In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales
- D̲h̲ak̲h̲īrah i jawāhir (beg…. S̲h̲.-n. i Ḥusainī az suk̲h̲anwarān i ʿaṣr … iltimās mī-dārad kih c̲h̲ūn īn ʿāṣī), letters written by S̲h̲.-n. to Aurangzēb and others, collected at the request of his brother M. Ḥayāt: Būhār 273 (defective at both ends. 66 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 507. Muns̲h̲ī Bhūpat Rāy was in the service of Raʿd-andāz K̲h̲ān,3 Faujdār of Baiswāṛā in Aurangzēb’s reign.
- ¶ Nusk̲h̲ah i raus̲h̲an-kalām (beg. Īn sawād i nāmah i c̲h̲andīn suʾāl-ast u jawāb * Nusk̲h̲ah i raus̲h̲an-kalām ast u nadārad pīc̲h̲ u tāb), letters composed at the request of Raʿd-andāz K̲h̲ān, divided into four faṣls (of which only the first is clearly marked in the Edinburgh ms.) and arranged according to the rank of the persons addressed from the king downwards: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (69 foll. ah 1202/1788. See ocm. vii/4 p. 69), Edinburgh 338 (52 foll. N.d.), i.o. 4011 (= Irvine 417. 63 pp. “Used by C.A. Elliott in his Chronicles of Oonao, 1860.” Cf. Sarkar History of Aurangzib ii p. 316).
Also by a Bhūpat Rāy, who quotes “Ẓuhūrī” (d. 1025/1616) and may be the same man, is
- Dastūr i s̲h̲igarf (beg. Ai az Tu bar ahl i ṣanʿat āmad taufīq *), an introduction to the art of composition dealing especially with syntactical matters and rhetorical figures with numerous specimens in prose and verse: Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 187 (ah 1192/1778), Ivanow 406 (18th cent.), 407 (defective. 19th cent.), Browne Suppt. 483 (Corpus 5. ah 1224/1809–10), Rieu iii 1043b (foll. 87–163. Early 19th cent.), Ethé 2138 (foll. 78. Belonged to J. Leyden, d. 1811), 2139 (foll. 30), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 52 no. 1 (?) (Risālah dar ins̲h̲ā, by B.R.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2222 (ah 1271/1855), Lahore Panjāb Univ. ( ocm. vii/3 p. 60).
§ 508. Mīrzā Nūr al-Dīn M. Niʿmat K̲h̲ān “ ʿĀlī” b. Ḥakīm Fatḥ al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī, who died in 1122/1710, has already been mentioned as the author of the Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥaidarābād (pl. i § 751 (1)) and other works.
- Dībāc̲h̲ah i bayāḍ (beg. Subḥāna ’llāh): Ethé 1662 (1).
- Dībāc̲h̲ah i Dīwān i ʿĀlī (beg. ʿIyār-afzā-yi naqd i suk̲h̲an): Ethé 1661 (2) (ah 1191/1777), 1660 (2), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2197 (ah 1195/1781), 2257, Bānkīpūr iii 370(1), ix 878(2), xi 1098 (68a), and in various mss. of the dīwān.
- Hazl dar Kāmgār K̲h̲ān, a satire on the marriage of Kāmgār K̲h̲ān in 1099/1688, on which the author wrote also a satirical qiṭʿah (see Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 22204): Lindesiana p. 203 no. 595 (presumably the prose satire. Circ. ad 1780), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2220 (following the qiṭʿah).
¶ Risālah i hajw i ḥukamā (beg. Ḥakīm i ʿalā ’l-iṭlāq az dār al-s̲h̲ifāʾ i raḥmat): Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1980 (at end. ah 1125/1713), Suppt. ii 2196 (ah 1195/1781), 2220, Bānkīpūr ix 878(3), xvii 1533 (2), Rieu ii 744b (ah 1151/1738), 850b, Ethé 1661 (3) (ah 1191/1777), 1662(4), and doubtless in some (not in all) of the mss. described as the Kullīyāt i ʿĀlī.
Editions: Ruqaʿāt [u] Muḍḥikāt i N. K̲h̲. i ʿĀ. [Lucknow], Sulṭān al-maṭābiʿ, n.d.*, pp. 2–9, and presumably on the same pages of the edition Lucknow 1261/1845°.
Ruqaʿāt i Niʿmat K̲h̲ān (beg. Ruqʿah dar Ṭalab i ʿazīzī barā-yi tamās̲h̲ā-yi bāzī i mīr u wazīr … Imrūz falak i s̲h̲aʿbadah-bāz), described by Ethé as “letters and other elegant prose-writings” (possibly including some of the compositions mentioned above): Ethé 1659 (3), and doubtless in some (not all) of the mss. described as the Kullīyāt i ʿĀlī.
A small number of humorous letters have been published under the title Ruqaʿāt [u] Muḍḥikāt i N. K̲h̲. i ʿĀ.: [Lucknow] n.d.* (Sulṭān al-maṭābiʿ), Lucknow 1261/1845°. The letters are in the following order: (1) (p. 2, without any preface) beg. Ḥakīm i ʿalā ’l-iṭlāq (see no. (4) supra), (2) (p. 9) beg. Ḥakīm i ḥaqīqī (see no. (6) infra), (3) (p. 16) Qiṭʿah i tahniyat i s̲h̲ādī i Kāmgār K̲h̲ān (see no. (3) supra), (4) (p. 19) a letter beginning Āk̲h̲und ṣāḥib i pīr i ba-ḥirṣ jawān salāmat, (5) (p. 25) beg. Li-llāhi ’l-ḥamd kih dar-īn awān i saʿādat-nis̲h̲ān himmat i wālā-nahmat i ḥaḍrat i k̲h̲alīfah i zamān bah mūjab i Jāhidi ’l-kuffāra ’l-munāfiqīn, (6) (p. 28) headed Īn as̲h̲ʿār muntak̲h̲ab i dīwān i ūst, a single page of quotations, mainly single lines, beg. Bahamwārī tuwān k̲h̲āmūs̲h̲ kardan k̲h̲aṣm i sar-kas̲h̲ rā. On p. 29 the Muḍḥikāt begin without preface Mardī ba dūgānah zan i k̲h̲wud.
(Ruqʿah bah Mīrzā Mubārak Allāh i “Wāḍiḥ”) (beg. Ḥakīm i ḥaqīqī mīrzā-yi dūstān), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1978 fol. 59b (ah 1125/1713), Suppt. ii 2196 (ah 1195/1781), 2220, Bānkīpūr ix 878(4), xvii 1533(3), Rieu ii 745a ii (?) (ah 1151/1738), 796a (18th cent.), Ethé 1661 (5) (ah 1191/1777), 1662(3), Edinburgh 375(4) (18th cent.), and doubtless in some (not in all) of the mss. described as the Kullīyāt i ʿĀlī.
Editions: Ruqaʿāt [u] Muḍḥikāt i N. K̲h̲ i. ʿĀ. [Lucknow], Sulṭān al-maṭābiʿ, n.d.*, pp. 9–16 and presumably on the same pages of the edition Lucknow 1261/1845°.
- Ruqʿah bah Mīrzā M. Saʿīd (beg. Aʿazzī Mīrzā M. Saʿīd az mawāʾid), Bānkīpūr xi 1098(68), Bodleian 1159 (2), etc.
a prose composition beginning Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq i suk̲h̲an: Ethé 1660(1), Bānkīpūr ix 878(1).
Commentary on the letter beginning …: S̲h̲arḥ i qiṭʿah i Niʿmat K̲h̲ān i ʿĀlī, by G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī: [India] 1259/1843* (20 pp.).
¶ § 509. Mīr Bāqir ʿAlī b. Mīr Muns̲h̲ī T̲h̲ābit ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, b. Amīn al-Ins̲h̲āʾ Raunaq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, has already been mentioned (§ 469 supra) as the compiler of a collection of his grandfather’s letters. He wrote also S̲h̲uʿlah i jān-sūz, a treatise on love (Edition: [India] 1264/1848* (Muḥammadī Pr. 54 pp.)) and left a short dīwān. [Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an pp. 51–2.]
Mirʾāt al-jamāl (beg. (in the 1262 edition): Pīrāyah i zībā-yi sarāpā-yi maʿānī), descriptions of the beauties of each part of a human body (sarāpā-yi maʿs̲h̲ūq) in ornate prose introduced always and concluded with a single verse of poetry:5 Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1263/1847. See ocm. vii/3 p. 61).
Edition: Lucknow 1262/1846* (Pp. 16); place? 1888 (Āṣafīyah i p. 132).
§ 510. Muns̲h̲ī Ūdai-rāj, called after his conversion6 Muns̲h̲ī Ṭāliʿ-yār. (Cf. Nigār-nāmah i Muns̲h̲ī Malik-zādah (§ 494 supra) which contains some of his letters.)
Haft anjuman, letters of Mīrzā Rājah Jai Sing’h7 and Rustam K̲h̲ān8 compiled in 1110/1698–9: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (foll. 242. ah 1211/1797. See ocm. vii/3 p. 61), Blochet i 704 (Anjuman ii and part of Anjuman iii. See Sarkar Hist. of Aurangzib ii p. 31516).
Descriptions: (i) Sarkar History of Aurangzib ii pp. 314–15 (from a ms. belonging to Bābū S̲h̲yām Sundar Lāl and his brothers at Benares), (ii) S. Najīb As̲h̲raf Nadwī Muqaddamah i Ruqaʿāt i ʿĀlamgīr p. 109.
§ 511. Najm al-Dīn “Sāqī”.
- Sāqī-nāmah, composed in 1113/1701–2: Āṣafīyah i p. 126 no. 13 (written by the author’s son, M. Fāḍil, and corrected by the author. ah 1113/1701–2).
§ 512. Jēt’h-Mal9 “Hindū” is described in the Madrās catalogue as Muns̲h̲ī to Muʿtabar K̲h̲ān.
- ¶ Kār-nāmah i wāqiʿah (beg. Baʿd az adā-yi ḥamd i K̲h̲āliq i Dhū ’l-jalāl), a collection of letters and other prose compositions10 with a large number of chronograms, elegies (mart̲h̲iyahs), etc., completed on 24 S̲h̲aʿbān 1116/22 Dec. 1704, in the 49th year of Aurangzēb’s reign: Ethé 2110 (foll. 193–279, autograph), Madrās i 259 (ah 1168/1754–5).
§ 513. Mīrzā M. Ṭāhir “Waḥīd” Qazwīnī probably died in or about 1120/1708–9 (see pl. i § 392).
Muns̲h̲aʾāt (or Inshā) i Ṭāhir i Waḥīd, official letters written on behalf of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās ii and some prefaces, preserved in mss. differing both in extent and arrangement: Blochet i 684 (early 18th cent.), Rieu iii 1019a (ah 1155/1742), ii 810b (18th cent.), 843a, Bodleian 1387 (18th cent.), 1388, ʿAlīgaṛḥ Subḥ. mss. p. 53 no. 18, p. 54 no. 29, Ross and Browne 190, Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 955, 956 (fragment), Browne Suppt. 1259, 703 (Corpus 41), 112 (Corpus 312), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. vii no. 1, Lahore (3 copies. See ocm. vii/3 p. 60), Madrās i 219, Mas̲h̲ad iii fṣl. 15, mss. no. 116(?), Peshawar 1834, Rehatsek p. 61 no. 7.
Editions: Calcutta 1826°, Lucknow (Ḥasanī Pr.) 1260/1844* (notes), Lucknow ( n.k.) 1868°* (notes), 1873°*.
§ 514. S̲h̲ēr ʿAlī, “usually styled” S̲h̲ēr-Ḥamlah, was a disciple of Ḥājjī M. Yūsuf Naqs̲h̲bandī and resided at Qaiṣūr i pur-nūr in [the district of] Lahore, i.e. presumably at Qaṣūr.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i faiḍ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (so Ethé), or Nusk̲h̲ah i faiḍ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (so Edinburgh) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. Bi-dān-kih insān-rā dīdah i bīnā), a collection of letters compiled in 1118/1706–7, the fifty-first year of ʿĀlamgīr’s reign: Edinburgh 335 (foll. 39. “Faṣlī year 1175 (ah 1173, ad 1759)”, but Faṣlī 1175 = ah 1182 = 1768), Ethé 2111 (foll. 82–128. Bengali era 1190/ ah 1197/ ad 1783), probably also Browne Suppt. 117 (Ins̲h̲ā-yi faiḍ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲. Corpus 1923), and Lahore Panjāb Univ. (I.-yi f.-b. 2 copies. ocm. viii/1 p. 58, where a reference is given to Ethé 2111, but where the work is described as the Ins̲h̲ā of M. Faiḍ-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ b. G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar Kākōrawī [who was alive in 1233/1817–18: see pl. i § 939]).
Ins̲h̲āʾ i ʿajīb (beg. Minnathā-yi bī-muntahā u sitāyis̲h̲hā-yi lā-intihā mar K̲h̲āliqī rā), model letters, mostly private, completed in 1118/1706–7 and divided into three nauʿs ((1) mukātabāt, (2) murāsalāt, (3) ruqaʿāt): Ivanow 380 (ah 1225/1810), 2nd Suppt. 958 (defective at end. Early 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 142 (Ins̲h̲ā-yi M.J. ah 1265/1849), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (See ocm. vii/3 p. 62).
Editions: [Lucknow] 1260/1844° (pp. 48. Marginal notes by Maqbūl Aḥmad Gōpāmau’ī); Cawnpore 1285/1868* (pp. 8 [sic, probably for 28]); 1878° (pp. 28), and several others.
