān, not in India.

^ Back to text28. No title is mentioned in the work itself, but it is called Ṣ. al-a. on some title-pages and in some colophons (e.g. Ethé 708, both title-page and colophon).

^ Back to text29. The correct title is unknown.

^ Back to text30. The preface thus introduced is followed by another (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Qādirī rā kih bisāṭ i aflāk rā (cf. Rieu i p. 423b), or, as in other mss. (cf. Rieu iii 991a, Bodleian col. 23), Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-ʿadad Qādirī rā sazad kih mas̲h̲rab i aḥadīyatas̲h̲), which appears from Rieu’s description (i p. 423b) to be a form of the preface to the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū (cf. pl. i § 117). The Istānbūl mss. of that work described by Tauer begin differently (Fihrist i kitāb i dāstānhā u fad̲h̲ālik i ḥisāb i bayānhā ḥ. u t̲h̲. u āfrīn i Mālik al-Mulkī tuwānad [būd] kih).

^ Back to text31. So ʿAbd al-Muqtadir, but it is not clear whether this vocalisation is conjectural or not. In the Āṣafīyah catalogue the word is written bstgī. The correct reading may be Bastakī, from Bastak near Lār.

^ Back to text32. In the Āṣafīyah catalogue the title is given as ʿAjāʾib al-mak̲h̲lūqāt and the work is described as tarjamah i ʿA. al-m. i ʿArabī. ʿAbd al-Muqtadir describes it as a translation, not of al-Qazwīnī’s ʿA. al-m., but of “another Arabic cosmographical work containing similar matter”.

^ Back to text33. This title, not mentioned in the work itself, is written in the ʿunwān of the ms. described by Rieu. Ḥ. K̲h̲. mentions the work under Masālik al-mamālik.

^ Back to text34. Majlis 619(5) is evidently another copy of this k̲h̲ātimah and there is one more (according to information received from A.J. Arberry) at the London School of Oriental and African Studies (Persian 32).

^ Back to text35. It may be noted that the title ʿAjāʾib al-buldān is that by which this book is cited as a work of ʿAbd al-ʿAlī Birjandī in the Majmaʿ al-g̲h̲arāʾib of Sulṭān-Muḥammad Balk̲h̲i (see the passage reproduced on p. 6512 of Miklukho-Maklai’s catalogue).

^ Back to text36. In the Bombay edition of 1273/1857 this appendix fills 48 separately numbered pages at the end of vol. iii, pt. 4.

^ Back to text37. Circ. 977/1569–70 according to Miklukho-Maklai, who finds evidence (which he does not quote) for this approximate date on fol. 21a [apparently at the end of ch. 2] in his ms. no. 15. Before final acceptance of this date the passage in question would need investigation as a possible addition to the original text.

^ Back to text38. Not earlier than 983/1575–6 according to Miklukho-Maklai, who doubtless based his opinion on the fact that in the chapter on dates [as given (ch. 17) in his ms. no. 15 and also (ch. 20) in Kahl 66] the last event recorded is an occurrence of that year. Here again the possibility that this is a later insertion must be considered. In the Mis̲h̲kāt ms. the last event is a death in 1003.

^ Back to text39. Cf. Ency. Isl. under ʿAbd Allāh b. Iskandar (Barthold).

^ Back to text40. For the Persian headings of ch. 8–20 see Kahl. In view of the rarity of Kahl’s catalogue I have thought it worth while to reproduce the headings of ch. 15–20.

^ Back to text41. This title, probably spurious, but perhaps acceptable provisionally, comes from Bodleian 421, but whether it occurs in the text or merely on a title-page is not stated. On the title-page of Bānkīpūr vii 635 the work is called ʿAjāʾib al-buldān. Other mss. have Risālah i haiʾat or the like.

^ Back to text42. 125, possibly for 1025 rather than 1205, as suggested by Ethé.

^ Back to text43. For a short untitled tract of three leaves (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a. b. bi-dān-kih jamāʿatī az ahl i ʿilm) dealing in questions and answers with places of pilgrimage in Mecca, Hebron, Jerusalem, Damascus, Bag̲h̲dād and al-Kūfah and described as by K̲h̲wājah M. b. M. b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥāfiẓī al-Buk̲h̲ārī (K̲h̲wājah M. Pārsā, d. at al-Madīnah in 822/1420: cf. pl. i § 13) see Leningrad Acad. i (Miklukho-Maklai) p. 45 nos. 28 (“Aḥwālāt i Makkah i Muʿaẓẓzamah”, dated 984/1576) and 29 (“Risālah dar auṣāf i Kaʿbah”, slightly defective, 19th cent.).

