Storey Online

4.1 Rhetoric
(3,721 words)

In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales

previous chapter: 3 Prosody and Poetics

§ 334. M. b. ʿUmar al-Rādūyānī.

Tarjumān al-balāg̲h̲ah (beg. C̲h̲unīn gūyad M. b. ʿU. al-R. kih taṣnīfhā bisyār dīdam), divided into seventy-two faṣls (each devoted to a single figure of rhetoric) and written not earlier than 482/1089–90, the date of the capture of Qarā-K̲h̲ān [Aḥmad K̲h̲ān b. K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān], which is (almost certainly) referred to in a verse quoted, and not later than 507/1114, the date of the Fātiḥ ms.: Fātiḥ 5413 foll. 233a–290.

Description: Tarcumān al-balāġa, das früheste neupersische werk über rhetorische figuren. Von Ahmed Ateṣ (in Oriens Vol. i/1 (1948) pp. 45–62).

§ 335. For the Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr fī daqāʾiq al-s̲h̲iʿr of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn al-Waṭwāṭ see pl. iii § 277(1) supra.

§ 336. Jalāl al-Dīn M.1 “Qiwāmī” Muṭarrizī2 Ganjawī was according to some the brother, according to others the paternal uncle of the celebrated poet “Niẓāmī”, who died circ. 600/1203–4.

[Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i p. 478.]

Badāʾiʿ al-asḥār fī ṣanāʾiʿ al-as̲h̲ʿār,3 or Qaṣīdah i maṣnūʿah i Qiwāmīyah, or Qaṣīdah i muṣannaʿ, or Qaṣīdah i badīʿah (beg. Ai falak rā hawā-yi qadr i tu bār [or yār in some mss.]), an ode of one hundred (or 101) verses exemplifying most of the figures of rhetoric employed in Persian poetry: Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 26, Blochet iv 2137 (4) (?) (“une kasidè en persan, par Kiwami Guendjévi …, dans laquelle ce littérateur expose d’une façon très sommaire les principes de l’art poétique”. 13th cent.), Bombay Univ. p. 15 no. 7 (probably ah 1024/1615), Berlin 48 (2) (probably ah 1087/1676), 12 (13) (“nicht ganz neu”), 43 (8), Aumer 84, Ivanow Curzon 702 foll. 853–9.

Editions: (1) K̲h̲arābāt (an anthology of Turkish, Persian and Arabic poetry compiled by Ḍiyā Pās̲h̲ā: cf. Gibb Ottoman poetry i p. 240 n. 1), Istanbul 1291–2/1874–5, Vol. i pp. 198–201. (2) Browne Lit. Hist. ii pp. 47–76 (quoted from the K̲h̲arābāt and furnished with English translation and notes).

Detailed study: by S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Qādir i Sarfarāz (Journal of the Bombay Branch R.A.S. 1925 (November) pp. 262–7).

Persian commentary: Badāʾiʿ al-as̲h̲ʿār dar s̲h̲arḥ i qaṣīdah i Ṣanāʾiʿ al-asḥar, by Faḍl Allāh Badāʾiʿ-nigār (b. Mas̲h̲had 1296/1879, d. there 23 D̲h̲ī-Qaʿdah 1343/16 June 1925: see Mas̲h̲had cat. v p. 310; Raiḥānat al-adab i p. 147): Mas̲h̲had 1336/1917–18 (Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, ptd. bks., no. 11, D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 62 no. 175; Mus̲h̲ār i 210).

§ 337. ʿAlī b. M. known as (al-mus̲h̲tahir bi-) Tāj al-Ḥalāwī is described by ʿAbbās Iqbāl (Armag̲h̲ān xi/12 p. 894) as a poet of the 8th/14th century.