§ 516. M. Nabī K̲h̲urāsānī, known as (al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-) Najm i T̲h̲ānī.12
- Ins̲h̲āʾ [i Muḥammad Nabī] (beg. Ai kardah ba-kilk i ṣunʿ tarkīb i bas̲h̲ar13*), a letter writer composed for Āqā M. Maʿṣūm b. Ḥājjī M. Ibrāhīm, apparently a pupil of the author, and containing (1) “a few preliminary chapters relating to the concordance of honorific surnames with proper names, to rules to be observed in writing letters, to the epithets usually applied to the months, and to titulature”, (2) “models of letters to be addressed by Amīrs to men of their own rank, to the Ḥakīm Bāshī, Mustaufī, Munajjim Bāshī, Mīr Ākhur Bāshī, Mīr Shikār Bāshī, to men of letters, doctors of the law, poets, etc.”, (3) “examples of familiar notes to be written on various occasions”: Rieu iii 1072a (ah 1122/1710, autograph).
§ 517. In the time of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam Bahādur S̲h̲āh (1119–24/1707–12) was written:
- Mirʾāt i Akbarī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 52 no. 3 (incomplete).
§ 518. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin Mūsawī S̲h̲ahristānī Iṣfahānī, entitled (muk̲h̲āṭab ba-) Iḥtirām K̲h̲ān Farruk̲h̲-S̲h̲āhī, was in the service of ¶ Farruk̲h̲-siyar (the Indian Tīmūrid, 1124–31/1713–19) and was appointed Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī of Kas̲h̲mīr.
- Bahāristān i k̲h̲ayāl (beg. Bar āyīnah i ḍamīr i k̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-naẓīr), prose compositions in praise of Kas̲h̲mīr, the sword, the horse, etc., with a few letters and anecdotes, written (collected ?) in 1129/1717 at the request of Mahārat K̲h̲ān: Bānkīpūr ix 875 (foll. 112. Ornate ms. 18th cent.).
§ 519. ʿAlī Akbar b. M. Amīn Bāk̲h̲arzī called Akābir K̲h̲ān.
- Muntak̲h̲ab i wālā (a chronogram = 1130/1718. Beg. Intik̲h̲āb i har kitāb i mustaṭāb), metrical letters in forty chapters (called ʿunwān) compiled from other ins̲h̲ās and poetical works: Ethé 2113 (foll. 172–278).
§ 520. S. Muḥammad Ḍiyāʾī Ḥaqqānī.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i zar-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (beg. Baʿd az ins̲h̲āʾ i t̲h̲anāʾ i Ḥakīmī), official letters and other documents of Aurangzēb’s reign relating especially to affairs in Bengal and Bihār, compiled in 1130/1718 and divided into two qisms ((1) correspondence between rulers (k̲h̲iṭāb i sulṭān ba-sulṭān), (2) farmāns, nis̲h̲āns, ʿarḍah-dās̲h̲ts, etc.): Ethé 2114 (ah 1172/1758–9).
Maqāmāt i ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ i Hānsawī: no mss. yet recorded?
Commentary: Ḥall i Maqāmāt i ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ i Hānsawī, by Imām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” (cf. pl. iii § 214 supra): in Vol. iii of the Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°*.
§ 522. Malla-Rāy “S̲h̲auqī” was in the service of Nawwāb Ḥifẓ Allāh K̲h̲ān14 and died in 1119/1707.
- Guldastah i suk̲h̲an (beg. Dībāc̲h̲ah i taṣānīf i aʿlā), a collection of poems and letters completed in 1132/1720 by the author’s son, Jōt Prakās̲h̲, and divided into two ṭabaqahs, of which the first contains the verse and the second the prose: Bānkīpūr ix 876 (belonged to Sir Gore Ouseley, who left India in 1805).
¶ § 523. Nawwāb Amīn al-Daulah Amīn al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Sanbhalī, a s̲h̲aik̲h̲-zādah of Sanbhal [or Sambhal, near Murādābād], became one of the Yasāwuls in the reign of Farruk̲h̲-siyar (1124–31/1713–19) and rose to high rank and received the title of Amīn al-Daulah in the time of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh. He died in the 19th year of that monarch’s reign (1149–50/1736–7).
[Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 357–8, Beveridge’s trans. i p. 240; Tad̲h̲kirat al-umarāʾ (cited by Beveridge).]
- Ruqaʿāt i Nawwāb Amīn al-Daulah), letters written mostly in the name of A. al-D. to his father and relating to events in the reign of Farruk̲h̲-siyar or shortly before and after it: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2346 (96 foll. Defective and damaged. 19th cent.).
§ 524. Mullā ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm “Sāṭiʿ” b. Mullā G̲h̲ālib Kas̲h̲mīrī went from Kas̲h̲mīr to the camp (urdū) of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (Prince M. Muʿaẓẓam) at Peshawar and in the reign of Farruk̲h̲-siyar (1124–31/1713–19) received rewards for the poems recited by him at court. After Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s death he returned to Kas̲h̲mīr and died there on 21 Ramaḍān 1143/30 March 1731. For his dīwān see Āṣafīyah i p. 724, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 138 and Sprenger p. 560.
[Wāqiʿāt i Kas̲h̲mīr pp. 248–50; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū (Bānkīpūr viii p. 104); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1096; Sprenger pp. 123, 156, 560.]
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mullā Sāṭiʿ (beg. Sitāyis̲h̲ i gūnāgūn u niyāyis̲h̲ i bū-qalamūn dar har c̲h̲as̲h̲m zadan), letters and other compositions in ornate prose: Ethé 2942 (54 foll. Headings left blank, ah 1177/1763).
§ 525. Ṣadr al-Dīn M. “Fāʾiz” b. Zabardast K̲h̲ān has already been mentioned as the author of the Irs̲h̲ād al-wuzarāʾ (pl. i § 1466) written according to Elliott History of India iv p. 148 in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (1131–61/1719–48).
- Ruqaʿāt [i Ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad] (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. a. b. īn ruqaʿātī c̲h̲and ast kih aḥqar i anām Ṣ. d. D. M. b. Z.-K̲h̲.), “a long series of ruḳʿât, that is, specimens of a refined prose style, mixed with verses, chiefly of a descriptive character”: Bodleian 1177 (7) foll. 145b–177a (?).
- Baḥr i ṭawīl: Bodleian 1177 (7) fol. 142b–145a (?).
§ 526. Mād’hau-Rām was for a time private secretary to Nawwāb Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān b. Saʿd Allāh K̲h̲ān15 and subsequently Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to Jahāndār S̲h̲āh (for ¶ whom see pl. i § 761). After the latter’s death [in 1124/1713] he entered the service of Kōkultās̲h̲ K̲h̲ān. Many of the letters composed by him perished in the wars of those days, but from the remainder his brother, Lālah Har-pars̲h̲ād, made the selection known as the Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mād’hau-Rām.
[Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mād’hau-Rām, preface (summarised in Browne Pers. Cat.).]
Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mād’hau-Rām, or Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mād’hau-Rām (beg. Bar dabīrān i daqīqah-ras u raus̲h̲an-ḍamīrān i ṣubḥ-nafas), a collection of letters completed in 1140/1727 (?) or 1145/1732–3 (?)16 and divided into two faṣls ((1) official letters dictated by Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān and Kōkultās̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, (2) private letters to the author’s friends and patrons); Browne Suppt. 120 (ah 1196/1782. King’s 36), 118 (ah 1218/1803–4. Corpus 95), 119 (ah 1252/1836–7. Corpus 127), Pers. Cat. 189, Bodleian 1412 (acephalous. ah 1214/1800), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 791 (ah 1216/1801), Curzon 150 (part of Faṣl 1 only), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1250/1834. See ocm. vii/3 p. 62), i.o. d.p. 432A, i.o. 4062 (= Irvine 257. 6 foll. only containing letters of Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān to Aurangzēb. See Sarkar Hist. of Aurangzib ii p. 316).
Editions: Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mād’hau-Rām, Lucknow 1260/1844° (pp. 142). Marginal notes by Qudrat Aḥmad Lak’hnawī. Ed. Aḥmad Fārūqī Gōpāmauʾī); [18?*] (pp. 98. With q.a.’s notes); 1869° (pp. 130. With q.a.’s notes); Cawnpore 1868* (pp. 112. With q.a.’s notes); 1879° (pp. 112. Same notes), and several others.
§ 527. S. Niẓām al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān was Muns̲h̲ī to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh.
- Ruqaʿāt i Niẓāmīyah, letters written at S̲h̲āhjahānābād [i.e. Delhi] in Rajab 1138/1726 for the instruction of the author’s two sons: Lucknow 1264/1848* (19 pp.); Cawnpore 1268/1852* (17 pp.); [Cawnpore] n.k. 1286/1869* (16 pp.); and several others.
§ 528. M. Amīn Banī-Isrāʾīl says in his preface to the Majmaʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ that after the death of Rāy Dak’hanī Rām, in whose employ he had been for some time (since 1131/1719 according to the preface to the Guls̲h̲an i saʿādat), he was intending to return to his native place [in northern India: see below] but found a new patron in Rāy Bud’h-C̲h̲and, a vassal of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh, at whose ¶ request he later compiled the Majmaʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ. The Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an in its account of M. Amīn “Amīn” Isrāʾīlī, who can scarcely be a different person, says that he came originally from northern India (aṣlas̲h̲ az Hindūstān ast), that he settled in Muḥammadpūr Arkāt’ (i.e. Arcot), became Mīr Muns̲h̲ī in the service of Nawwāb Saʿādat Allāh K̲h̲ān, Governor of the Carnatic, Nāẓim i ṣūbah i Karnātak [who died in 1145/1732: cf. pl. i § 1082], and that he was the author of the Ins̲h̲āʾ i Guls̲h̲an i saʿādat and of a dīwān. It will be noticed that the Majmaʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ, Rāy Dak’hanī Rām and Rāy Bud’h-C̲h̲and are not mentioned in the Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an.
[Guldastah i Karnātak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 no. 6); Ṣubḥ i waṭan p. 33; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 41.]
Majmaʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. Mans̲h̲aʾ i nas̲h̲w u namā-yi nihāl i ins̲h̲āʾ), a large collection of letters and other prose compositions completed in 1138/1725–6 or 1146/1733–4,17 divided according to subject into thirty faṣls (for the headings of which see Ethé 2122) and consisting mainly of Indian letters of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which include some written by the author’s grandfather (jadd i amjad) in Aurangzēb’s reign and many composed in the name of Rāy Dak’hanī Rām, Rāy Bud’h-C̲h̲and, Faḍl Allāh K̲h̲ān (the son of Siyādat K̲h̲ān) and Saʿādat Allāh K̲h̲ān by the compiler himself: Ethé 2943 (29 faṣls. Foll. 359. ah 1159/1746), 2122 (foll. 177. N. d.), Blochet i 708 (Late 18th cent.), Ivanow 390 (defective and disorderly. Late 18th cent.), Rieu iii 1067b (foll. 414. Early 19th cent.), Madrās i 233 (ah 1253/1837), 234–5, iii 728, Āṣafīyah i p. 132 no. 122.
Edition: Lucknow, n.k., 1303/1886* (Pp. 494. S̲h̲ikastah script).
Guls̲h̲an i saʿādat (beg. S̲h̲ukr i S̲h̲akūrī kih ʿaṭā-yi taufīq i s̲h̲ukras̲h̲), a collection of official letters compiled in 1131/1719 at Arkāt’ and divided into four faṣls ((1) Ṣaḥāʾif i nawwāb i saʿādat-intisāb bah buzurgān u ʿazīzān i āli-janāb, (2) Raqāʾim i rāy i ʿālam-ārāy ba-aḥibbā u aṣdiqā, (3) Mufāwaḍāt i k̲h̲ān i sarāpā-faḍl-u-iḥsān Faḍl Allāh K̲h̲ān ba-aʿizzah i darbār u buzurgān i rūzgār, (4) Ruqaʿāt az jānib i k̲h̲wud ba-jānib i buzurgān i qadr-dān u dūstān i mihrbān): Āṣafīyah i p. 130 nos. 199 (ah 1225/1810), 57 (ah 1236/1820–1), 49 (ah 1248/1832–3), Gotha Arab. Cat. v p. 486 no. 9** (3) (ah 1257/1841), Ivanow Curzon 153 (foll. 131. ah 1262/1846), 154 (fragment), 147 foll. 1–44 (continuation of the preceding fragment almost to the end of the work), Madrās i 252 (a fragment badly damaged).
Edition: Madrās 1290/1873* (Pp. 176).
- Guls̲h̲an i ʿajāʾib (beg. Ārāyis̲h̲ i dībāc̲h̲ah i suk̲h̲an), letters written by the compiler in the name of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh to the Emperors Farruk̲h̲-siyar (1124–31/1713–19) and Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (ah 1131–61/1719–18) as well as to a number of contemporary amīrs: Ivanow 392 (ah 1172/1758–9), Rieu i 402b (foll. 158. Late 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 130 no. 145 (ah 1223/1808. Described as a printed edition, but doubtless incorrectly).
§ 530. Ranc̲h̲hōr-Dās b. Ranjīt Rāy Kāyat’h19 was a resident of Jaunpūr (sākin i Dār al-surūr i Jaunpūr, Vatican Pers. 77), but he wrote his Daqāʾiq al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Allāhābād.