^ Back to text44. Nadir, not Nādir nor Nad̲h̲r, (ndr, with dāl, not d̲h̲āl: see the page reproduced from the oldest Leningrad ms. in Miklukho-Maklai’s catalogue, p. 81b, l. 13) seems to be the correct spelling of this name, though the spelling Nad̲h̲r Muḥammad K̲h̲ān is usual in the works of Indian writers (the names Nad̲h̲r Muḥammad and Nad̲h̲r ʿAlī being in fact current in India). ndr Muḥammad K̲h̲ān is the spelling used in the lithographed text of the Tārīk̲h̲ i ʿālam-ārāy i ʿAbbāsī (vol. iii p. 677 penult.: cf. vol. ii p. 588 penult. (ndr M. Sulṭān) and vol. iii p. 65313 (ndr Ṭag̲h̲āy)) as well as in the writings of Russian scholars presumably familiar with Jānid names.

^ Back to text45. The fixation is not precise enough to save J.C. from some obvious misspellings in his English translation. The list, 57 pages in J.C.’s translation, foll. 17–26 in Bodleian 104, is unfortunately rather short, but it is not without interest.

^ Back to text46. Apparently not Norberg’s translation of Ḥ. K̲h̲.’s Jihān-numā, but the work is placed here provisionally.

^ Back to text47. Presumably the same person as “Jān Dāʾūd Khān”, who with M. Ḥusain (doubtless the Farāhānī mentioned below) translated into Persian the descriptions of the lion and the tiger from Buffon’s Natural History (Muk̲h̲taṣarī dar tauṣīf i aḥwāl i baʿḍī az ḥayawānāt, Vienna 1856°, 57 pp., ed. H.A. Barb (cf. pl. i p. § 490). See Edwards col. 3561).

^ Back to text48. Cf. pl. i § 430.

^ Back to text49. Possibly a ms. incorrectly described as c̲h̲hāpah.

^ Back to text50. In the Ras̲h̲aḥāt al-funūn some at least of the mss. give the name (doubtless incorrectly) as A. al-D. K̲h̲. b. S. A. ’l-M. b. S. A. K̲h̲. al-Ḥ. al-H.

^ Back to text51. See ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ ii pp. 380–5 (cf. Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah ii, 1, p. 322).

^ Back to text52. Cf. the observations of S. Sulaimān Nadwī in the Proceedings of the Idara-i-Maarif-i-Islamia, first session, held at Lahore 15th and 16th April, 1933, Lahore, 1935, p. 6 (see pl. ii p. 13 n. 34).

^ Back to text53. For an estimate of the cost of the Tāj-Maḥall said to have been drawn up by Rudra Dās, the Mus̲h̲rif, in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s fourth year, ah 1040, the date of Mumtāz-Maḥall’s death, (8 foll.), see Berlin 538.

^ Back to text54. A well-known Calcutta newspaper.

^ Back to text55. Beginning “A very brief epitome regarding Banu Begam (usually addressed as Mumtáz-i-Mahall, i.e., the chosen of the Seraglio) and well-known as Táj-Bibi (i.e., Crown Lady) … Also the names of the artisans and description of the various stones used—also the monthly salaries … It is related that the King Sháh Jahán (the conqueror) had four sons and four daughters.”

^ Back to text56. The river on which Lucknow, Sulṭānpūr and Jaunpūr stand, a tributary of the Ganges.

^ Back to text57. If “Kalyakāni” is a misprint or a clerical error for Kalyākānī, the correct reading might possibly be Gulpāyagānī.

^ Back to text58. “Finished” in Margoliouth’s terminology seems to mean sometimes “finished by the author” (e.g. Eton 36, 39) and sometimes “finished by the copyist” (e.g. Eton 54). It is not clear which is intended here.

^ Back to text59. Lieut.-Col. Francis Wilford, b. circ. 1760 in Hanover, d. 4 Sept. 1822 at Benares, was sent in 1781 as lieutenant with the Hanoverian reinforcements to the British troops in India. He acquired a knowledge of Sanskrit, was one of the first members of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and from 1787 to 1822 contributed to the Asiatick researches a number of fanciful and highly unreliable articles on mythological and other subjects (see the notice by Klaproth in Michaud’s Biographie universelle, vol. 50 (Paris 1827) pp. 550–1, nouvelle édition (Paris 1854–66), vol. 44 p. 608; Joseph Thomas’s Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology, 3rd ed., Philadelphia (Lippincott) 1901; etc.).