Daqāʾiq al-s̲h̲iʿr (beg. S̲h̲ukr i jamīl Rabb i Jalīl rā … bandah i ḍaʿīf i naḥīf ʿA. b. M. al-m. bi-T. al-Ḥ. aḥlā ’llāhu ḥalwāhu wa-aḥsana aḥwālahu rā bar ʿilm i daqāʾiq i s̲h̲iʿr ʿubūrī uftādah būd4), a treatise on poetic figures composed in view of the obsoleteness of the Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr (for which see pl. iii § 277(1) supra): H. K̲h̲. iii p. 233, Bānkīpūr xi 1098 (54) (18th cent.), Asʿad 2588 (cf. Horn Pers. Hss. no. 582), possibly also Āyā Ṣōfyah 4161 (1) (cf. ibid. no. 580).

§ 338. al-Saiyid al-S̲harīf ʿAlī b. M. al-Jurjānī, who died at S̲hīrāz in 816/1413, has already been mentioned as the author of the Tarjumān al-Qurʾān ( pl. i § 53), the Ṣarf i Mīr and the Naḥw i Mīr ( pl. iii § 250 supra). The ascription to him of the work described below needs confirmation.

(Risālat al-maʿānī wa-’l-bayān wa-’l-badīʿ) (beg. Qāl al-Saiyid al-Imām … ʿAlī al-mus̲h̲tahir bi-l-Saiyid al-S̲h̲arīf al-Jurjānī), a short treatise on rhetoric5 in three bābs ((1) ʿilm al-maʿānī, (2) fī ʿilm al-bayān, (3) fī ʿilm al-badīʿ): Bānkīpūr ix 844 (foll. 15. 18th cent.).

§ 339. Waḥīd [al-Dīn] Tabrīzī is best known as the author of the Jamʿ i muk̲h̲taṣar, a short work on prosody, for which see pl. iii § 295(2) supra.

Miftāḥ al-badāʾiʿ (beg. S̲h̲ukr u sp. K̲h̲udāwand i Mutakallim rā kih insān rā tas̲h̲rīf i nuṭq ba̲k̲h̲s̲h̲īd), on tropes, written for his nephew Ṣafī al-Dīn: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 10, Dorn p. 436 no. 498(1), Berlin 39 (5).

§ 340. “Fak̲h̲rī” b. M. “Amīrī” al-Harawī has already been mentioned as the author of the Rauḍat al-salāṭīn and the Jawāhir al-ʿajāʾib ( pl. i § 1098) and as the translator of Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr’s Majālis al-nafāʾis ( pl. i § 1094).

Ṣanāʾiʿ al-Ḥusn, or perhaps Ṣanāʾiʿ al-Ḥasan (beg. Ṣanāʾiʿ i t̲h̲anāʾ i bī-g̲h̲āyat), on poetical figures, dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ḥasan [Arg̲h̲ūn, ruler of Sind ah 930–61/1524–54]: Bānkīpūr ix 848 (1) (Kābul, ah 981/1573–4), Bodleian 1371 (Kābul, same date), 1372 ( ah 1169/1755–6).

§ 341. Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad b. M. Ṣāliḥ al-Ṣiddīqī al-Ḥusainī, who completed his Majmaʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ in 1060/1650, the twenty-fourth year of S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s reign, mentions in it a mat̲h̲nawī, Ārām i jān, composed by his father in 1056/1646.

(1)
Majmaʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. anʿama ʿalainā), on poetical figures in four fuṣūl ((1) taqsīm i kalām, (2) badāʾiʿ i lafẓī, (3) badāʾiʿ i maʿnawī, (4) sariqāt i s̲h̲iʿrī) and an appendix on technical terms: Lindesiana p. 205 no. 754 ( ah 1095/1684), Ross and Browne 68 ( ah 1128/1716), Ethé 2088 ( ah 1199/1785), 2937 ( ah 1199/1785), 2938, 2089, Bānkīpūr ix 850 ( ah 1146/1733–4), 851–2, xi 1098 (53), Būhār 263 ( ah 1172/1759), 264, Madrās 1483 ( ah 1196/1782), 437(i), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 788 (late 18th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 176, Rieu ii 814b ( ah 1222/1807), 821b, iii 999b, Āṣafīyah i p. 168 no. 36 ( ah 1228/1813), ii p. 1756 nos. 218, 223, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 44 no. 13 ( ah 1234/1818–19), p. 46 no. 3, Browne Suppt. 1144 (Corpus 231), 1145 (Corpus 28), Leyden v p. 160 no. 2548, Rehatsek p. 168 no. 143.