- Daqāʾiq al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir u t̲h̲anā-yi muta-kāt̲h̲ir nit̲h̲ār i bār-gāh), a manual of Persian composition begun in 1145/1732–3 at Allāhābād, completed in 1146/1733–4, based on twenty-two earlier works (for which see Bodleian 1403, Ethé 2120, and especially Edinburgh 115) and divided into a muqaddimah (dar bayān i ins̲h̲ā u aqsām i ān) and eight daqīqahs ((1) in three faṣls, (a) dar bayān i ḥadd i ḥarf, etc., (2) in ten faṣls (a) dar bayān i kaifīyat i ḥurūf i tahajjī, (b) dar s̲h̲arḥ i kullīyāt i k̲h̲ams, etc., (3) in two faṣls, (a) dar taʿbīr i kalām i naẓm, (b) dar taḥrīr i kalām i nat̲h̲r, (4) in two faṣls, (a) dar bayān asqām i d̲h̲ātī i kalām, (b) dar bayān i asqām i ʿāriḍī i kalām, (5) (a) dar bayān i ḥusn i d̲h̲ātī kalām, (b) dar bayān i ḥusn i ʿāriḍī kalām, (6) dar bayān i qawāʿid i Pārsīyah, in two faṣls, (7) in three faṣls, (a) dar ādāb i suk̲h̲an guftan, (b) dar ādāb i munāẓarah, (c) dar ādāb i naukarī, (8) dar iṣṭilāḥāt u kināyāt, based on the Farhang i Jahāngīrī and arranged alphabetically in twenty-three faṣls) and a k̲h̲ātimah (apparently absent from most of the mss.): Ethé 2120 (lacks most of Daqīqah viii. ah 1146/1734), 2121 (defective and incorrect), 2945 (lacks Daqīqah viii and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1207/1792), Lindesiana p. 209 no. 107 (circ. ad 1760), Vatican Pers. 77 (ah 1198/1784. Rossi p. 98), Edinburgh 115 (ah 1204/1789–90), 336, Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 373 (18th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1244/1828–9. See ocm. vii/4 p. 68), Ivanow Curzon 155 ( ad 1832), Berlin 1063, Bodleian 1403.
- Tuḥfat al-ṣibyān (beg. Baʿd az c̲h̲ihr-ārāʾī i s̲h̲āhid i suk̲h̲an), letters of the compiler’s own collected for his younger son Rādh’hā-Kris̲h̲an and divided into two faṣls ((1) letters to noblemen and high officials, (2) private ¶ letters): Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 959 (foll. 64. ah 1229/1814), apparently also Edinburgh 337 (defective. Foll. 46).
§ 531. Tahawwurī-mal (or, as Rieu transliterates the name, T’hūrīmal) Muns̲h̲ī “Tamkīn”.
- Guldastah i faiḍ (beg. G̲h̲unchah i zabān ba-ihtizāz i nasīm i s̲h̲ukr i Qādirī), letters and other compositions in prose and verse collected by the author’s grandson, Prān (or as Rieu transliterates, Purān) C̲h̲and20 “Sarshār” walad i Bak̲h̲t-mal b. Tahawwurī-mal and arranged in six faṣls, of which the first, containing the author’s letters (which belong to the early period of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s reign (1131–61/1719–48)), is perhaps the only one extant: Rieu iii 987a (Faṣl i only. 52 foll. ah 1222/1807).
§ 532. ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliq.
- Murāsalāt i s̲h̲auqī (a chronogram = 1148/1735–6, the date of completion. Beg. Sar-mans̲h̲aʾ i muns̲h̲aʾāt i murāsalāt i s̲h̲auqī), a collection of love-letters and their answers together with verses suitable to the subjects of the letters, collected at the request of Sulṭān Ḅuland-ak̲h̲tar [Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s brother] and arranged under forty topics: Bānkīpūr xi 1099 (ornate ms. 18th cent.).
§ 533. Mīrzā M. ʿAlī “Afḍal”, entitled (al-muk̲h̲āṭab bi-) Faḍl i ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Jazāʾirī (al-aṣl) S̲h̲īrāzī (al-waṭan) eulogises the reigning sovereign, Muḥammad S̲h̲āh [1131–61/1719–48] in the preface to his Ruqaʿāt and says that he composed the work when he was Superintendent (Dārūg̲h̲ah) of the Imperial elephant-stable.
- Ruqaʿāt i M. ʿAlī (beg. Ḥ u st. i bī-ḥadd K̲h̲āliqī rā kih ba-ḥikmat i kāmilah), a collection of the author’s letters to friends and others preceded by “a description of the elephant and its fight” and completed in 1149/1736–7: Bānkīpūr ix 877 (foll. 55. ah 1228/1813).
§ 534. Anand Rām “Muk̲h̲liṣ” K’hatrī Lāhaurī, who died in 1164/1751, has already been mentioned as the author of works entitled Badāʾiʿ i waqāʾiʿ (pl. i § 780), Rāḥat al-faras (pl. ii § 673) and Mirʾāt al-iṣṭilāh (pl. iii § 42 supra).
C̲h̲amanistān (beg. Baʿd i rangārang ārāyis̲h̲ i c̲h̲amanistān i ḥamd), anecdotes, descriptions, witticisms, etc., completed in 1159/1746 and divided into four c̲h̲amans, each subdivided into two guldastahs ((1) (a) anecdotes and fables, (b) satirical anecdotes, (2) (a) accounts of ¶ certain persons, events, customs etc., e.g. Rājah Jai Sing’h of Anbēr, Mirzā M. Muqīm, Librarian to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, Jahān-ārā Bēgam, S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s white elephant, Hidāyat Allāh, the calligrapher, Rājah Harī Sing’h, the archer, Rāy Har-karan, Satī, kite-flying, sang i yadah, (b) descriptions of some trees, flowers and fruits, (3) (a) interesting events, each introduced by the word fāʾidah, (b) wise sayings, each introduced by the word nuktah, (4) (a) witticisms, (b) witticisms of the author himself): Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 309. ah 1260/1844), Bānkīpūr ix 882 (4) (19th cent.).
Edition: C̲h̲. i A.-R.M. Lucknow 1294/1877°* ( n.k. Pp. 68).
Ruqaʿāt i Muk̲h̲liṣ (beg. Ilāhī bīc̲h̲ārah Muk̲h̲liṣ i kaj-maj-zabān rā), letters to friends and others (Iʿtimād al-Daulah C̲h̲īn Bahādur Nuṣrat-Jang, Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ārzū”, etc.) collected and arranged by the author in 1149/1736: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (?) (Ins̲h̲ā-yi A.R.M. ah 1260/1844. See ocm. vii/4 p. 68), Bānkīpūr ix 882 (1) (foll. 1–36. 19th cent.), i.o. 3981.
Edition: Ins̲h̲āʾ i Anand Rām Delhi 1268/1851–2 (on the margin of “G̲h̲ālib’s” dīwān. See Safar-nāmah i Muk̲h̲liṣ, ed. Aẓhar ʿAlī, p. 49 ult.).
- Parī-k̲h̲ānah (beg. Rangārang ḥ. u st. Muṣawwirī rā), a laudatory preface written in 1144/1731–2 for an album (muraqqaʿ) containing specimens of calligraphy, portraits and other drawings: i.o. d.p. 491 (a) (foll. 11. ah 1209/1794–5), Ivanow Curzon 156 (late 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 882 (2) (19th cent.).
- Nāmah i Muḥammad S̲h̲āh ba-S̲h̲āh i Īrān (beg. Sar i nāmah ba-nām i Pāds̲h̲āhī-st *), a long letter written by order of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh to congratulate a Ṣafawī king on his accession to the throne: Ivanow Curzon 156 (late 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 882 (3) (19th cent.).
§ 535. Āqā Kalb-ʿAlī.
- Qāʾid al-muḥibbīn: Āṣafīyah iii p. 58 no. 277 (ah 1151/1738–9, autograph, written at Hūglī21).
§ 536. Rājah Rām Kunt.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Rām Kunt (beg. ʿArḍah-dās̲h̲t i fidawī i ʿubūdīyat-farjām Rām Kunt ādāb i kōrnis̲h̲āt i farāwān), letters, orders, etc., written by Rājah R.K. in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh [1131–61/1719–48] and partly in his name, the latest date being 1152/1739: Ethé 2123 (94 foll. N.d.).
§ 537. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn “Dīwān”, a poet of the Carnatic (cf. Guldastah i Karnātak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 (15), Ṣubḥ i waṭan p. 75), completed in 1150/1737–8, a ¶ commentary on the Sullam al-ʿulūm of Muḥibb Allāh Bihārī (Ethé 1700 (13), Madrās i 476–7).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Dīwān: Ethé 1700 (31) (autograph?).
§ 538. Dīh-dayāl, of Fatḥpūr, “near Lucknow”,22 was in the employ of a certain M. Ardas̲h̲īr, who died in 1150/1737–8.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i badāʾiʿ (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd [u] sipās i Qādirī kih ba-yak zamzamah i qudratas̲h̲), a collection of model letters completed in 1154/1741–2 and divided into two faṣls ((1) petitions, (2) miscellaneous letters): Ivanow Curzon 714 (foll. 29. Early 19th cent.), Browne Suppt. 102 (?) ( ad 1827. Corpus 9).
§ 539. Mīr Kamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad died on 7 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1132/18 Jan. 1720.
- Ruqaʿāt i k̲h̲ātam al-kalām (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd i maufūr u t̲h̲anā-yi nā-maḥṣūr), model letters for various occasions edited in 1155/1742–3 by the compiler’s pupil Lac̲h̲hī-Rām b. Har-Dās and divided into nine faṣls: Ethé 2124 (defective at end. Foll. 160).
§ 540. ʿAbd al-Salām Lāhaurī.
- Gulzār i minnat (beg. Gulzār i minnat u guls̲h̲an i niyāyis̲h̲), specimen letters compiled in 1155/1742–3 for the compiler’s son: Ethé ii 3048 (foll. 103).
§ 541. Muns̲h̲ī Ṣāḥib Rāy.
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i Ṣāḥib Rāy), of which Faṣl ii contains letters written in the name of Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Bahādur G̲h̲aḍan-far-Jang [Bangas̲h̲, first Nawwāb of Farruk̲h̲ābād, d. 1156/1743: cf. pl. i § 906] to the Wazīr Iʿtimād al-Daulah Qamar al-Dīn K̲h̲ān, Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh and others: Rieu iii 986b (Faṣl ii only. ad 1852).
§ 542. S.M. “Wālih” Mūsawī died in 1184/1770 (see pl. i § 1147).
- Qānūnc̲h̲ah: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1722 no. 14(2) (where the subject is given as Ins̲h̲ā. ah 1158/1745).
§ 543. Mīrzā M. Mahdī K̲h̲ān Astarābādī was secretary and historiographer to Nādir S̲h̲āh (see pl. i § 407, etc.).
Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān, apparently existing in more than one collection (since the exordia differ), but details are not available, since most of the mss. are inadequately described: Cairo p. 493 (“al-muntak̲h̲abāt ¶ min kalām Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān”. Beg.: Ilāhī dīdah i mā-rā az ʿaib muṣarrā kun [sic !]. 185 foll. ah 1152/1739–40. In the section ʿIlm al-adab, which includes poetry. This ms. may therefore be a selection from “Kaukab’s” poems), Mehren p. 26 no. 71 (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i M. M. K̲h̲. After the preface (illegible to Mehren) Taʾammul i awwal dar sawād i arqām i muṭāʿah i pāds̲h̲āhān …, then letters to (1) Mīrzā M. Mahdī mutak̲h̲alliṣ bi-Kaukab, appointing him supervisor (nāẓir) of parks and buildings at Iṣfahān, (2) Mīrzā M. Aʿlā, appointing him Ṣadr i mamālik i maḥrūsah, fol. 4b, (3) M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bēglerbēgī, a fatḥ-nāmah i Harāt, fol. 5b, (4) to Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā, a fatḥ-nāmah i Hindūstān, fol. 11b, [these official letters composed (collected ?) in 1151/1738–9, but on fol. 48a the date 1172 occurs], later ṣūrat i taʿziyat-nāmah, waṣīyat-nāmah, ṣūrat i tahniyat-nāmah, etc., and on fol. 45 Bāb i siyyum dar nawis̲h̲tan i musawwadāt … 55 foll.), Leningrad Institut (Rosen 27. Ins̲h̲ā i M. M. K̲h̲. 98 pp. ah 1238/1822–3. Also Rosen 20 foll. 263–92, a collection of Mahdī K̲h̲ān’s ins̲h̲āʾāt u makātīb appended to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Nādirī, which is dated 1216), Pub. Lib. (Chanykov 38. Ins̲h̲ā-yi M. M. K̲h̲. Astarābādī. Beg. Ḥabbad̲h̲ā īn bayāḍ i dil-ārā23), Univ. (Salemann-Rosen p. 19 no. 167. Muns̲h̲aʾāt), Berlin 32(1) (Natāʿij al-afkār, beg. Ḥabbad̲h̲ā īn bayāḍ i dil-ārā24 * kih mz̲h̲ rū [sic] rangīn par u bālī-st [sic]. 60 foll. ah 1244/1829), Edinburgh New Coll. p. 12 (K. al-tarassul, by M.M. Mahdī Kaukab), Ivanow 400(?) (beg. Gulgūnah i ḥamdī kih ʿid̲h̲ār i ʿad̲h̲rā-yi waraq. Foll. 13b–130. Early 19th cent.), Asʿad 3319, 3320 (cf. Horn Pers. Hss. 958), Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lu 672 (cf. ibid.).
The ms. r.a.s. p. 228 is not the Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān but an untitled collection of prose compositions by M. Zamān b. Ḥājjī M. Hās̲h̲im (see § 591 infra).