^ Back to text60. Antar-bed, antar-bedī, s.f. The region of Kannauj lying between the Ganges and the Jamnā, commonly called the Do’āb; part of a country lying between two rivers (as Mesopotamia).” (Platts, Urdu dictionary, p. 87.)

^ Back to text61. This is the subject as stated in the preface (Ellis ms. fol. 3b, l. 9). The actual heading in the text (Ellis ms. fol. 128, l. 11) is Faṣl i c̲h̲ahārum dar d̲h̲ikr i nawāḥī i Kābul u Pas̲h̲āwar u Bājaur u Qās̲h̲qār u Afāg̲h̲inistān [sic] u Dērah-jāt i mutaʿalliqah i Fārs.

^ Back to text62. Perhaps Abraham Lockett, about whom some information will be found in W. Ouseley’s Travels.

^ Back to text63. b. circ. 1793, d. 1830, at one time Persian Secretary to the Government of India and Deputy Secretary in the Political Department, author of Orissa (London 1846): see Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography p. 405.

^ Back to text64. Veterinary surgeon and traveller, b. circ. 1770, d. 27 Aug. 1825: see dnb.; Ency. Brit.; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography; the i.o.l. cat. of European mss., vol. ii, pt. 2; etc.

^ Back to text65. “in most places little more than a mere itinerary, and … so far more serviceable to geography than to history; but he occasionally extends his notes so as to furnish materials for the latter.” (jras. 1843 p. 283.)

^ Back to text66. Afterwards Major-General, d. 19 April 1918: see Who was who 1916–1928, p. 485; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 198.

^ Back to text67. Boden Professor of Sanskrit, d. 8 May 1860: see dnb.; Ency. Brit.; etc.

^ Back to text68. b. 1781, cadet in the East India Company’s service 1801, assistant secretary and examiner to the College of Fort William 1811, captain 1815, d. 8.12.1819 at Calcutta, author of An English and Hindoostanee naval dictionary (Calcutta 1811), Annals of the College of Fort William (Calcutta 1819), A collection of proverbs, and proverbial phrases in the Persian and Hindoostanee languages (Calcutta 1824), editor of the Burhān i qāṭiʿ (Calcutta 1818, and reprints): see the dnb.

^ Back to text69. [British] Resident at Delhi 1811–19 and 1825–7; succeeded to baronetcy 1822; created a baron 1845; d. 5 Sept. 1846 (cf. pl. i § 847; dnb.; etc.). In another b.m. ms. Metcalfe’s name is replaced by that of William Fraser (cf. pl. i §§ 814, 893). The latter was Resident at Delhi from 1830 to 1835, having previously held more than one appointment there.

^ Back to text70. For this name cf. Tad̲h̲kirah i Naṣrābādī p. 277, where there is a notice of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲āh-Naẓar az mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Qūmis̲h̲ah i Iṣfahān.

^ Back to text71. A further variation, Mīr Malik-S̲h̲āh-Naẓar-zādah Dāwud Ḍādūr (Ḍādūryān) [or rather Ḍādūriyān?], occurs in the d.m.g. cat. (p. 353).

^ Back to text72. An earlier form of this work, apparently in French alone, is “Détails sur la situation actuelle du royaume de Perse (Signé Mir Davoud-Zadour de Melik Schahnazar, Jacques Chahan de Cirbied). Paris, 1816, in–4°”. (M. Ṣabā Bibliographie française de lʾĪrān, Paris 1936, p. 9 no. 55).

^ Back to text73. To be distinguished from the much better known town of Bijnaur in Rōhēlk’hand.

^ Back to text74. S̲h̲ams al-Daulah was the third son of Saʿādat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh 1212–29/1798–1814) and a younger brother of G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar (Nawwāb-Wazīr 1229/1814, King of Oudh 1234–43/1819–27).

^ Back to text75. In the Būstān i Awad’h, p. 11219, he is described as resident at Karbalā.