Edition: Lucknow 1261/1845*.

(2)
Baḥr al-ṣanāʾiʿ (beg. T̲h̲anā gūyam K̲h̲udā-yi ins u jān rā), a metrical work on the same subject: Madrās 437(j) ( ah 1227/1812).

§ 342. Indarjīt “Ḥaqīr” (so Bodleian 1401) or “Muḥaqqar” (so Rieu iii 1043b).

Ṭirāz al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. Ḥ. u sp. i Muṣawwirī kih arz̲h̲ang i āsmān rā), a small work on rhetoric, prosody and poetical figures composed in 1130/1718 and divided into a muqaddimah (dar k̲h̲uṣūṣīyāt i imlā u bayān i asmāʾ i ʿulūm u g̲h̲air i ān), five chapters called ṭarz ((1) dar istiʿārat, (2) dar mutaḍādd u muttaṣil, (3) dar murāʿāt al-naẓāʾir, (4) dar siyāqat al-aʿdād, (5) dar ṣifāt i alwān), and a k̲h̲ātimah (bar (dar?) asmāʾ i buḥūr i s̲h̲iʿr u ṣanāʾiʿ i s̲h̲āʿirī): Rieu iii 1043b iii (foll. 35–70. Early 19th cent.), Bodleian 1401 (foll. 69–79).

§ 343. Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ārzū”, who died at Lucknow in 1169/1756, has already been mentioned as the author of the Majmaʿ al-nafāʾis ( pl. i § 1149), the Sirāj al-lug̲h̲at ( pl. iii § 40(1) supra), the C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i hidāyat ( pl. iii § 40(2) supra), and other works.

(1)
Mauhibat i ʿuẓmā (beg. Faṣāḥat i māyah i maʿānī-pardāzān sitāyis̲h̲ i Kalīmī … a. b. īn risālah īst mausūm ba-M. i ʿu. dar bayān i fann i maʿānī i zabān i Fārisī kih S. al-D. ʿA. Ā….), a work on Persian rhetoric divided into a muqaddimah, eight bābs ((1) dar isnād i k̲h̲abarī, (2) dar aḥwāl i musnad ilaih, (3) dar aḥwāl i musnad, (4) dar mutaʿalliqāt i fiʿl, (5) dar qaṣr, (6) dar ins̲h̲ā, (7) dar waṣl u faṣl, (8) dar ījāz u iṭnāb u musāwāt), and a brief k̲h̲ātimah, in which the author claims that no work on this subject had previously been written [sc. in Persian]: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 1 ( ah 1232/1817), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 969(s) (early 19th cent.), 970 (ditto), Bānkīpūr ix 854(1) (19th cent.), i.o. d.p. 423 (e), 425A (1).

Editions: [Calcutta] 1832* (preceded by the ʿAṭīyah i kubrā. No title-page. Beg.: Dībāc̲h̲ah i bayān. Pp. 40 (ʿA.i.k.); 42 (M. i ʿu.)); Lucknow 1310/1892–3 (It̲h̲nā-ʿas̲h̲arī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks., pp. 52 no. 6); place? 1898 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 752).

(2)
ʿAṭīyah i kubrā (beg. Dībāc̲h̲ah i bayān i maʿānī sipās i ḥaḍrat i Suk̲h̲an-āfrīnīst), a treatise, said by the author to be the first of its kind [sc. in Persian], on simile, metaphor, metonymy, etc. divided into unnumbered baḥt̲h̲s ([1] baḥt̲h̲ i bayān, [2] b. i tas̲h̲bīh, [3] b. i ḥaqīqat u majāz, [4]b. i amt̲h̲āl, [5] b. i kināyah, [6] b. i taʿrīḍ): Ivanow 394 (18th cent.), Curzon 177 ( ah 1238/1822), 2nd Suppt. 969 (4)(early 19th cent.), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 1 ( ah 1215/1800–1), i.o. d.p. 423(f), 425B (2), Bānkīpūr ix 854(2) (19th cent.), Madrās 482.