Editions: Tabrīz 1269/1853 (88 pp. See Karatay p. 126); 1285/1868° (K. i Ins̲h̲ā-yi Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān. Followed by a metrical glossary of less familiar Persian words (by Mahdī K̲h̲ān?). 72 pp.); place? 1294/1877 (Muns̲h̲aʾāt. See Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, ptd. bks., no. 123); place? 1307/1889–90 (Ins̲h̲ā i ẓarāfat, by M.M. K̲h̲. Afs̲h̲ār. Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 266); Bombay Muẓaffarī Pr. 1346/1927–8* (Title: Hād̲h̲ā kitāb i Mustaṭāb i tarassul al-musammā bi-’l-Ins̲h̲āʾ … az badāyiʿ i afkār i abkār i … Mīrzā Mahdī-K̲h̲ān i Afs̲h̲ār ba-inḍimām i Muns̲h̲aʾāt i mubtadaʿāt i … Qāʾim-maqām i mulk i ʿAjam ¶ Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim al-Ḥusainī25…. Beginning: Ai kardah ba-kilk i ṣunʿ tarkīb i bas̲h̲ar26… Ins̲h̲ā-nāmah i ḥamdī-kih mutarassilān i ṣaḥāʾif…. Five or six letters addressed to the King of India (p. 6), Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā (a long fatḥ-namah i Hindūstān,27 p. 7), M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Bēglerbēgī of Fārs (p. 13), Miḥrāb Bēg, Wazīr of Harāt (p. 18) and others, followed (on pp. 21–32) by some models for legal documents (firstly a mahr-nāmah), two of which (on p. 26) contain allusions to Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī, and accompanied on the margins by a translation of ʿAlī’s letter to Mālik b. al-As̲h̲tar (pp. 2–24), a number of muns̲h̲aʾāt i jadīdah kih ḥāl mutadāwal u maʿmūl u dānistan i ān bar mubtadī lāzim u ṣawāb-ast (p. 25) and a few poems of Mīrzā M. Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲uʿlah” Nairīzī (pp. 34–5), 36 pp.).
§ 544. Partāb Rām Rānā Nandī, known as (maʿrūf bah) Hīrā La‘l, b. Pāras Rām Gōbind mentions in the preface to his Bahāristān i maʿnī that he had previously written a work entitled Maʿdin al-qawānīn (dar ʿilm i ʿArabī, evidently an Arabic grammar) and that he had translated a Sanskrit work into Braj Bhākhā (u lhwlhī (read pōthī?) Gyān-mālā kih ba-tak̲h̲alluṣ i Ras-sāgar az zabān i Sāstar bah Bhākhā Braj taṣnīf kardam).
- Bahāristān i maʿnī (beg. Ba-ṣunūf (read Ṣunūf?) i aḥmād u ulūf i as̲h̲kār i Ins̲h̲ā-pardāzī), letters to kings, princes and amīrs with their answers, official documents, etc., collected in 1158/1745, in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s reign, and divided into eight bāg̲h̲s, each of which is subdivided into c̲h̲amans: Bānkīpūr ix 881 (foll. 121. ah 1240/1825).
§ 545. S.M. Hās̲h̲im “Jurʿat” Gīlānī entitled (al-muk̲h̲āṭab bah) Mūsawī K̲h̲ān b. Mīr M. S̲h̲afīʿ was a protégé of Qalʿah-dār K̲h̲ān, the employer of his grandfather, S. ʿAlī Gīlānī. He became Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to Āṣaf-Jāh, the first Niẓām of Ḥaidarābād (d. 1161/1748), and died in 1175/1761–2.
[Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii p. 119 antepenult.; “Sirāj” Dīwān i muntak̲h̲ab (Sprenger p. 150); S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 107.]
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mīr Muḥammad Hās̲h̲im: Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 201.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mūsawī K̲h̲ān, possibly identical with the preceding: Āṣafīyah iii p. 56 no. 321 (ah 1254/1838), p. 60 no. 339 (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i M. K̲h̲.).
¶ § 546. G̲h̲ulām-Qādir “Hamdam” entitled (al-muk̲h̲āṭab bah) Tawassul Ḥusain K̲h̲ān Niẓām al-Mulkī was presumably in the service of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh, the first of the Niẓāms of Ḥaidarābād, who died in 1161/1748.
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i G̲h̲ulām-Qādir i Hamdam: Āṣafīyah iii p. 60 no. 322.
§ 547. ʿInāyat K̲h̲ān “Rāsik̲h̲” was the son of S̲h̲ams al-Daulah Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān Ṣādiq Tahawwur-Jang (K̲h̲ān-sāmān to Firdaus-ārāmgāh, see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 177–8), and a brother of S̲h̲ākir K̲h̲ān (for whom see pl. i § 795). He was in his forty-ninth year in 1163/1750, when he compiled his ʿInāyat-nāmah.
- ʿInāyat-nāmah i nat̲h̲r, or Ruqaʿāt i ʿInāyat-K̲h̲ānī, letters of historical interest written or received by the Indian Tīmūrids, especially Aurangzēb, collected in 1163/1750: Rieu ii 876b (first third of Vol. i. Foll. 1–51. 18th cent.), i.o. d.p. 466 (ah 1223/1808), Ethé 411 (n.d.), Browne Suppt. 874 (ah 1257/1841. Corpus 49. Called in the colophon Majmaʿ al-jawāhir), 706 (Ruqaʿāt i ʿInāyat-K̲h̲ānī. 72 foll. N.d. King’s 194).
§ 548. Hald’hal28 Sing’h.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i gadā (beg. Yād i K̲h̲udāʾī kih k̲h̲āk rā bāg̲h̲), letters to relatives and friends written (collected?) in 1165/1752: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2327 (foll. 14–44. 1193 Faṣlī/1785).
§ 549. The title of the work described below comes from the colophon, in which the author’s name is not mentioned.
- al-Mawāhib al-ins̲h̲āʾīyah fī ’l-makātīb al-ibdāʿīyah, on epistolography and various rhetorical devices, composed in 1170/1756–7 and divided into forty mauhibahs, each dealing with some special question of the technique of composition: Ivanow 399 (beg. (of first mauhibah) wa-lau anna mā fī ’l-arḍi min s̲h̲ajaratin aqlāmun (Sūrah xxi 26). No preface. Possibly autograph. Foll. 57).
- Musawwadāt i Kēwal Rām30 (beg…. zamān i saʿādat-iqtirān kih bā …), letters to various Indian noblemen of the 18th century (the Faṣlī dates 1154, 1155 and 1156 [circ. ah 1163–5/1750–2] being the latest) and some ¶ business documents: Ivanow Curzon 157 (first 15 foll. much damaged. ah 1207/1792).
§ 551. Muns̲h̲ī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Yār Muḥammad Qalandar compiled the Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ for his patron Fidāʾī K̲h̲ān known as S. G̲h̲ulām Ḥusain K̲h̲ān.
[Riyāḍ al-afkār (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 60).]
Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ, a collection of letters relating mainly to transactions in Bengal under ʿAlī-Wirdī K̲h̲ān and Sirāj al-Daulah (ah 1151/1738–1170/1757): Ethé 2128 (ah 1221/1806 (?)), Bānkīpūr 1X 883 ( b.s. 1215/ ad 1808), Mehren 72 ( ad 1821), Rieu iii 1031a (extracts. Circ. ad 1844), possibly also ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 52 no. 6 (ah 1231/1816).
Editions: Calcutta 1240/1825° (308 pp.); 1251/1835–6* (246 pp.); [Calcutta] 1264/1848* (260 pp.).
§ 552. Nawwāb Ṣamṣām al-Daulah S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Ḥasan ʿAlī Ḥusainī K̲h̲wāfī Aurangābādī, who was born in 1111/1700 and died in 1171/1758, has already been mentioned (pl. i § 1471) as the author of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” speaks of him as an unrivalled muns̲h̲ī.31
- (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān), a small collection of letters beginning with an ʿarḍ-dās̲h̲t addressed to Nāṣir-Jang and ending with a letter to Quṭb al-Daulah M. Anwar K̲h̲ān: Bombay Univ. p. 110 no. 39 (acephalous, beginning Nawis̲h̲tah agar-c̲h̲ih taḥrīrātas̲h̲ bisyār ziyādah az-īn majmūʿah i muk̲h̲taṣar būdah amma bi-’l -fiʿl har-c̲h̲ih farāham s̲h̲ud t̲h̲abt uftād. Foll. 87).
Select letters: S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh Dihlawī kē siyāsī maktūbāt [twenty-six letters edited with Urdu translation and notes by K̲h̲alīq Aḥmad Niẓāmī]. [ʿAlīgaṛh 1950.]
§ 554. M. ʿAlī “Ḥazīn” Jīlānī died in 1180/1766 (see pl. i § 1150, etc.).
- (Ruqaʿāt i Ḥazīn): ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 53 no. 10 (some letters collected in 1225/1810 by As̲h̲raf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Gustāk̲h̲”. ah 1225/1810), p. 54 no. 38 ¶ (Taḥrīr dar jawāb i s̲h̲ak̲h̲ṣī. ah 1201/1787), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2201 (some letters, beginning Yā asafā ʿalā mufāraqati ḥabīb. Foll. 169b–178a. ah 1195/1781).
- K̲h̲ātimah i Dīwān i Ḥazīn: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2202 (ah 1195/1781).
- Risālah [sic!]: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 54 no. 39.
§ 555. Siyālkōtī-Mal “Wā-rastah”, who died at Dērah G̲h̲āzī K̲h̲ān in 1180/1766–7, has already been mentioned (pl. iii § 46 supra) as the author of the Muṣṭalaḥāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ.
Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain, on composition in prose and verse, written in 1168/1754–5.
Edition: Cawnpore 1880° (Pp. 98).
Description: S.M. ʿAbd Allāh, “Siyālkōṭī Mal Wā-rastah”, ocm. v/3 p. 64.
Ṣifāt i kāʾināt (beg. Ḥamd i Suk̲h̲an-āfrīnī kih dilhā-yi ṣāf-bāṭinān rā) ornate descriptive passages selected from the works of various prose-writers, mostly Indian, and arranged according to the objects described (under headings beginning Dar ṣifat i …), the year 1171/1757–8 being given in the preface as the date of completion: Ivanow Curzon 160 (ah 1196/1782), 715 (ah 1242/1827), Bānkīpūr ix 903 (defective. ah 1200/1785–6), 902 (ah 1235/1820), Rieu iii 1006b (19th cent.), 1007a (extracts only).
Edition: Lucknow 1295/1878° (Pp. 319).
Description: S.M. ʿAbd Allāh, “Siyālkōṭī Mal Wā-rastah”, ocm. v/3 pp. 64–5.
§ 556. Sujān Rāypūrī seems to have been in the service of the Rājah of the tiny Sik’h state of Rāypūr in the Ambālah Division at the time when S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah was Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh (1167–88/1753–75).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Niyāz-nāmah (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ. ba-ḥaḍrat i Mans̲h̲aʾ i Maʿnī kih muns̲h̲ī i fiṭrat rā), a collection of letters relating mainly to local events and the management of the Rājah’s estates divided into three qisms ((1) ʿarāʾiḍ, or letters to men of rank, (2) raqāʾim, familiar letters, (3) t̲h̲amarahā-yi mutafarriq, miscellaneous compositions): Rieu iii 988a (Qism i and part of Qism ii. ad 1832), 1012b (abstract only, 19th cent.).
- ¶ C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman (so Rieu), or C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman i faiḍ (so Ethé (beg. Baʿd i ḥ. i Aḥad Allāh al-Ṣamad), letters from Fīrōz-Jang and M. Fāḍil to Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh and from the compiler to Fīrūz-Jang, and other compositions in four c̲h̲amans, of which the third contains letters of the author to amīrs and friends, while the fourth comprises congratulatory pieces, descriptions of festivals and accounts of contemporary events, e.g. the advance of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī on Delhi in 1170 and the expedition sent by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh against ʿAlī Muḥammad, the Rohilla, [in 1158]: Ethé 2129, Rieu iii 987a (C̲h̲amans iii– iv only. ah 1212/1797).
- Ruqaʿāt i Ars̲h̲ad K̲h̲ān, perhaps identical with the preceding, or a part of it: Āṣafīyah i p. 124 no. 146.
§ 558. S̲h̲. Anīs al-Dīn b. Qāḍī Naʿīm al-Dīn, a resident of the village (qaṣabah) of C̲h̲anwah (?34), Bardwān, was in 1175/1761–2 Muns̲h̲ī to Gandarbh-Dās, Nāʾib-Zamīndār of Hijilī,35 and shortly afterwards compiled his Dastūr al-ṣibyān.
- Dastūr al-ṣibyān (beg. C̲h̲ūn ḥamd u t̲h̲anā-yi ḥaḍrat i Āfrīdgār ba-hīc̲h̲-wajh), model letters and official documents, including many of the compiler’s own composition: Rieu ii 820a (foll. 17–54. Late 18th cent.).
§ 559. Muns̲h̲ī Jaswant Rāy.
- Guls̲h̲an i bahār (beg. Nauʿ bah nauʿ i sipās), letters written by various persons during the reign of ʿĀlamgīr ii [1167–73/1754–9] and in the earlier years of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam [1173–1221/1759–1806] and connected specially with Rājah Jawāhir Sing’h, the Jāt ruler of Dīg and Bharaṭpūr [1177–82/1763–68]: Rieu iii 987b (67 foll. 18th cent.).
§ 560. Apparently unknown to the compiler of the Āṣafīyah catalogue was the authorship of the:
- Majmūʿah i faiḍ, composed in 1182/1768–9: Āṣafīyah iii p. 58 no. 276 (ah 1184/1770–1).
§ 561. G̲h̲ulām-Bāqir b. G̲h̲ulām-Qādir.
- Jalāʾil al-baṣāʾir fī naqḍ dalāʾil al-munāẓir (dar faḍl i muns̲h̲ī bar s̲h̲āʿir), composed in 1185/1771–2: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1338 no. 259 (with the author’s own commentary Kuḥl al-jawāhir).
¶ § 562. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn S. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf “D̲h̲auqī” b. Abī ’l-Ḥasan “Qurbī” Ēlōrī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 909) as the author of the Najīb-nāmah composed when the author was thirty-five years old, probably in 1185/1771–2. Three mystical works of his, Laṭāʾif i Laṭīfī, Risālah i taufīq and Miftāḥ al-asrār, preserved in an India Office ms. ( i.o. 4570), have been described by Arberry in jras. 1939 pp. 362–3. He died in 1194/1780.