^ Back to text76. Cormick was attached to the suite of Sir John Malcolm on his third mission to Persia [in 1810: see Elgood A medical history of Persia p. 4451]. After the withdrawal of that mission he became surgeon with the army of the heir apparent ʿAbbās Mīrzā at Tabrīz [Elgood p. 446], and there he seems to have remained except for short absences [cf. Elgood pp. 412, 446] until his summons to Tihrān in 1833, the year of his death [Elgood pp. 4659, 466; G. Fowler Three years in Persia i (London, 1841) p. 330].

^ Back to text77. Dr. (afterwards Sir) John McNeill, b. 1795, assistant surgeon at Bombay 1816, was from 1824 to 1835 “attached to the East India Company’s legation in Persia, at first in medical charge, and latterly as political assistant to the envoy” [so dnb., but the date 1824 seems to be inconsistent with Elgood’s statement (p. 4507) that he “had been acting as physician to the mission since 1818” and this statement in its turn conflicts with the information in the dnb. that “He was attached to the field force under Colonel East in Cutch and Okamundel in 1818–19” and “was afterwards deputy medical store-keeper at the presidency”]. In 1836 he was appointed envoy and minister plenipotentiary to the Persian court, in 1842 he left Persia and he died at Cannes on 17 May 1883.

^ Back to text78. It is not clear whether in Cormick’s case this refers to his final departure in 1833, since, as already mentioned, he had been absent on previous occasions. So far as can be ascertained from Elgood’s Medical history, McNeill was only occasionally in Tabrīz, in 1831 for example [Elgood p. 419 ult.], and again apparently in the following year [Elgood p. 460 ult.]. More than once he was called to Tabrīz to operate on ʿAbbās Mīrzā for fistula [Elgood p. 457], presumably towards the end of his life [he died in 1833].

^ Back to text79. See the article Us̲h̲nūyah (Minorsky) in the Ency. Isl. The word is transliterated ocnoviyye [i.e. Us̲h̲nuwīyah] in the Farhang i jug̲h̲rāfiyaʾī i Īrān iv p. 24.

^ Back to text80. The date of composition is given in the ms. as ah 123 [sic], which Bittner emends into 1230 (text, p. 362), but that date (= 1815) cannot be correct, since it is anterior to McNeill’s arrival in Persia.

^ Back to text81. Probably a corruption of C̲h̲aman La‘l (for which name cf. Garcin de Tassy i p. 381).

^ Back to text82. I.e. Kāyat’h = Kāyast’h (cf. pl. i § 631).

^ Back to text83. Presumably the same person as Lieutenant R. Leech, author of A grammar of the Panjábee language, Bombay 1838 (see Catalogue of printed books … in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society, London 1940, p. 223) and Lieutenant Leach [sic?], author of A grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghanee language (Calcutta 1839) (op. cit. p. 222). These and two other linguistic works by Robert Leech are recorded in the b.m. general catalogue. [p.s. See also Gabriel Die Erforschung Persiens pp. 17515, 17925, 1871.]

^ Back to text84. See Samarīyah, Tihrān a.h.s. 1331, p. 3610.

^ Back to text85. Professor of Oriental History in the University of St. Petersburg, d. 1918: see Samarīyah, Tihrān a.h.s. 1331, Afs̲h̲ār’s preface pp. 4–5; Sir A. Wilson’s Bibliography of Persia p. 236.

^ Back to text86. Or rather, it would seem, Allāh-dād, the spelling with a single lām (usually transliterated Ilāh-dād by European orientalists) being apparently a conventional nastaʿlīq spelling. Cf. Farhang i Niẓām i p. 40217: lafẓ i الّه rā dar rasm al-k̲h̲aṭṭ i nastaʿlīq bā yak lām (الّه) mī-nawīsand.

^ Back to text87. Gen. Court, b. 1793, educated at the École Polytechnique, Paris, 1812–13, left the French army in 1818, served in Persia and in 1827 joined Ranjīt Sing’h’s forces. After Ranjīt Sing’h’s death [in 1839] he returned to France (see Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 97).

^ Back to text88. For which see the article Kafiristan in the Ency, Brit., 11th edition, vol. xv pp. 630–4. Cf. pl. i § 574.

^ Back to text89. There is no formal title. Blochet calls the ms. “Enquête sur les Kafirs”.

^ Back to text90. So Heyne Orientalistisches Datenbuch: Larousse says 1806.

^ Back to text91. b. 1820, d. 23 Aug. 1881, tutor at Haileybury, Professor of Hindustani at University College, London, editor of H.M. Elliot’s History of India (see d.n.b. and Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography p. 123).