Editions: [Calcutta] 1832* (followed by the Mauhibat i ʿuẓmā. No title-page. Beg.: Dībāc̲h̲ah i bayān. Pp. 40 (ʿA. i k.); 42 (M.i ʿu.)), Cawnpore 1897° (ʿA. i k. Pp. 32).

§ 344. Rājah Rām Nārāyan “Mauzūn” b. Rang Lāl Kāyat’h ʿAẓīmābādī, born at a village near ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patna), was the son of an official in the service of Nawwāb ʿAlī-Wirdī K̲h̲ān Mahābat-Jang, the Nāẓim of Bengal, Bihār and Orissa (cf. pl. i §§ 956, 960), and from childhood was a protégé of the Nawwāb. Towards the end of 1165/1752 or early in 1166/1752–3 he was appointed Deputy Governor of ʿAẓīmābād,6 and in that capacity played a part recorded in the Siyar al-mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn and in the larger British histories relating to the period (cf. pl. i § 802). He retained the appointment under Mahābat-Jang’s successors, Sirāj al-Daulah and Mīr Jaʿfar, but Mīr Qāsim, who succeeded in 1174/1760, called him to account for the receipts of his government, imprisoned him and in August 1763 gave orders for his execution. His Persian dīwān was published at Luck—now in 1288/1871° (Dīwān i Mauzūn. Pp. 340).

[Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū (Bānkīpūr viii p. 114); Siyar al-mutaʾa̲k̲h̲k̲h̲i̲rīn, [Lucknow] 1282–3/1866°, pp. 593, et saepe; Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāḥīm (Berlin p. 660 no. 326); Mill History of British India, 2nd ed., iii pp. 172, 239–41, 254, 261, 280–3, 307; Riyāḍ al-afkār (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 59); Garcin de Tassy ii p. 294; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an pp. 469–70; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Ram Narain; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 348.]

Miftāḥ al-ṣifāt, “a manual of rhetoric, treating of similes and phrases expressing emotions, with their physical correlatives” (Edwards): Lucknow 1869° (Pp. 52).

§ 345. M. ʿAlī “Ḥazīn” Jīlānī died in 1180/1766 (see pl. i § 1150).

Maṣābīḥ al-ẓalām fī irāʾat7 al-kalām: Āṣafīyah i p. 170 no. 188 (under Balāg̲h̲at).

§ 346. Mīr S̲h̲ams al-Dīn “Faqīr” ʿAbbāsī Dihlawī was born in 1115/1703–4 and died in 1183/1769–70 (see pl. iii § 305 supra).

(1)
Ḥadāʾiq al-balāg̲h̲ah: see pl. iii § 305 (2) supra.
(2)
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-badīʿ (beg. Subḥāna ’llāh man i nāqiṣ rā), a short tract on figures of speech, compiled from the Miftāḥ [al-ʿulūm] of Sakkākī (cf. Brockelmann i p. 294, Sptbd. i p. 515) and the Muṭawwal of Taftāzānī (cf. Brockelmann i 29518, Sptbd. i p. 51634) and divided into a muqaddimah, two faṣls ((1) dar bayān i ṣanāʾiʿ i maʿnawī, (2) … lafẓī) and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar bayān i sariqāt i s̲h̲iʿrī: i.o. d.p. 427 (b) ( ah 1235/1819), 423 (a), Rehatsek p. 149 no. 75 ( ah 1239/1823–4), Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 184 ( ah 1241/1825–6), iii p. 72 no. 300, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 46 no. 8 ( ah 1263/1847), p. 48 no. 27, Bānkīpūr ix 855 (1), (foll. 1–13, 19th cent.), and in the mss. of ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Wālih’s” Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarā ( pl. i § 1147), where the k̲h̲ulāṣat al-badīʿ is appended to the biography of “Faqīr”.

§ 347. Kamāl al-Dīn.

Risālah i ṣanʿat i tajnīs, composed in 1174/1760–1: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 47 no. 16 ( ah 1259/1843).