[Guldastah i Karnātak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 no. 13); Ṣubḥ i waṭan p. 76.]
- Dār al-k̲h̲uld (beg. Binā-yi t̲h̲anā-yi Muns̲h̲iʾī), letters mainly on Ṣūfī subjects: Ivanow 415 (early 19th cent.).
§ 563. Sh. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Mubtalā”, afterwards “Is̲h̲q”, Quras̲h̲ī Mēraṭ’hī composed his Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲un in 1222/1807 (see pl. i § 1187 (2)).
- Bāg̲h̲ i gulhā-yi ḥusn (a chronogram = 1187/1773. Beg. Tāzagī i gulistān i ḥusn), or Majmūʿah i ʿIs̲h̲q, descriptions of the various points of female beauty, with appropriate verses, being the first part of a collection entitled C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 53 no. 8 (ah 1187, autograph), Rieu ii 723b (ah 1191/1777).
- Ṣād i daftar i as̲h̲wāq (a chronogram = 1187/1773. Beg. T̲h̲anā-yi ʿibārat-āraī), model letters in ornate prose, being the second part36 of the aforesaid C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman: Rieu ii 723b (ah 1191/1777).
§ 564. “ʿUrūj” must have written his Payām i ulfat in the latter part of the eighteenth century and apparently in southern India, since his letters are addressed to such persons as G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” (see pl. i § 1162, etc.), G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Fīrōz-Jang, M. Amīn “Wafā” (d. 1193/1779: see S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 519), and S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī Īlic̲h̲pūrī. Probably he is identical with Bahāʾ al-Dīn Ḥasan K̲h̲ān “ʿUrūj”, the author of a Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Āṣafīyah i p. 318 nos. 12, 99).
- Payām i ulfat (beg. Ai nām i Tu sar-nāmah i ins̲h̲ā-yi suk̲h̲an *), flowery letters: Ivanow 1st Suppt. 793 (foll. 25. ah 1206/1792), Ivanow 402 (foll. 31. Early 19th cent.).
§ 565. Muns̲h̲ī Har Sahāy Qānūngō Sahaswānī.37
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi faiḍ-pīrā, letters of the years 1753–75: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (51 foll. See ocm. vii/4 p. 70).
¶ § 566. Rām Nārāyan, the author of the Ins̲h̲āʾ i Majmūʿ al-qawāʿid, is probably identical, as Ethé supposed, with the Rām Nārāyan, a resident of Sonargaon, near Dacca in Eastern Bengal (mutawaṭṭin i parganah i Sunārgām mutaʿalliqah i c̲h̲aklah i Jahāngīrnagar38), who in 1186/1772–3 wrote an introduction to practical arithmetic (in seven faṣls) for officials (Berlin 78 (2)).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Majmūʿ al-qawāʿid (beg. Ḥ. u sp. i qudsī-asās Mubdī rā sazad), a large collection of official and other letters, relating mainly to Bengal in S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign [1173–1221/1759–1806], completed in 1190/1776 and divided into four faṣls ((1) mus̲h̲tamil bar musawwadāt kih dar aiyām i ṭufūlīyat az ustādān iṣlāḥ giriftah būd u dastūrāt i ʿilm i nawīsandagī, letters of the author’s early years followed by a treatise in three bābs on accountancy (dar ʿilm i nawīsandagī), (2) letters of congratulation, condolence, etc., from S̲h̲ahāmat-Jang, Ḥusain-Qulī K̲h̲ān, Ḥusain Allāh-Dīn K̲h̲ān, Jasārat K̲h̲ān, etc., (3) similar letters from Mahārājah Mahā Sing’h and Rājah Himmat Sing’h to Nawwāb S.M. Riḍā K̲h̲ān Muẓaf-far-Jang and to Rājah Amrit Sing’h, etc., (4) dar ḍābiṭah i asnād i dīwānī u dastakāt i k̲h̲idmat i ʿamal i sābiq u ḥukm-nāmah i ʿamaldārī, etc., warrants, writs and other official documents: Ethé 2132 (foll. 383. N.d.).
§ 567. Lieut.-Colonel Antoine Louis Henri Polier, or, as he is called in the Iʿjāz i Arsalānī, Nawwāb Iftik̲h̲ār al-Mulk Imtiyāz al-Daulah Mējar [i.e. Major] Polier Bahādur Arsalān-Jang, who was born at Lausanne in 1741 and was murdered on 9 Feb. 1795 some years after his return from India to Europe, has already been mentioned (pl. i § 170) as one of those to whom the rough draft of the Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm was submitted. The collection of more than five hundred and fifty Persian mss. acquired by Edward Ephraim Pote and presented by him in 1788 partly to Eton College and partly to King’s College, Cambridge, evidently came from Polier’s library. His seal “Major Polier, ah 1181”, occurs in a large number of the volumes and his autograph, “Ant. Polier”, in several (Eton cat. p. 4).
[Haag La France protestante; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 339; Blochet ii no. 713–14.]
- Iʿjāz i Arsalānī, Polier’s letters from 1187/1773 to 1193/1779 collected and arranged at ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patnah) by an anonymous Indian muns̲h̲ī: Blochet ii 713–14 (foll. 445; 326. Late 18th cent.).
§ 568. Augustin Ouessant is the author of a French-Persian dictionary in the Roman character (Blochet ii 1031), which he completed in 1780, evidently in India.
- ¶ Guls̲h̲an al-qawānīn, model letters in twelve bābs completed in 1781: Blochet ii 1064 (351 foll. ah 1196/1781).
§ 569. Sanbhau Lāl was Muns̲h̲ī to C̲h̲ait Sing’h, Rājah of Benares [deposed in 1195/1781: cf. pl. i §§ 921, 922, 923] and afterwards to Francis Fowke, British Resident at Benares. He was in his fortieth year when he compiled the Miftāḥ i k̲h̲azāʾin. Miftāh i k̲h̲azāʾin (a chronogram = 1197/1783. Beg. T̲h̲anā-yi Suk̲h̲an-ṭirāzī kih ruqūm i suk̲h̲an), letters and other prose compositions including two letters written at the request of Rājah Dayā-Rām and in the name of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam to George iii and Lord North as well as a detailed account of C̲h̲ait Sing’h’s rebellion and of the author’s career: Rieu iii 1016b foll. 1–176 (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1026a foll. 459–64 (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1056b (abstract only. Circ. ad 1850).
§ 570. Lālah Kēwal Rām.
- Ṭilismāt i k̲h̲ayāl (beg. Sawād i dīdah i maʿnī), a large collection of letters and other compositions compiled in 1197/1783 and later years (some letters are dated 1200/1786) by the author’s son Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr “Nazākat”, who arranged them in seven ṭilisms and prefixed a short preface: Ivanow 403 (3 vols., lacking ṭilism ii. Early 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 886 (foll. 297. 19th cent.).
§ 571. Lac̲h̲hman Sing’h “G̲h̲ayūrī” Dihlawī was the author of a romance entitled S̲h̲uʿlah i āh which he translated from an Urdu original by order of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam not earlier than 1173/1759, the date of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s accession, and not later than 1198/1784, the date of the Bodleian ms. 482. In 1218/1803–4 he was just seventy years old and was living at Delhi (Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1830).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Muns̲h̲ī Lac̲h̲hman Sing’h G̲h̲ayūrī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 54 no. 33 (foll. 79. ah 1248/1832–3).
§ 572. M. Aʿẓam and Kāẓim ʿAlī Muns̲h̲ī.
- Alqāb-nāmah i qadīm, titles and forms of address for the time of Ḥaidar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, of Mysore [d. 1197/1782]: Ethé 2133 (44 foll., many of them blank).
Letters: see pl. i § 1070 (2).
¶ § 574. S.M. Ḥusain b. S. Zain al-Islām became Muns̲h̲ī in 1194/1780 to James Browne (cf. pl. i §§ 555 fn., 844, 897), whom he accompanied to the Deccan and then to Calcutta. When correspondence was resumed between Warren Hastings and S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam after the dispute which followed the death of Najaf K̲h̲ān, S.M. Ḥusain and his brother Mīr M. S̲h̲āh were entrusted with the writing of the letters.
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Ḥusainī (beg…. bī-q. u sp. i qudsī-asās niyāz i bār-gāh i Ṣāniʿī), letters relating to incidents after the death [in 1196/1782) of Nawwāb D̲h̲ū ’l-Faqār al-Daulah Najaf K̲h̲ān (cf. pl. i § 637 fn.): Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2318 (19th cent.).
§ 575. Rājah Lac̲h̲hmī-Narāyan “Maḥabbat” b. Rāy Manī Rām, a pupil of “Ārzū” (for whom see pl. i § 1149), was driven from Delhi by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī’s [third?] invasion [in 1170/1756?] and after spending some time at Aurangābād and Barēlī settled in Lucknow. Subsequently he was for seven years at Faiḍābād (“Fyzabad”) under Nawwāb M. Jawāhir ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, the Nāẓir of that town (cf. pl. i § 939) and later at Lucknow in the service of Āṣaf al-Daulah (Nawwāb of Oudh 1775–97: cf. pl. i § 934). He then returned to Faiḍābād, where he became deranged, and where three years later M. Faiḍ-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ b. G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar Kākōrawī (for whom see pl. i § 939) obtained possession of his papers. He died some seventy years old about 1198/1784.
[Biography prefixed to the Ruqaʿāt by the editor and summarised by Rieu ( ii p. 793); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2691.]
Ruqaʿāt i Lac̲h̲hmī-Narāyan (beg. Har c̲h̲and ṭūṭī), official and private letters and other compositions with dates ranging from 1183/1769 to 1195/1780, collected, arranged and in 1205/1790–1 provided with a preface by the aforementioned M. Faiḍ-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲: Rieu ii 793a (ah 1232/1817), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 960 (mid 19th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. vii/4 p. 70).
Editions: [Lucknow] 1260/1844° (130 pp.); [Lucknow ?] 1264/1848* (129 pp.); [Lucknow] Ḥasanī Pr. 1265/1849*; Lucknow 1869°* (130 pp.); [Cawnpore] 1878°; and several others.
§ 576. S. Amīr Ḥaidar Bilgrāmī was born in 1165/1752 and died in 1217/1802–3. Presumably he is the same Amīr Ḥaidar Bilgrāmī as the author of the Ruqaʿāt mentioned below.
- Ruqaʿāt i Ḥaidar: Āṣafīyah i p. 124 no. 129.
¶ § 577. K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd Allāh “Taʾyīd” ʿAẓīmābādī, of whose dīwān a copy is preserved at Rāmpūr (see Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 117), was appointed tutor (atālīq) to Nawwāb Muʾtaman al-Mulk Mubārak al-Daulah (Nāẓim of Bengal) by Nawwāb K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān Bahādur Muẓaffar-Jang (cf. pl. i §§ 962, 965) Subsequently he was invited by Nawwāb ʿAlī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān (for whom see pl. i § 922) to collaborate in the production of the Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm (see pl. i § 1177), and it was he who wrote the preface to that work. His last years were spent in seclusion at ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patnah), where he died in the middle of Rajab 1206/March 1792. His son, K̲h̲wājah M. ʿAlī “Tamannā”, who left a dīwān of some two thousand verses, died towards the end of 1232/1817 (see § 579 infra).
[Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an pp. 79, 91.]
- Riyāḍ al-muns̲h̲aʾāt (beg. Ḥamd i bī ḥadd u iḥṣā u t̲h̲anā-yi lā-tuʿadd wa-lā tuḥṣā), a collection of “Taʾyīd’s” letters compiled after his death in Rajab 1206/March 1792 by “Tamannā” and divided into two rauḍahs ((1) letters written on behalf of Nawwāb ʿAlī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān to various contemporaries (enumerated in the catalogue), (2) letters written by “Taʾyīd” on his own behalf to friends and others (enumerated in the catalogue)), to which are prefixed Taʾyīd’s preface to G̲h̲ulām-Yaḥyā K̲h̲ān’s Persian translation of the Hidāyah (completed in 1190/1776) and (in Bkp. ix 884, but not in 885) his preface to the Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm: Bānkīpūr ix 884 (ah 1251/1836), 885 (ah 1271/1854–5), Suppt. ii 2351(43) (= Rauḍah ii).
§ 578. Dalpat Rāy.
- Muntak̲h̲ab al-ḥaqāʾiq Amīr al-imlāʾ (beg. S̲h̲. u sp. i Īzad i Bī-c̲h̲ūn kih baʿd i taʾlīf i nusk̲h̲ah i Amīr al-ins̲h̲ā), letters of Dalpat Rāy and some of his contemporaries (e.g. Ranjīt Sing’h, Tīmūr S̲h̲āh and Zamān S̲h̲āh) addressed mostly to Ranjīt Sing’h and some other Sik’h rulers, compiled in 1209/1794–5 after the author’s death by his brother Amīr C̲h̲and son of Lālah K̲h̲wus̲h̲yābī Mal, who himself died in Samwat 1852/1795 before completing the work: Rieu iii 988b (127 foll. Circ. ad 1800).
§ 579. K̲h̲wājah M. ʿAlī “Tamannā” b. K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd Allāh “Taʾyīd” ʿAẓīmābādī, who has been mentioned as the compiler of the Riyāḍ al-muns̲h̲aʾāt (§ 577 supra) and who died towards the end of 1232/1817, says in the preface to his dīwān, one of the compositions included in the majmūʿah described below, that in 1212/1797–8 he happened to visit Lucknow and at the suggestion of M. Ḥasan “Qatīl” undertook to collect his dīwān.
[Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 91].