^ Back to text92. Jhajjhar (spelled also Jhajjar) is thirty-five miles west of Delhi.

^ Back to text93. For Sarban, one of the three sons of Qais ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd and ancestor of various Afg̲h̲ān tribes, see the article Afg̲h̲ānistān in the Ency. Isl., 1st ed. vol. i p. 152b, 2nd ed. vol. i p. 218b.

^ Back to text94. See his Histoire de la littérature hindouie et hindoustanie, 2nd ed., vol. ii (Paris 1870) p. 165 (under Karim Khan).

^ Back to text95. Sir Henry Hardinge was raised to the peerage as Viscount Hardinge in 1846.

^ Back to text96. Possibly Ḥakīm “Ilāhī”, in which case Ilāhī is presumably a tak̲h̲alluṣ. Otherwise Ḥakīm i Ilāhī, like Ḥakīm al-Hind, would doubtless be a title or surname.

^ Back to text97. Awad’h = “Oudh”. Cf. pl. i p. 554.

^ Back to text98. This is the spelling given in K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Majīd’s Urdu dictionary, the Jāmiʿ al-lug̲h̲āt. Vellore is 87 miles west of Madrās and 15 miles west of Arkāt (“Arcot”).

^ Back to text99. “The history of the کتاب کیلان (Dorn, Bericht) est assez amusante. Its author was named—if I am not mistaken—Mirza Ibrahim and was a semi-literate monshi who accompanied Mackenzie [Capt. F. Mackenzie, author of Report on the Persian Caspian provinces, Resht, 1859–60, unpublished: see Rabino Mázandarán and Astarábád, p. 13 n.2] then hbm Consul at Resht on his tour in Mazandaran, Astarabad, Damghan, etc. This monshi probably sold a copy of his notes to Melgunoff, who reproduces them practically word for word … The faulty spelling is really remarkable and was recopied by Melgunoff … When searching for material for my work on Gilan i managed to locate the descendants of this Mirza Ibrahim and obtained from them the loan of the original pocket notebook of Mirza Ibrahim all written in pencil!!” (in a letter dated Nov. 13th 1931 from H. Rabino to V. Minorsky).

^ Back to text100. Title (probably due to Dorn) from binding.

^ Back to text101. Vystavka (Russian) = exhibition, show.

^ Back to text102. Cf. Goldsmid Telegraph and travel, London 1874, p. 583: “We remained four days [in January 1866] at Karman, most hospitably and honourably cared for by the late Muhammad Ismail Khan, Wakil-ul-Mulk, then Minister [Wazīr] of the nominal governor Prince Kāiomars [sic], son of Kahraman Mirza [b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā], and afterwards governor himself.” See especially op. cit. pp. 584–90.

^ Back to text103. Who visited India shortly before 1267/1850–1 (when the Ak̲h̲lāq i Nāṣirī was lithographed at Bombay in his handwriting) and again in 1270/1853–4 and who died at Iṣfahān in Rajab 1302/1885: see D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 157 no. 631; ʿAbd al-Karīm Jazī Tad̲h̲kirat al-qubūr, 2nd ed. p. 6012; Dīwān i G̲h̲amgīn, a.h.s. 1328/1949–50, Jalāl al-Dīn Humāʾī’s introduction.

^ Back to text104. ʿĀs̲h̲ūr, not ʿAs̲h̲ūr.

^ Back to text105. For which see the article Tabrīz in the Ency. Isl.

^ Back to text106. Not Lake as printed in pl. i p. 1068.

^ Back to text107. Furṣat al-S̲h̲īrāzī wa-huwa ’l-Mīrzā Muḥammad Naṣīr al-Ḥusainī al-mulaqqab bi-Mīrzā Āqā … ibn Mīrzā Jaʿfar al-mutak̲h̲alliṣ bah Bahjat … (Āthār i ʿAjam, appended biography, p. 5944).

^ Back to text108. Or Wiqār in accordance with the g̲h̲alaṭ i mas̲h̲hūr.

^ Back to text109. b. Najaf 20 Ṣafar 1315/21 July 1897: see D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 292 no. 45.

^ Back to text110. For these large Turkmān tribes see Rabino Mázandarán and Astarábád pp. 96–101; etc.

^ Back to text111. Ḥamzah Sardādwar (Ṭālib-zādah) according to D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 115 no. 468.