§ 348. For the Bahāristān i suk̲h̲un of S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān Aurangābādī ( pl. i § 1471), which is divided into twelve sections of which the first eleven (about half the work) deal with rhetoric and prosody, while the twelfth is a tad̲h̲kirah of ancient and modern poets in five ṭabaqāt and a k̲h̲ātimah, see pl. i § 1156.

§ 349. Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī, who was born in 1116/1704 and died in 1200/1786, has already been mentioned as the author of the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah ( pl. i § 1162 (17)) and other works.

G̲h̲izlān al-Hind (a chronogram = 1178/1764–5. Beg. Sar-āmad i muḥassināt i kalām sitayis̲h̲), in two maqālahs ((1) dar bayān i ṣanāʾiʿ, on certain rhetorical figures, (2) dar bayān i Nāyikābhēd, on the types of lovers depicted by the poets. See pl. i § 1162, under Arabic Works (2)), being a Persian translation or adaptation8 of the third and fourth faṣls of the author’s own Arabic work Subḥat al-marjān fī āt̲h̲ār Hindustān: Āṣafīyah i p. 168 no. 164, Berlin 1051 (incomplete?), Ethé 2135, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 310 ( ah 1220/1805–6. S. ʿAlī Ḥusain Bilgrāmī’s library, Ḥaidarābād).

§ 350. M. Mahdī b. Abī D̲h̲arr Nirāqī, died 1209/1794–5, [has already been mentioned as the author of the Muḥarriq al-qulūb ( pl. i § 287) and the Tanḍīḥ al-as̲h̲kāl. v.s.]

Nuk̲h̲bat al-bayān: Tihrān ahs. 1335/1956–7 (270 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1572).

§ 351. Abū ’l-Fak̲h̲r Ars̲h̲ad As̲h̲raf “K̲h̲ayāl”.

Fānūs i k̲h̲ayāl (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i nā-maḥdūd i Kas i bī-kasān), on stylistic, rhetoric, poetical figures, etc. begun in 1187/1773–4, completed in 1190/1776, and divided into five timt̲h̲āls and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the letters of the alphabet and their permutations): i.o. d.p. 424, Āṣafīyah i p. 168 no. 183 ( ah 1202/1787–8), Bānkīpūr ix 856 (foll. 114. 1228 Faṣlī/1820), Ivanow Curzon 161 ( ah 1244/1828).

§ 352. Gul Muḥammad.

Gulzār i maʿānī (beg. Bar s̲h̲āhidān i tarānah-sanj), a treatise on rhetoric composed in the time of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam ( ah 1173–1221/1759–1806)9 and divided into thirteen s̲h̲umurdahs [sic]: Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 290).

§ 353. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain K̲h̲ān “Jauhar” has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 1038) as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i dil-afrūz, a history of the Niẓāms of Ḥaidarābād to 1218/1803.

Tuḥfat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (beg. Ṣafā-yi lwāmī [sic, perhaps for nawā-yi] suk̲h̲anhā-yi dil pad̲h̲īr), on the arts of poetry and rhetoric: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 289 (M. ʿAbd al-Bārī’s library, Farangī Maḥall, Lucknow).

§ 354. Khādim-ʿAlī “Ẓāhir” b. Karam-ʿAlī Sandīlawī seems to be the full name of the author of the Talk̲h̲īṣ al-fawāʾid published at Akbarābād [i.e. Āgrah] in 1846°. By Edwards he is called Khādim ʿAlī Ẓahīr Sandīlawī, but he can scarcely be a different person from “K̲h̲ādim Alī, called Ẓāhir”, who wrote the Urdu work Faras-nāmah i Ẓāhir lithographed at [Āgrah?] in 1860°. Doubtless also he is identical with K̲h̲ādim-ʿAlī b. Karam-ʿAlī, author of the Urdu Tārīk̲h̲ i jadwalīyah (Editions: Āgrah 1854*, Lucknow 1871°, 1876*), and with S̲h̲aik̲h̲ K̲h̲ādim-ʿAlī, who according to Garcin de Tassy ( ii p. 185) edited the Āgrah newspaper Maṭlaʿ al-ak̲h̲bār, which had a growing circulation in 1853, and published a work on Urdu prosody entitled “’Arûz Zâhidiya” [presumably a mistake for ʿArūḍ i Ẓāhirīyah].