- ¶ (Majmūʿah i muns̲h̲aʾāt), a large untitled and unprefaced collection of prose compositions, beginning with Mīrzā Muʿizz “Fitrat’s” preface to a bayāḍ, extracts from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Waṣṣāf and “ʿĀlī’s” preface to his dīwān and ending with “Tamannā’s” own prefaces to his dīwān and the Riyāḍ al-muns̲h̲aʾāt: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2351 (19th cent.).
- Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq (beg. S̲h̲ukr u sipāsī kih ḥaḍrat i Āfrīdgār i dānā-yi nihān u ās̲h̲kār rā sazad), reflections in ornate prose and verse on the trials of human life and the wickedness of contemporary humanity: Meerut 1292/1875* (26 pp.). The edition referred to by Sprenger (p. 6002)39 must have been published before 1854, the date of his catalogue, doubtless at Lucknow.
§ 580. Mirzā M. Ḥasan “Qatīl”, who died at Lucknow in 1233/1818, has already been mentioned as the author of the Farmān i Jaʿfarī (pl. ii § 607) and other works.
- C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat: see pl. iii § 310 supra.
- (Ruqaʿāt i Īrānīyah) (beg. Ṣubḥ-damī kih sulṭān i arīkah i rābiʿ i aflāk), a small collection of letters written to the author’s patron in India from the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, dealing “less with public events than with personal and familiar incidents, or what may be termed the ‘ chronique scandaleuse ’ of the residence”, and including “a contemporary record of the capture and blinding of Zamān S̲h̲āh, the Afghan ruler of Ḳandahār, by his brother Maḥmūd Shāh, an event of ah 1217”: Rieu ii 794b (foll. 2–20. ah 1229/1814), 858a (foll. 18. ah 1229/1814).
- Ruqaʿāt i Qatīl (beg. Tajallī i farāʾid i alfāẓ i rūḥ-parwar … a. b. Qatīl i bī-sarūpāʾ kih az awān), private letters (and other compositions?40), some of them in Arabic (foll. 106–10), collected in 1211/1796–7, when the author was forty-one years old: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 961 (foll. 137. Early 19th cent.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Qatīl, a collection, or collections, insufficiently described for identification: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (foll. 108. ah 1246/1831. See ocm. vii/4 p. 72), Browne Suppt. 707 (Corpus 163).
- Maʿdin al-fawāʾid, a collection of “Qatīl’s” letters, “with a preface partly in Arabic with Persian interlinear rendering, partly in Turki with ¶ Urdu version”, compiled by the author’s pupil K̲h̲wājah “Imāmī”:41 Lucknow 1259–60/1843–4° (Nusk̲h̲ah i M. al-f. maʿrūf bah Ruqaʿāt i Mirzā Qatīl. Pp. 90); Cawnpore [1865?°] (Ruqaʿāt i M.Q. Followed by Ḍābiṭah i hilālīyah, rules for fixing the day of the new moon, by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. M. Raus̲h̲an K̲h̲ān (for whom see pl. i § 570), 98 pp.); Cawnpore 1881 ( n.k. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 54 no. 15).
- T̲h̲amarāt al-badāʾiʿ (beg. Ārāyis̲h̲ i sar-nāmah ba-taḥmīd i Muns̲h̲ī), a large collection of “Qatīl’s” letters compiled by M. Raḥmat Allāh K̲h̲ān b. ʿInāyat Allāh (who was alive at the time of printing), and divided into four t̲h̲amarahs ((1) dar mukātabāt i tahniyat, (2) dar mukātabāt i taʿziyat, (3) dar rasīd i as̲h̲yāʾ, (4) mutafarriqāt): Lucknow, Baij Nāt’h’s Pr., date? (Āṣafīyah i p. 120 no. 100); [Lucknow] 1261/1845 (Muḥammadī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 54 no. 9); 1263/1847* (Pp. 391. Described as a second edition (see the first of the two title-pages). Muḥammadī Pr.).
§ 581. Maḥmūd ʿAlī.
- (Taṣḥīf dar tajnīs), highly artificial compositions in praise of Nawwāb Saʿādat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Mubāriz-Jang [of Oudh, 1213–29/1798–1814], based chiefly on alliterations, puns and the like, divided into two sanads (with the independent titles (1) Taṣḥīf i s̲h̲arīf, (2) Ṣaḥīfat al-taṣḥīf) and collected, with a commentary, by a certain “K̲h̲ayālī”: Ivanow Curzon 163 (mid 19th cent.).
§ 582. S. Nit̲h̲ār ʿAlī b. S. Aʿẓam ʿAlī Buk̲h̲ārī Barēlawī, the author of the Ins̲h̲ā-yi dil-gus̲h̲ā, is identified by Edwards with “Nit̲h̲ārī”, who wrote the C̲h̲ahār gulzār (for which see pl. iii § 208 supra) at the suggestion of Sir Gore Ouseley and therefore probably between 1788 and 1805.
Ins̲h̲ā-yi dil-gus̲h̲ā, an elementary letter-writer: Browne Suppt. 111 (ah 1239/1823–4. Corpus 39 (1)).
Editions: Lucknow 1260/1844° (Nusk̲h̲ah i d.-g. Pp. 58); [Lucknow] 1868* (I. i d.-g. Pp. 46), 1874° (Pp. 48), 1295/1878° (Pp. 47); [India] Muḥammadīyah Press 1264/1848* (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i d.-g. Pp. 44); [India] Qādirī Press 1266/1850* (Nusk̲h̲ah i d.-g. Pp. 39); Delhi Ḥasanī Press 1285/1868* (I. i d.-g. Pp. 48); [Cawnpore ?] 1291/1874° (Pp. 48); Meerut 1878° (Pp. 48); and many others.
¶ § 583. Lālah ʿIwaḍ Rāy “Masarrat” is the author of a qaṣīdah composed in 1212/1797–8 in praise of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (Ivanow Curzon 312 (3)).
- Nat̲h̲r i dil-gus̲h̲ā (so Ivanow), or Ins̲h̲āʾ i dil-gus̲h̲ā (so ʿAlīgaṛh, but this may possibly be a different work), (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh i har dū jahān), a eulogy on Saʿādat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh 1797–1814) and his new palace, the Qaṣr i dil-gus̲h̲ā [at Lucknow]: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 53 no. 21 (ah 1224/1809 or 1232/1817) Ivanow Curzon 312(2) (ah 1280/1864).
Mufīd al-ins̲h̲āʾ44 (beg. Mufād i ins̲h̲āʾ i dilgus̲h̲ā-yi faiḍ), model letters collected in 1224/1809: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (v.s. 1915/ ad 1858. See ocm. vii/4 p. 71).
Editions: S̲h̲āhjahānābād [i.e. Delhi] 1268/1852* (Pp. 64); Lahore 1870† (Pp. 56).
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. K̲h̲ulāṣah i tarkīb i lafẓ u maʿnī ins̲h̲ā-yi dil-gus̲h̲ā-yi ḥamd), epistolary models, apparently almost exclusively private letters of the author to relatives, friends, etc., collected in 1225/1810: Ivanow Curzon 164 (foll. 121. ah 1241/1826).
- Wajīz al-ins̲h̲aʾ (beg. Dast-yābī i yakkah-tāzān i maʿrakah i suk̲h̲andānī), bombastic private letters edited in 1233/1817–18 shortly after the author’s death by his pupil Dayānid’hān: Ivanow Curzon 719 (ah 1245/1830).
§ 585. M. Fāʾiq, the author of the Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ, appears to be identical with M. Fāʾiq b. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain Ṣiddīqī Lak’hnawī, who composed a Persian grammar entitled Mak̲h̲zan al-fawāʾid in 1225/1810 (see pl. iii § 209 supra).
Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ, often called Ins̲h̲ā i Fāʾiq (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Qadīmī rā kih qalam i qudrat i Ū ruqūm i hastī), a letter-writer composed at the suggestion of Nawwāb Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur Qiyām-Jang,45 probably in ¶ or not long after 1225/1810,46 and divided into five faṣls ((1) dar taḥrīr i alqāb u ādāb kih k̲h̲urdān bah buzurgān mī-nawīsand, (2) dar tasṭīr i alqāb u ādāb kih hamsarān ba-hamsarān mī-nigārand, (3) dar taswīd i alqāb u ādāb kih buzurgān ba-k̲h̲urdān raqam mī-sāzand, (4) dar tarqīm i parwānah u s̲h̲uqqah u tamassuk u fārig̲h̲-k̲h̲aṭṭī wa-g̲h̲airah, (5) dar nawis̲h̲tan baʿḍī k̲h̲uṭūṭ i ḍarūrī u kāg̲h̲id̲h̲ i s̲h̲arʿī): Lindesiana p. 193 no. 478 (circ. ad 1810–20), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 53 no. 11, Browne Suppt. 115 (Corpus 192 (2)), Madrās i 230–1 (the latter transcribed from a Calcutta edition of 1235).
Editions: Lucknow 1263/1847* (Dastūr al-ins̲h̲ā maʿrūf bah Ins̲h̲ā [ʾ i] Fāʾiq (Pp. 36); [Lucknow] 1280/1863° (D. al-i. m. b. I. i F. Pp. 26); Lucknow [1866*] (Pp. 30); Meerut 1266/1850* (D. al-i. Pp. 46); Cawnpore 1266/1850* (Pp. 36); 1268/1852° (D. al-i. Ins̲h̲ā-yi F. Pp. 36); 1871° (D. al-i. maʿrūf bah Inshā-yi F. Pp. 40); 1887° (Ins̲h̲ā-yi F. Pp. 32); [Bombay] 1283/1866° (D. al-i…. m. b. I. i F. Ins̲h̲āʾ i Muk̲h̲taṣar u Inshāʾ i Niʿmatī. The D. al-i. edited with glossary, indexes and supplement called Ins̲h̲ā i muk̲h̲taṣar, by Ibn G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain. Followed by the Ins̲h̲āʾ i Niʿmatī (for which see § 652 (76) infra). Pp. 76, 12); Istanbul 1294/1875 (64 pp.). Karatay p. 123); and others.
The Ins̲h̲āʾ i Fāʾiq i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī stated in the Āṣafīyah catalogue ( iii p. 56 no. 303) to be the work of Mirzā M. Fāʾiq K̲h̲ān is presumably a different work.
§ 586. Of unknown authorship is
- Dastūr al-maktūbāt (beg. St. u niyāyis̲h̲ i janāb i ḥaḍrat i Īzadān kih afzūn), completed 19 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1225/15 January 1811 and divided into three sections ((1) dar maʿrūḍāt, (2) dar maktūbāt, (3) dar afʿāl): Berlin 1067 (48 foll. ah 1246/1830).
§ 587. Shāh47-Muḥammad Zāhidī b. Masīḥ al-Zamān Hānsawī mentions in the preface to his Mufīd nāmah (p. 51 in the Cawnpore ed. of 1875) two works of his father, Ins̲h̲ā-yi
¶ Masīḥī and Ins̲h̲ā-yi Muḥammadī, as well as an earlier work of his own, Ins̲h̲ā-yi dil-gus̲h̲ā. Mufīd nāmah (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. i K̲h̲āliq i ʿĀlam), an introduction to letter-writing in five bābs ((1) dar asmā-yi Ilāhī, (2) dar asmā-yi ʿālam …, words and synonyms for all sorts of things existing in the universe, (3) maṣdars, (4) titles, conventional forms of address, etc., (5) model letters and other documents, some of them with dates ranging from ah 1202/1787–8 to 1225/1810), and a k̲h̲ātimah, dar dastūr al-ʿamal i dīwānī, rules for revenue officials.
Editions: Niẓāmī Pr. [Cawnpore], 1850* (71 pp.); Cawnpore ( n.k.) 1292/1875*; Lucknow ( n.k.) 1285/1868* (64 pp.); 1286/1869*; 1886° (64 pp.); Delhi 1869°* (64 pp.); and various others.
§ 588. Qāḍī M. Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān “Ak̲h̲tar” Hūglawī, who lived at Lucknow in the time of G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar (1229–43/1814–27) and died in 1858, has already been mentioned as the author of the Mak̲h̲zan al-jawāhir (pl. i § 188) and the Guldastah i maḥabbat (pl. i § 940).
- Ḥadīqat al-irs̲h̲ād (beg. Ba-ins̲h̲ā-yi sipās i Badāyiʿ-nigārī), a work on the art of letter-writing composed in 1226/1811 at the request of Nawwāb M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur Sipahdār-Jang and containing forms of address appropriate for all classes of society, phrases suitable for different occasions, etc., etc.: Bānkīpūr ix 887 (probably autograph. Foll. 121).
§ 589. K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Karīm “Amīr” b. K̲h̲wājah Bāds̲h̲āh K̲h̲ān is called K̲h̲wājah Amīr K̲h̲ān in the Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an (pp. 39–40) and is there stated to have been a grandson of Nawwāb Qamar al-Dīn K̲h̲ān, a son-in-law of Nawwāb G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān and a descendant of K̲h̲wājah ʿUbaid Allāh Aḥrār (for whom see pl. i § 1277 fn.). He settled at Lucknow and received instruction in the art of poetry from M. Ḥasan “Qatīl” (d. 1233/1818: see pl. ii § 607, etc.). He was unequalled in Turkish and Persian and in laṭīfah-sanjī and nuktah-rasī. His metrical treatise on prosody, the only work of his mentioned in the Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an, is there described as good.
- Guls̲h̲an i anwār, a eulogy of the Rauḍah i Tāj-Maḥall [at Āgrah: see Ency. Isl. under Tād̲̲j̲ Maḥall] composed in 1226/1811: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. vii/4 p. 71).
§ 590. S. Amānat ʿAlī b. ʿIbād Allāh was a resident of Raunāhī, near Fyzabad in Oudh.
Bahār i ʿAjam (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd i K̲h̲udā u naʿt i Saiyid al-anbiyā), 121 model letters in pure Persian written near Cawnpore in 1226/1811: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 53 no. 23 (ah 1259/1843).