^ Back to text112. My identification of “Sipihr” with ʿAbbās-qulī K̲h̲an “Sipihr i T̲h̲ānī” (pl. i § 489c) is evidently incorrect. For M. Taqī “Sipihr” Kās̲h̲ānī see pl. i §§ 191, 441.

^ Back to text113. Cf. pl. ii § 281.

^ Back to text114. Cf. pl. i §§ 191, 441.

^ Back to text115. His father was the celebrated constitutionalist orator, S. Jamāl [al-Dīn] i wāʿiẓ b. ʿĪsā b. Ṣadr al-Dīn Iṣfahānī ʿĀmilī, who was put to death in 1326/1908. See Browne Persian revolution p. 204 (portrait) and elsewhere, Press and poetry p. 702 (portrait); Tārīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid … i pp. 250–2 (portrait); etc.

^ Back to text116. It may not be superfluous to mention that this title, which has occurred repeatedly in the present survey, is prefixed in India (and also in Afg̲h̲ānistān?) to the name of an ʿālim.

^ Back to text117. Ks̲h̲kkī (not Kws̲h̲kkī) according to the spelling in the quotation from Burhān al-Dīn’s title-page in Kattagan i Badakhshan, preface, p. x.

^ Back to text118. قطغن, spelled Kattagan by the Russian translators, but Kataghan in the Ency. Brit. The district does not seem to be mentioned in the Ency. Isl. article on Afg̲h̲ānistān. It is “so called after a Turkish tribe which, coming from Samarqand, occupied this region towards ad 1700, see Kūshkakī, p. 9” (Minorsky’s commentary on the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, p. 338).

^ Back to text119. This (in the form Yassami), not Yāsimī, is the spelling used in the biography contributed, doubtless by Yāsamī himself, to World biography, New York 1948, p. 5076.

^ Back to text120. Wilber says Tihrān, but there seems to be no mention of Tihrān or of any other town. Streets named K̲h̲iyābān i Saʿdī exist both in Tihrān and in S̲h̲īrāz.

^ Back to text121. Appreciably more, if several lectures on adjacent countries (e.g. Afg̲h̲ānīstān, 55 pp., Qafqāzīyah, 33 pp., Turkiyah, 60 pp.) mentioned without dates of publication under this heading in the D̲h̲arīʿah are to be included.

^ Back to text122. For a list, which includes some volumes described as in the press and is not necessarily complete (“fī mujalladāt ʿadīdah k̲h̲araja minhā ʿalā mā naʿlam Ād̲h̲arbāyjān i k̲h̲āwarī, ay al-s̲h̲arqī, …”), see D̲h̲arīʿah v (published a.b.s. 1323/1944) pp. 116–18.

^ Back to text123. Cf. Wilber p. 2751: “The present writer has seen the second volume of this work … but has not been able to secure the first volume on the geography and history of the region.” The writer of the present survey has likewise failed to obtain the first volume.

^ Back to text124. Bahman Mīrzā Karīmī on the title-pages of his earliest publications.

^ Back to text125. = Licencié.

^ Back to text126. For the person in question cf. pl. i § 432; Indo-Iranica vii/4 pp. 27–37; etc.

^ Back to text127. So D̲h̲arīʿah, but Jug̲h̲rāfī i mufaṣṣal i tārīk̲h̲ī according to Wilber.

^ Back to text128. Afrād i īn k̲h̲ānadān hamah az aʿlām u buzurgān-and k̲h̲wāh az jihat i ʿilm u tablīg̲h̲ … [footnote: Balāg̲h̲ī ba-d-īn munāsabat ast].” (Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn i p. 617.)

^ Back to text129. As a descendant of Abū ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-ʿUraiḍī b. al-Imām Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn i pp. 6013, 121: “… ʿAlī i ʿUraiḍī mansūb ast bah ʿUraiḍ kih dar c̲h̲ahār mīlī i Madīnat al-Rasūl (ṣ) ast.” Cf. ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy Nuzhat al- k̲h̲awāṭir (in Arabic) iii p. 64; al-Bakrī Muʿjam mā ’staʿjam p. 654; Yāqūt vi (Cairo 1324/1906) p. 163).

^ Back to text130. S. Ḥusain b. M. Riḍā Ḥusainī Tihrānī, b. 1288/1871 at Tihrān, d. there 19 D̲h̲ī Qaʿdah 1353/23 Feb. 1935: see Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ pp. 49–59 (portrait facing p. 48), 66 (portrait), 228 (portrait)—40, etc.; Tārīk̲h̲ i Nāʾīn p. 6 (portrait).