Talk̲h̲īṣ al-fawāʾid, “notes on the literary art, quoting from Persian and Hindustani poets. Followed by a chapter on talismans” (Edwards): Akbarābād [i.e. Āgrah, not Delhi] 1846° (pp. 210).

§ 355. Imām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” was killed in 1857 (see pl. iii § 214 supra, etc.).

(1)
Risālah i nādirah, on literary conceits: in Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī, Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°, Vol. i.
(2)
Munāqas̲h̲āt i suk̲h̲an, on idioms:10 in Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī, Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°, Vol. iii (Vols. iiiii are in the i.o. Library).

§ 356. G̲h̲ulām-Dastgīr.

Qawānīn i Dastgīrī, composed in 1271/1854–5: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1768 no. 78 (under the heading Majmaʿ al-ʿulūm).

Edition: place? 1271/1854–5 (Āṣafīyah i p. 168, nos. 127 and 171, under the heading Balāg̲h̲at).

§ 357. “Ḥusainī”.

Bāg̲h̲-c̲h̲ah i dānis̲h̲ (beg. Minnathā-yi bī-muntahā K̲h̲udāʾī [], on poetical figures (dar ṣanāʾiʿ i fārsī), based on Waṭwāṭ’s Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr (for which see pl. iii § 277 (1) supra) and composed for Colonel George William Hamilton:11 Vollers 919 (foll. 58).

§ 358. Mahā-rājah Kālī-Kis̲h̲an (Kālī-Kṛiśṇa Dēva).

[A short account of the Rájá Kálí-Krishna Bahádur. Extracted from the notarial papers of G. Collier [in English and Persian], Calcutta 1836° (pp. 4, 4); A genealogical and other accounts of Maha-Raja Kali-Krishna Bahadur … Extracted from the notarial papers of G. Collier … 1836, with additions by M. Siret [in English, Persian and Bengali], Calcutta 1841° (pp. 7, 14, 7); Ṭaiyib Allāh Lives of Maha Raja Apurva Krishna Bahadur … his father and grandfather (Mat̲h̲nawī i Ṭaiyib Allāh), Calcutta 1847°; Garcin de Tassy ii p. 140.]

Riyāḍ al-ṣanāʾiʿ: Calcutta 1847°* (Reáz-ul-sanáih [sic] or Garden of arts: an abridgment of Persian rhetoric, with examples from celebrated ancient and modern authors).

§ 359. M. Saʿd Allāh Murādābādī, who was born in 1219/1804–5 and died in 1294/1877, has already been mentioned as the author of the Nawādir al-bayān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān ( pl. i § 81 (1)), the Nawādir al-wuṣūl fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Fuṣūl ( pl. iii § 257 (2) supra), the Nūr al-ṣabāḥ fī ag̲h̲lāṭ al-Ṣurāh (under pl. iii § 114 supra), the Mīzān al-afkār s̲h̲arḥ Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār (under pl. iii § 279 supra), and the Risālah i rubāʿī ( pl. iii § 323 supra).

al-Tanwīh bi-’l-tas̲h̲bīh, on similes: Lucknow 1311/1893° (the sixth and last work in the volume beginning with the Nawādir al-wuṣūl. See under pl. iii § 257 (2) supra).

§ 360. Ḥājjī Mīrzā M. Taqī Kamāl al-Dīn “Sanjar” Īrānī.

Dastūr i suk̲h̲an, composed in 1296/1879. Edition: place? 1296/1879 (Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 231, under the heading Balāg̲h̲at).

§ 361. S. Abū ’l-Ḥasan b. Manṣūr ʿAlī Naqawī Buk̲h̲ārī S̲h̲ikārpūrī was still alive when the third volume of the Āṣafīyah catalogue was compiled.