¶ Editions: [Lucknow] Muḥammadī Pr. 1262/1846* (Pp. 32); 1867° (Pp. 24); Cawnpore 1267/1851* (Pp. 27); 1276/1859° (Pp. 24); Lucknow 1293/1876 (Pp. 32); and several others.
§ 591. M. Zamān b. Ḥājjī M. Hās̲h̲im.
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i Muḥammad Zamān) (beg.: Ḥ u sp. i badīʿ al-asās kih muns̲h̲iyān i d̲h̲ī s̲h̲ān), official letters of appointment (the first, fol. 3a, appointing Mīrzā Mahdī “Kaukab”48 to the office of Miʿmār-bās̲h̲ī, but nearly all of them without names or dates), followed by other letters and exordia of letters and finally (fol. 43a) models for various legal documents dated in most cases 1225  or 1226 , the latter date being also that of the r.a.s. ms. (unless merely transcribed from its original): r.a.s. P. 228 (54 foll. ah 1226/1811. Presented in 1827 by Sir John Malcolm. A heading in red ink on fol. 1b describes the work incorrectly as Muns̲h̲aʾāt i marḥamat-panāh Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān u qubālah-jāt i s̲h̲arʿīyah u aḥkām i ān. Similarly the binding is labelled Inshaee Meerza Mehdy).
§ 592. Maulawī Niẓām al-Dīn “K̲h̲ādim”.
Ins̲h̲āʾ i K̲h̲ādimī (beg. Baʿd az sitāyis̲h̲ i Āfrīnandah i zamīn u zamān), model letters in simple language completed in 1226/1811 and divided into five bābs ((1) ba-ṭaraf i kalāntarān, (2) ba-ṭaraf i dūstān, (3) ba-ṭaraf i k̲h̲wurdān, (4) az aḥkām ba-raʿāyā-yi māl-gud̲h̲ār wa-g̲h̲airah, (5) dar qabālāt u ṣukūk u sijillāt): Lahore Panjāb Univ. (v.s. 1892. See ocm. vii/4 p. 72).
Editions: Lahore 1871°* (Pp. 48); 1875* (Pp. 48); 1876°* (Pp. 48); 1293/1876* (followed by Ins̲h̲āʾ i s̲h̲arʿī, 12 model letters by Ṣiddīq Ḥasan. Pp. 44, 4); 1927*; and several others.
§ 593. Muns̲h̲ī Sītal Dās Sēṭ’hī S̲h̲ōrkōṭī.49
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Sēṭ’hī, composed circ. 1227/1812: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (40 foll. ad 1863. See ocm. vii/4 p. 71).
§ 594. Abū ’l-Yamīn ʿAbd al-Razzāq “Yamīnī” b. M. Isḥāq Ḥusainī Sūratī has already been mentioned (pl. iii § 457 (1) (a) supra) as the author of a commentary composed in 1210/1795–6 or 1212/1797–8 on the “Sih nat̲h̲r”, the Mīnā Bāzār and the Panj ruqʿah of “Ẓuhūrī”.
- ¶ Jāmiʿ al-fawāʾid, an ins̲h̲āʾ composed in 1231/1816 and consisting of extracts from the works of various writers on the subject: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1269/1852. See ocm. vii/4 p. 72).
§ 595. ʿAnbar S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ān “Ās̲h̲uftah”, who died at Murādābād after 1237/1821–2, has already been mentioned (pl. iii § 55 supra) as the author of a lexicographical work, Mirʾāt al-iṣṭilāḥāt, composed in 1234/1818–19.
- Bahār i ʿAnbar (beg. Rayāḥīn i sitāyis̲h̲), a collection of letters completed in 1232/1817: Rāmpūr (ah 1233/1818. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 307, where it is stated that there are two copies, one an autograph, in the Nawāpāṛā Library at Murādābād).
- Panj ganj (beg. Intik̲h̲āb i qadd i raʿnā-yi suk̲h̲an *), a commentary on the Panj ruqʿah sometimes ascribed to “Ẓuhūrī”: see § 457 (5) (b) supra.
§ 596. “Muṣḥafī”, the author of the Haft taṣwīr, who in the colophon is called Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ Miyān50 Muṣḥafī, is presumably identical with G̲h̲ulām-Hamadānī “Muṣḥafī”, who died in, or about, 1240/1824–5 (see pl. i § 1175).
- Haft taṣwīr (beg. Taṣwīr i awwal kih c̲h̲ūn māh i c̲h̲ahārdah), descriptions of the beauty of the human body: Ivanow Curzon 168 (19 foll. ah 1241/1826).
- Ruqaʿāt i Burhān K̲h̲ān: Āṣafīyah i p. 124 no. 48.
§ 598. Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb “Nas̲h̲āṭ” Mūsawī Iṣfahānī was for a time Kalāntar of Iṣfahān and is described as such in the Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (compiled presumably in 1218/1803–4: see pl. i § 1188). Subsequently Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh appointed him Muns̲h̲ī al-Mamālik, or Chief Secretary, paid the heavy debts in which his lavish hospitality and generosity had involved him, conferred upon him the title of Muʿtamad al-Daulah, and availed himself of his services in important affairs of state. He died on 5 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1244/8 June 1829.
[Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ, pīrāyah 1; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān, anjuman 3; Safīnat al-Maḥmūd, majlis 2; Nigāristān i Dārā; Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī, ris̲h̲tah 3; Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. 104b, 11.20, 22 seq. (payment of his debts), 112a, 1.3, 116a, 1.23, 139b, l. 6 ab infra, 146b, l. 15 (death), 175b (6th leaf from the end of the volume. Biographical notice); Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 509–14; Watson History of Persia pp. 194, 196, 208 penult., 221; Rieu Suppt. p. 122b; Browne Lit. ¶ Hist. iv p. 311; Paidāyis̲h̲ i k̲h̲aṭṭ u k̲h̲aṭṭāṭān pp. 252–4; Berthels Ocherk istorii persidskoi literatury p. 81; Ency. Isl. under Nas̲h̲āṭ (Berthels).]
mss. of “Nas̲h̲āṭ’s” dīwān are preserved in the Bodleian (no. 1200), the British Museum (Rieu Suppt. 362, 363) and in the Leningrad University Library (Romaskewicz p. 9). The first of these mss., containing chiefly g̲h̲azals with a few rubāʿīs at the end, composed (collected?) in 1228/1813, was presented by the author to Sir Gore Ouseley, who has written on a fly-leaf the following words (quoted here from the Bodleian catalogue):
“These charming poems were composed by Mirzâ Abdul Wahâb (with the poetical title of Nishât), the minister for foreign affairs to his Persian Majesty Fateh Ali Shah Kajar, at the Court of Teheran in 1813, when I resided there as H.B. Majesty’s Ambassador Extraordinary. He was learned and witty, a very agreeable and amiable gentleman, and the most accomplished penman in several different characters that I ever met with. Some parts of this volume are imperfect, which, when he presented it to me on my departure from Persia, he accounted for by saying, that being the only fair copy of his poems then ready, intervals had been left, under some of the alphabetical terminations, for other odes which he meant to compose and introduce, and which he was to send me for insertion hereafter to England. But death, not long after, drained his poetic vein, and I lost a much-valued and deeply-lamented friend as well as the promised poems—Gore Ouseley.”
G̲h̲azals from “Nas̲h̲āṭ’s” dīwān have been published (for the use of candidates for Bombay University examinations) at Karāc̲h̲ī in 1332/1914* and at Bombay in 1916*.
Ganjīnah [i Nas̲h̲āt] (beg. Abwāb i mak̲h̲zan i mujūd), prose compositions—prefaces,52 letters, petitions, anecdotes, prayers, etc.—and poems, the whole divided into five durjs, of which the first four contain the prose, while the fifth (lithographed on the margins of the first four in the 1266 edition) is a collection of mat̲h̲nawīs, qaṣīdahs, g̲h̲azals and other short poems (beginning Ai k̲h̲was̲h̲ā āg̲h̲āz i g̲h̲ampardāz i ʿis̲h̲q *): Leningrad Univ. 1068 (ah 1247/1831–2. See Romaskewicz p. 12), Majlis 298 (ah 1264/1848), Āṣafīyah iii p. 58 no. 341 (ah 1268/1851–2), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2348–9 (beg. Nuk̲h̲ust c̲h̲ūn bi-ngarī, i.e. the beginning of the preface to “Ṣabā’s” ¶ S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah, which in the 1266 edition comes after, not as here before, the preface to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s dīwān and other compositions relating to that work. The poems at the end of this ms. (foll. 92b–95b) are only a few g̲h̲azals).
Edition: Ṭihrān 1266/1850†.
Kullīyāt i Nas̲h̲āṭ, collections of prose and verse varying in contents and arrangement but all (especially Browne Coll. V. 54) agreeing to a considerable extent in contents with the Ganjīnah described above: Rieu ii 722 (foll. 187. On paper watermarked 1809), [Suppt. 188 (2) (prefaces to the Dīwān i K̲h̲āqān and the S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah with some other prose compositions. ah 1264/1848)], Āṣafīyah iii p. 302 no. 753 (ah 1282/1865–6), Browne Coll. V. 54 (ah 1282/1865), 83.
Edition: Ṭihrān 1282/1865–6 (see Browne Coll. p. 247).
Compositions of “Nas̲h̲āṭ” occur in the Mak̲h̲zan al-ins̲h̲āʾ of M. Riḍā b. M. Raḥīm Bēg Kalhur (see § 634 infra).
§ 599. Muns̲h̲ī Bandah ʿAIī ʿUṭārid-qalam K̲h̲ān died in 1244/1828–9 according to the Āṣafīyah catalogue.
- C̲h̲amanistān i suk̲h̲an: Āṣafīyah i p. 120 no. 129 (containing at the end the qānūm i alqāb-nawīsī of the time of Mīr Niẓām-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (cf. pl. i § 1034)).
§ 600. Qāsim ʿAlī b. Ṭāliʿmand.
- Muraṣṣaʿ kār (beg. Ins̲h̲ā-yi rangārang u imlā-yi hūs̲h̲ u farhang), a small collection of epistolary models compiled in 1234/1818–19 and divided into two bābs ((1) letters addressed to the representatives of different professions, (2) reports of accidents, accounts of journeys, etc.): Lahore Panjāb Univ. (v.s. 1894/c. 1837 ad See ocm. vii/3 p. 60), Ivanow Curzon 720 (v.s. 1905/ ad 1848), 721 (1).
§ 601. Ḥifẓ Allāh.
Ḥifẓ al-qawānīn (a chronogram = 1236/1820–1), or Faiḍ-rasān (beg. K̲h̲wus̲h̲-raqamī i qalam), specimens of correspondence divided into four faiḍs with a lengthy preface in which some chronograms are given for the erection of a mosque at Bilāspūr (there are several places of this name) in 1235/1819–20: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 962 (foll. 152. 19th cent.).
Editions: Ins̲h̲ā-yi faiḍ-rasān, [India] 1262/1846* (Pp. 132); Cawnpore 1869* (Pp. 102); 1293/1876* (Pp. 102); 1879° (Pp. 102).
- Bahār-nāmah, letters compiled in 1236/1820–1: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. vii/4 p. 72).
§ 603. S. Abū Saʿīd, or Abū Ṭaiyib K̲h̲ān, “Wālā” b. Abī Ṭaiyib K̲h̲ān b. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn, Tutor to one of the Nawwābs of the Carnatic, was born at Raḥmatābād near Madrās, in 1190/1776, was a pupil of M. Bāqir “Āgāh” Madrāsī, and died in 1264/1848.
[Guldastah i Karnātak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 no. 67); Ṣubḥ i waṭan p. 210; Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow-Curzon 61 no. 63); S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 520].
- Sih nat̲h̲r i Wālā (beg. Ārāyis̲h̲ i ṭurrah i ʿarūs i suk̲h̲an), panegyrics (presumably on one of the Nawwābs of the Carnatic) modelled on the well known compositions of “Ẓuhūrī” (for which see § 457 (1)–(3) supra): Madrās i 262, 536 (transcribed from the preceding in 1352/1933).
§ 604. K̲h̲wājah Imām al-Dīn “Imāmī” b. Qāḍī K̲h̲ān b. K̲h̲wājah Bāds̲h̲āh K̲h̲ān has already been mentioned (§ 580 (5) supra) as the compiler of the Maʿdin al-fawāʾid, a collection of letters by M. Ḥasan “Qatīl”, whose pupil he was.
- K̲h̲āṣṣ bāzār, composed in 1245/1829–30. Edition: Lucknow date? (Maṭbaʿ i S̲h̲āhī. See Āṣafīyah iii p. 56 no. 270).
§ 605. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ḥusain mentions in the Lamʿah i ṣādiqah another work of his own, the Riyāḍ i ṣādiq.
- Lamʿah i ṣādiqah (beg. K̲h̲āmah i tīz-zabān), model letters “from and to the most different people”, including a son of Colonel Gardner,54 completed on 14 S̲h̲aʿbān 1246/28 Jan. 1831 and dedicated to Prince M. S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ Bahādur: Ivanow Curzon 165 (foll. 111).
§ 606. Badr al-Dīn “Badr”.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi manẓūmah (beg. Ba-nām i Dabīr i janān bī-mit̲h̲āl *), versified epistolary forms, composed in 1247/1831–2: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (85 foll. See ocm. vii/4 p. 72), Ivanow Curzon 722 (99 foll. Late 19th cent.).
- (Bayāḍ i Imām-Qulī Mīrzā), a collection of letters and other documents (e.g. the marriage contract of Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā Qājār, a waqf-nāmah, a letter to Mīrzā Yūsuf, Wazīr of Māzandarān) with a preface by M. Mahdī K̲h̲ān: Blochet i 685 (81 foll. ah 1242/1826 (?). Chodzko’s ms.).