^ Back to text131. ʿAbd al-Ḥusain S̲h̲īrāzī (Muʾnis-ʿAlī-S̲h̲āh Niʿmat-Allāhī): see Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ p. 79 (portrait).

^ Back to text132. See Maqālāt al-ḥunafāʾ, back cover, Tārīk̲h̲ i Nā’ īn, back cover (cf. also p. 62), Ansāb i k̲h̲ānadānhā-yi mardum i Nāʾīn p. 195; ʿAbd al-Karīm Jazī Tad̲h̲kirat al-qubūr, 2nd ed., editor’s preface p. xii; S. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mahdawī Tad̲h̲kirah … (cf. pl. ii § 323) p. 93.

^ Back to text133. Presumably the Rauḍāt al-jannāt of M. Bāqir K̲h̲wānsārī (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 356–7).

^ Back to text134. Ḥusain b. M. Taqī Nūrī Ṭabarsī, d. 27 Jumādā ii 1320/1 Oct. 1902 at Najaf (see Mas̲h̲had v pp. 266–7; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 832).

^ Back to text135. Kārmand i Idārah i Bāstān-s̲h̲ināsī i Iṣfahān (S. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mahdawī Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi muʿāṣir i Iṣfahān, Iṣfahān a.h.s. 1334/1955, p. 75 (an acknowledgment, not a biography)); Kafīl i muḥtaram i Idārah i Bāstān- s̲h̲ināsī i Iṣfahān (Jug̲h̲rāfiyā u tārīk̲h̲ i C̲h̲ahār Maḥāll u Bak̲h̲tyārī, p. [v2] (in Jaʿfar Āl i Ibrāhīm’s preface)).

^ Back to text136. Though not strictly relevant, it may be excusable to mention here another work concerned with this part of Persia, namely, Tārīk̲h̲-c̲h̲ah i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi dū qarn i ak̲h̲īr i C̲h̲ahār Maḥāll u Bak̲h̲tyārī (so in the preface, 1. 4, but the wording differs slightly elsewhere), by Colonel Abū ’l-Fatḥ Auz̲h̲an Bak̲h̲tyārī, Tihrān a.h.s. 1332/1953–4‡ (for the author see S. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mahdawī Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi muʿāṣir i Iṣfahān, Iṣfahān a.h.s. 1334, p. 72).

^ Back to text137. According to Jaʿfar Āl i Ibrāhīm’s preface, p. [vii], vol. ii (then, and presumably still, unpublished) is concerned with the rest of the bulūk of Rār, Kiyār and Gandumān, while vol. iii (likewise unpublished) deals with Mīzdaj and Bak̲h̲tyārī.

^ Back to text138. “Who has lived for thirty years in this country, and for the last seventeen years has been in charge of the Church of St. Simon the Zealot, one of the most beautiful buildings in Shiraz, purely Persian in style and character” (from ʿAlī Sāmī’s introduction to Sharp’s translation of Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd, no. (3) below). Crockford describes him as “c.m.s. Miss. at Yezd 1924–37; Shiraz, Dio. Iran, from 1937”.

^ Back to text139. ʿAlī Sāmī, however, had in preparation a S̲h̲arḥ i mufaṣṣal i āt̲h̲ār i Tak̲h̲t i Jams̲h̲īd, which he hoped shortly to publish (see the list of his works on the back of the front cover of his Āt̲h̲ār i bāstānī i julgah i Marw-das̲h̲t).

^ Back to text140. Cf. (2) above.

^ Back to text141. “Brother of the assassinated premier”: see bsoas. xix/1 (1957) p. 58, and, for the premier in question, pl. ii § 315 (he was Prime Minister in the cabinet of 27 June 1950: see Whitaker’s almanack, 1951, p. 922b).

^ Back to text142. One of these, Colonel Aḥmad Iḥtisābiyān, Muʿāwin i Idārah i Kār-guzīnī i Artis̲h̲ (see Farhang …, i p. [iii]) has already been mentioned in this survey (pl. ii § 299). Another work of his, Jug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi kis̲h̲warhā-yi Āsiyā-yi G̲h̲arbī u [sic.?] ham-jiwar i Irān (Tihrān. No date?) is mentioned in Farhang i Īrān-zamīn i/1 (1332/1953) p. 27.