Aḥsan al-ṣanāʾiʿ, composed in 1312/1894–5: Āṣafīyah iii p. 72 no. 322 ( ah 1326/1908).

§ 362. Ḥājj Mīrzā M. Ḥusain “Qarīb” S̲h̲ams al-ʿUlamāʾ Garakānī (S̲h̲ams al-ʿUlamāʾ Ḥājj Mīrzā Ḥusain Garakānī Rabbānī mas̲h̲hūr bi-Janāb acc. to Mus̲h̲ār i 39), died in ah 1345/1926–7.

[Yādgār v/3 ( ahs. 1327) pp. 56–7.]

(1)
Abdaʿ al-badāʾiʿ, composed in 1328/1910. Edition: Ṭihrān 1328/1910 (425 pp. See Mas̲h̲had 15, ptd. bks., no. 5; D̲h̲arīʿah i p. 64; Mus̲h̲ār i 39).
(2)
Quṭūf al-rabīʿ fī ṣunūf al-badīʿ: Tihrān 1328/1910 (159 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1226).

§ 363. M. ʿAlī “Furūg̲h̲ī” died on 26–7 November 1942 (see pl. i §§ 320, 1668 (20), ii § 585 (2)).

Āyīn i suk̲h̲anwarī: Ṭihrān(512 pp. See Luzac’s O.L. 1951 p. 60).

§ 364. Ibrāhīm Mufattiḥ Yumn al-Salṭanah died ahs. 1332/1953–4.

ʿIlm u adab, in two volumes ((1) maʿānī, bayān and badīʿ, (2) ins̲h̲ā and munāẓarāt): Iṣfahān ahs. 1307–9/1928–31 (2 vols. Pp. 211 + 96 + 217. Mus̲h̲ār i 1132).

§ 365. Iqbāl Yag̲h̲māʾī (cf. pl. ii § 318).

Tas̲h̲bīhāt i s̲h̲āʿirānah: Tihrān ahs. 1319/1940–1 (72 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 424).

§ 366. Sartīp ʿAlī Das̲h̲tistānī, described in Mus̲h̲ār i 1162 as Muʿallim i Dānis̲h̲-kadah i Niẓām, is the author of Firaq u mad̲h̲āhib i S̲h̲īʿah (Tihrān ahs. 1331/1952–3: see Mus̲h̲ār loc. cit.).

ʿUlūm i balāg̲h̲at: Tihrān ahs. 1333/1954–5 (2nd ed. Mus̲h̲ār i 1133).

§ 367. Appendix

(1)
Anjuman i nigāristān i dānish, letters illustrating literary artifices, by M. ʿAbd al-Aḥad “Ṭaiyib”, Raʾīs of Namūr: Lucknow 1877°* ( n.k. 261 pp.).
(2)
Asās al-faḍl (beg. Ḥumādā-yi ḥamd i jazīl), on various embellishments of speech (maḥāsin i suk̲h̲an), rhetorical figures, tropes, etc. together with an analysis of the defects of style (maʿāyib i suk̲h̲an): Ivanow 409 (foll. 28. 18th cent.).
(3)
Aṣl al-maqāṣid, “rhetoric”, by Isḥāq b. ʿAṭāʾ Allāh: Lindesiana p. 157 no. 467 (circ. ad 1700).
(4)
Aʿẓam al-ṣināʿah, by S. M. Ḥusain Qādirī Ṣaifī12 Ṣafawī. Edition: 1260/1844 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 72 no. 320).
(5)
Dauḥat al-ṣanāʾiʿ, on poetical devices,13 by Imām al-Dīn “Imāmī” b. S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Makārim Nuʿmānī Badawī: Ellis Coll. M. 189 ( ah 1184/1867–8) [and Ivanow 377: see under Riddles, pl. iii § 392 infra. v.s.].
(6)
Iẓhār i muḍmar, Risālah i (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Ṣāniʿ [Ṣāniʿī?] rā kih naẓm i rubāʿī i wujūd), “a short treatise on Rhetorics”: Madrās 427 (b).
(7)
Kh̲ayāl-angīz: see Rabīʿ al-asrār.
(8)
Maṭāliʿ al-bayān (beg. Tuḥaf i taḥāyā i taqdīs u tamjīd), a short treatise on the ʿilm al-bayān, by Ṭāhir b. ʿAlī: Ethé 1922 (30).
(9)
Mirʾāt al-ṣanāʾiʿ, by Sh̲āh M. ʿAzīz Allāh Ṣafīpūrī: Āgrah 1332/1914 (Abū ’l-ʿUlāʾī Steam Pr. Together with the same author’s Iʿjāz al-tawārīk̲h̲ and Bayān al-tawārīk̲h̲. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ ptd. bks. p. 52); 1333/1915 (same press. Vid. ibid.).
(10)
Nikāt al-badāʾiʿ wa-mirʾāt al-ṣanāʾiʿ, by Darwīs̲h̲ Muḥammad Ḥaidarābādī:14 Āṣafīyah i p. 170 no. 186.
(11)
Rabīʿ al-asrār, entitled also (fol. 5b) K̲h̲ayāl-angīz and called at the end Majmūʿah i muk̲h̲taṣar, (beg. Sp. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-q. mar Ṣāniʿī rā kih c̲h̲ūn maʿnī), on poetics and rhetoric with numerous quotations from Persian and Arabic poets, of whom the latest seems to be Jāmī: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 968 (foll. 33. Late 18th cent.).
(12)
Taqwīm i dānis̲h̲warān, on simile and other rhetorical figures: Peshawar 1818 (1).