^ Back to text143. It is, or was, the intention of the Geographical Section of the General Staff to publish, after the completion of this Farhang dealing with the ābādīhā, or inhabited localities, a Farhang i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i ʿumūmī i Īrān devoted not only to inhabited localities but also to natural features such as rivers, mountains, lakes, etc. (see vol. iv, preface, 11. 8–12).

^ Back to text144. Except vol. iv (Ād̲h̲arbāyjān), which deals with ustāns 3 and 4. Vols. i–iii deal respectively with the ustān i markazī, ustān 1 and ustān 2. From vol. v onwards the volume numbers coincide with the official numbers of the ustāns.

^ Back to text145. This transliteration, which is the same as that used in the Farhang i Nafīsī, successfully indicates the pronunciation (and in the case of the vowels the spelling also, both exactly and neatly, with the help of only one mark of quantity, the circumflex accent on â. So far as the consonants are concerned, the pronunciation is indicated, but not necessarily the spelling, since only one roman letter is used to represent two or more Arabic letters pronounced alike in Persian, q, for example, standing for both qāf and g̲h̲ain). The unfortunate c represents s̲h̲īn, and consequently S̲h̲īrāz appears as cirâz. A curious feature of this transliteration is that the iḍāfat seems to be entirely ignored, even in cases where its presence or absence does not appear to be obvious. The pronunciations indicated have not in all cases escaped criticism from persons with local knowledge (cf. pl. ii § 339).

^ Back to text146. Which do not include Brg̲h̲ān (i.e. Barag̲h̲ān, bā dū fatḥah, according to M. ʿAlī “Mudarris” Tabrīzī K̲h̲iyābānī’s Raiḥānat al-adab i p. 152) and other names of which the pronunciation is unlikely to be guessed correctly. Barag̲h̲ānī has unfortunately been spelt Burg̲h̲ānī, which should now be corrected, in pl. i § 300, 1574 (cf. Tārīk̲h̲ i jadīd, tr. E.G. Browne, p. 454b14, and Edwards col. 52722, in both of which places the word is spelled Burqānī).

^ Back to text147. Rāh-numā-yi Hamadān, preface, p. 112.

^ Back to text148. Hagmatānah, preface, p. x, l. 1.

^ Back to text149. “Five great families constitute the Mukrī nobility: they are all called Bābā-Amīra (Bābā-mīrī) and trace their descent from Amīra Pās̲h̲ā” (Ency. Isl. under Sāwd̲j̲-Bulāk (Minorsky), vol. iv p. 191a, l. 1, in the English edition).

^ Back to text150. A pronouncing dictionary which includes “important” historical and geographical proper names [but not, for example, Barag̲h̲ān (cf. pl. ii p. 157, n. 345)].

^ Back to text151. Date and place of publication are given in the author’s list of his own works on the back of the title-page.

^ Back to text152. The first edition consists of a series of instalments published in the periodical Yādgār iv/6 (1326) pp. 77–88, iv/7 (1327) pp. 7–22, iv/8 (1327) pp. 35–56, iv/9–10 (1327) pp. 4–26, v/1–2 (1327) pp. 78–88, v/3 (1327) pp. 25–40, v/4–5 (1327) pp. 36–56. In all but the last two of these instalments the author’s name appears as Muḥammad Kaiwān-pūr Mukrī.

^ Back to text153. So (with a hyphen) on the English title-page of Aurāzān.

^ Back to text154. Spelt Taleqan [i.e. Ṭāliqān] in the English translation of the preface, as in the Farhang i Nafīsī, whereas Tālaqān is the spelling given in the Farhang i Niẓām. In the same English translation of the preface Tonokabon [cf. Farhang i Niẓām, Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. xiv] is the spelling of the name of a place (not far from Aurāzān) called Tunakábun in Rabino’s Mázandarán and Astarábád, Tanakābun in the Anjuman-ārā-yi Nāṣirī and Tankâbon in the Farhang i Nafīsī.

^ Back to text155. Cf. The World of learning 1955, p. 610.

^ Back to text156. On pp. 12–19 is a list of place-names with transliterations in the roman character, doubtless more correct than those in the Farhang i jug̲h̲rāfiyāʾī i Īrān, which is criticised on p. 11 for omissions and incorrect transliterations.

^ Back to text157. For a work which arose out of an earlier pacification of the same province see pl. ii § 266.

Cite this page
“4 Geography, Etc.”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 July 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_20400000>
First published online: 2021



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