next chapter: 4.2 Riddles

Notes

^ Back to text1. So Aumer, but Jamāl al-Dīn M. b. Abī Bakr according to Ḥ. K̲h̲.

^ Back to text2. So in some of the mss., but in the Mas̲h̲had cat. (iii, 15, ptd. bks., no. 11) Qiwāmī Ganjawī is described as the ustād of Qiwāmī Muṭarrizī K̲h̲abbāzī.

^ Back to text3. In some mss. (e.g. Berlin 48(2)) Ṣanāʾiʿ al-asḥār fī badāʾiʿ al-as̲h̲ʿār.

^ Back to text4. Sixteen lines from the preface are quoted by ʿAbbās Iqbāl in the preface to his edition of the Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr (= Armag̲h̲ān xi/12 p. 894). According to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir the author “does not mention his name”.

^ Back to text5. and prosody according to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir.

^ Back to text6. Bah niyāhat i ṣūbah-dārī i ʿAẓīmābād … sar-afrāzī yāft (Siyar al-m. p. 59320. Cf. op. cit. p. 6569: Ram Nārāyan nāʾib i niẓāmat i ʿAẓīmābād).

^ Back to text7. So in “Ḥazīn’s” list of his own works as printed in the Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 29014. The Āṣafīyah catalogue has ārāʾ.

^ Back to text8. Instances from Persian poets seem to have been substituted to a large extent for the instances quoted from Arabic poets in the Subḥat al-marjān.

^ Back to text9. “composed in the time of S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam (ah 1253–1274 = ad 1837–1860)” according to Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad. The date given is that of Bahādur S̲h̲āh ii. If S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam Bahādur S̲h̲āh i is intended the date would be 1119–24/1707–12.

^ Back to text10. So Arberry: according to Edwards it is “on some literary terms”.

^ Back to text11. Col. Hamilton, born in 1807, was in India from 1823 to 1867, made a valuable collection of mss. now in the British Museum, and died on 28 Feb. 1868. See jras., annual report 1868, p. viii, Rieu iii, preface, pp. xxiv–xxv.

^ Back to text12. Sic, but perhaps Saifī should be read (cf. pl. i § 129).

^ Back to text13. [Or logogriphs, according to Ivanow. v.s.]

^ Back to text14. Presumably identical with d.m., the author of Ins̲h̲āʾ i Darwīs̲h̲ (pl. iii § 652 (51) infra) and Maktūbāt i Darwīs̲h̲ (pl. iii § 652 (124) infra).

Cite this page
“4.1 Rhetoric”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 29 February 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_30401000>
First published online: 2021



▲   Back to top   ▲