§ 608. S. Aulād Ḥasan Buk̲h̲ārī Qinnaujī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 48 fn.) as the father of Nawwāb Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān. He was born at Qinnauj in 1200/1786 (Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī (cf. pl i p. 2826) i p. 53) or 1210/1795–6 (Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 24) and died in 1253/1837 (Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī i p. 71, Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 25), five years after the birth of his son Ṣiddīq Ḥasan (Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī ii p. 23). As already mentioned, he was a pupil of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī (for whom see pl. i § 40) and a disciple of S. Aḥmad Barēlawī (for whom see pl. i § 1387). The titles of thirteen works by him in Urdu, Persian and Arabic are recorded in the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī ( i p. 72). Nine of these are mentioned by Raḥmān ʿAlī.
[Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ p. 235; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 24; Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī i pp. 53–73.]
- Ruqaʿāt i S. Aulād Ḥasan (beg. Ḥ. i jalīl u t̲h̲anā-yi jamīl mar ān Muns̲h̲ī i Nudrat-nigār), collected in 1249/1833–4 by Faḍl al-Raḥmān56 and divided into three majālis ((1) dar maktūbāt i muṭawwalah, (2) dar nāmajāt, (3) dar ruqaʿāt): Bānkīpūr ix 888 (foll. 85. 19th cent.).
§ 609. Sīl C̲h̲and “Tamīz” was a skilled writer of nastaʿlīq.
- Mirʾāt i taḥaiyur57 (beg. Khudāwandā qalam i ās̲h̲uftah-sirāy [?] i Tamīz), composed in 1249/1833–4 at the request of the author’s brother Lālā Gulzār Sīl “Gulzār” and divided into two chapters ((1) dar bayān i wāqiʿātī-kih fī ’l-wāqiʿah ba-c̲h̲as̲h̲m i ḥāl i muʾallif muʿāyanah uftādah, (2) muḥtawī bar dībāc̲h̲ahāʾī kih bar akt̲h̲ar i kutub az qalam ṭirāz i taḥrīr dādah): Rāmpūr (ah 1249/1833–4. Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 314).
¶ § 610. S̲h̲āʾiq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲āʾiq”, properly G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn58 b. Aḥmad Abī Turāb Qādirī, a descendant of S.M. Gīsū-darāz (for whom see pl. i § 1265, etc.) and a pupil of Maulawī M. Bāqīr Āgāh Madrāsī, was born at Ūdgīr (i.e. presumably Udayagiri), settled at Madrās, and received the title of K̲h̲ān in the time of ʿAẓīm-Jāh (ruler of the Carnatic 1820–5: cf. pl. i § 1086). According to the Guldastah i Karnātak and the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman he died in 1249/1833–4, but this date may be incorrect, since 1250/1834–5 is, according to Ivanow, the date indicated by chronograms for the composition of the Bahār i ʿAẓīm.
[Guldastah i Karnātak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 no. 58); Ṣubḥ i waṭan p. 113; Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow Curzon 61 no. 56); S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 239.]
- Bahār i ʿAẓīm (beg. ʿAẓamat i suk̲h̲an), an imitation of “Ẓuhūrīs” Gulzār i Ibrāhīm (for which see § 457 (2) supra), composed according to Ivanow in 1250/1834–5 (a date inconsistent with statements that the author died in 1249/1833–4: see above): Ivanow Curzon 723 (1) (ah 1269/1852–3), 166 (1) (late 19th cent.).
§ 611. Muns̲h̲ī Mangū Lāl Bāṅs-Barēlawī.59
- Muk̲h̲taṣar i Muntaẓimī, composed in 1250/1834–5: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (32 foll. See ocm. viii/1 p. 57).
- Nawādir i Muntaẓimī, or Ins̲h̲ā-yi Mangū Lāl, composed in 1254/1838: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (20 foll. See ocm. viii/1 p. 57).
§ 612. Mīr M. ʿAlī.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Ḥabīb-Allāhī60 (beg. Zīb i muns̲h̲aʾāt i rangīn-fiqarāt), a collection of letters, including some by Ḥāfiẓ M. Ḥabīb Allāh, known as Miyān61 Ṣāḥib, Nāʾiṭī,62 Muns̲h̲ī to Nawwāb ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm K̲h̲ān of Cuddapah, compiled circ. 1252/1836–7 by Mīr M. ʿA. at the request of M. Ḥafīẓ Allāh K̲h̲ān Ḥafīẓ-Yār-Jang: Madrās i 215 (268 pp.).
§ 613. Rājah Pyārē Lāl “Ulfatī” Kāyat’h ʿAẓīmābādī was Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to Akbar S̲h̲āh ii (ah 1221–53/1806–37) and was the author of a dīwān (Lucknow 1287/1870*) and of a mat̲h̲nawī entitled Nairang i taqdīr.
¶ [Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 33.]
- G̲h̲unc̲h̲ah i ṭarab, letters: [Delhi] Muṣṭafāʾī Pr., 1269/1853* (48 pp.).
§ 614. Maulawī ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān “ʿUlwī”,63 originally a resident of Mau Qāʾimganj in the Farruk̲h̲ābād District, lived for some considerable time at Delhi, where he became a pupil of Maulawī M. Ismāʿīl i S̲h̲ahīd (cf. pl. i § 1387) and a supporter of S. Aḥmad Barēlawī (see pl. i § 1387 fn.).
Subsequently he entered the service of Nawwāb S.M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲amsābādī, son-in-law of the Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh, and he died in 1262/1846. According to Ṣiddīq Ḥasan he excelled not only in writing prose and poetry but also in medicine.
[S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 318.]
- Ṣafīr i bulbul, a collection of letters: Lucknow 1293/1876°* (Ṣ. i b. u Ṣ.-n. n.k. Followed by the same author’s Ṣiḥḥat-nāmah, a composition in ornate prose and verse congratulating a friend on his recovery from an illness. Pp. 50, 44).
- Ṣaiḥat-nāmah, a glorification of God, in prose and verse: Allahabad 1261/1845* (Dār al-salām Pr. 103 pp.).
§ 615. S̲h̲ams al-Daulah G̲h̲ulām-ʿAbd al-Qādir K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲ams” Iʿtiḍād-Jang was the son of Nawwāb ʿAẓīm al-Daulah [ruler of the Carnatic 1801–19]. In the Ins̲h̲āʾ i S̲h̲amsī he acknowledges “his indebtedness in literary achievements” to S̲h̲āʾiq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Shāʾiq” (cf. § 610 supra). The As̲h̲ʿār i S̲h̲ams, a short collection of Persian and Urdu g̲h̲azals on foll. 25–31 of the ms. Ivanow-Curzon 723, are evidently poems by him.
[Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow-Curzon 61 no. 58).]
- Bahār i Aʿẓam (beg. Ba-nām i Ān-kih ism i aʿẓam i Ū), a work completed in 1258/1842 evidently on the model of “S̲h̲āʾiq’s” Bahār i ʿAẓīm (see § 610 supra): Ivanow Curzon 723 (2) (ah 1269/1852–3), 166 (2) (late 19th cent.).
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i S̲h̲amsī) (beg. Har nihālī kih az pardah i ʿadam), private letters without dates or names (and apparently other compositions, including eulogies of Nawwāb ʿAẓīm-Jāh (foll. 26b–28) and S̲h̲āʾiq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (fol. 28)): Ivanow Curzon 166 (3) (late 19th cent.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Bhāg C̲h̲and, collected in 1260/1844: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (65 foll. See ocm. viii/1 p. 58).
§ 617. “T̲h̲arwat”.65
- Fuṣūl i balāg̲h̲at (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir sazāwār i ān K̲h̲āliq i mak̲h̲lūqāt ast … a. b. T̲h̲arwat i hīc̲h̲-ma-dān gūyad), model letters, legal and other forms, etc., compiled (probably about 1261/1845) at the request of M. Taḥsīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān and divided into eight faṣls: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 966 (88 foll. Circ. ad 1261/1845).
§ 618. Muḥammad (properly G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad) Mahdī “Wāṣif” (cf. pl. ii § 349 fn.) was the author of Ḥikāyāt i dil-pasand (pl. iii § 788 infra) composed in 1263/1847 and other works (see pl. iii §§ 61 and 169 supra).
- Nigār i dānis̲h̲. Edition: 1297/1880 (Āṣafīyah i p. 136 no. 251).
- S̲h̲amʿ u parwānah, an imaginary dialogue between a wise man and a madman: Madrās [185?*] (Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib Pr. 86 pp.).
§ 619. Mīr M. Mahdī “Furūgh” b. M. Bāqir Iṣfahānī Nāʾīnī was born at Tabrīz in 1173/1759–6066 and became Mustaufī i Buyūtāt to the Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā (d. 1249/1833) and was afterwards in the service of his son Farīdūn Mīrzā in Ād̲h̲arbāyjān and Fārs. He was still alive when his friend Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān wrote about him in the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ( ii p. 396) and was then Mustaufī in the Royal Dīwān at Ṭihrān. He seems to have died about 1270/1853–4 (see Sipahsālār cat. ii p. 30). In addition to the Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲abāb Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān mentions a work of his entitled Ṣaḥāʾif al-ʿālam.67
- Safīnat al-ins̲h̲āʾ68 (beg. Muns̲h̲iyān i faṣīḥ al-lisān), letters and other compositions, including poems, of Qājār times in six faṣls, of which the first contains a detailed account of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, the whole edited ¶ with the author’s permission by Asad Allāh Muns̲h̲ī Nāʾīnī: Sipahsālār ii pp. 28–32 no. 765 (ah 1269/1853, written by the editor).
§ 620. Mahtāb Rāy Pandit “Miskīn” describes himself as a pupil of Pandit Lac̲h̲hmī Rām [i.e. probably L.R. Dihlawī, author of the Mufīd al-ins̲h̲āʾ, who died in 1233/1817–18: see § 584 supra].
- Nawādir al-majāmiʿ (beg.: S̲h̲akar-fis̲h̲ānī i ṭūṭī i rangīn-bāl), letters and other compositions in four sections, (1) prose pieces, (2) letters of the author to his friends, (3) letters composed by the author at the request of friends, (4) official letters, etc.: Bānkīpūr ix 889 (19th cent.).
§ 621. Iḥsān Allāh “Mumtāz”, who was born at Ūnām (Unao in Oudh) and died in or about 1275/1858–9, has already been mentioned as the author of the Baḥr i mawwāj (pl. i § 211 (7)) and of the Aḥsan al-qiṣaṣ or Tārīk̲h̲ i Nabī composed in 1273/1856–7 (pl. i § 260 (1)).
[Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲an (ṭabaqah i. Berlin p. 676); Sprenger p. 262; Garcin de Tassy ii p. 381; Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 101.]
- ʿIqd i T̲h̲uraiyā, “an elegant composition in prose and verse” (Arberry): Lucknow 1261/1845* (Pp. 20).
(Nat̲h̲rīyāt dar madḥ i Nawwāb Naṣīr al-Dīn Ḥaidar) [King of Oudh 1243–53/1827–37]: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/1 p. 58).
A collection of “Mumtāz’s” prose compositions was published under the title Nat̲h̲r i Mumtāz on the margin of his Baḥr i mawwāj at the Muḥammadī Press [Lucknow] in 1262/1846°*.
§ 622. Mirzā Asad Allāh K̲h̲ān “G̲h̲ālib”, the well-known Urdu and Persian poet, who was born at Āgrah in 1212/1797 and died at Delhi on 14 or 15 February 1869, has already been mentioned as the author of the Mihr i nīm-rūz (pl. i § 694), the Dastanbūy (pl. i § 817) and other works.
- Panj āhang, a work on ins̲h̲āʾ in five āhangs ((1) alqāb u ādāb u marātib i mutaʿalliqah i ān, i.e. complimentary formulae for use at the beginning and end of letters, pp. 4–21, (2) (a) rules for forming tenses, etc., of the verb from the principal parts, pp. 21–26, (b) a list of verbs with their principal parts, pp. 26–33, (c) a list of idiomatic phrases, pp. 33–5, (d) a short glossary of more or less uncommon words, pp. 35–9, (3) a collection of verses by “G̲h̲ālib” suitable for quotation in letters, pp. 39–17, (4) prefaces, laudatory notices of books (taqārīẓ), and other prose compositions, pp. 47–96, (5) letters to friends of the author, pp. 96–254): Editions: Delhi 1853* (Pp. 444); [Lucknow] 1871°* (Kullīyāt i nat̲h̲r i G̲h̲ālib pp. 2–254); Cawnpore 1884† (K. i n. i G̲h̲. Same pages doubtless); ¶ 1888* (K. i n. i G̲h̲. Same pages); Ḥaidarābād 1328/1910* (Āhang i panjum muntak̲h̲ab az Kullīyāt i nāt̲h̲r i … G̲h̲ālib. 152 pp. Anwār al-Maṭābiʿ. Cf. Āṣafīyah iii p. 60 n. 284).
§ 623. Riyāsat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān is described in the Āṣafīyah catalogue as rafīq i Yāwar al-Daulah.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Riyāsat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, composed (or collected) in 1264/1848: Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 158.
§ 624. Imām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” was killed in 1857 (see pl. iii § 214 supra).
- Bayāḍ i s̲h̲auq-payām, prefaces, letters, eulogies, etc.: in Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī (Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°), Vol. i.
- Rīzah i jawāhir, a eulogy of Sirāj al-Dīn Bahādur S̲h̲āh in imitation of “Ẓuhūrī’s” Sih nat̲h̲r: in Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī, Cawnpore and Lucknow 1878–80°, Vol. i.
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt u g̲h̲azalīyāt. Edition: Bombay 1301–2/1894–569 (240 pp. Karatay p. 7).
§ 626. Farhād Mīrzā Muʿtamad al-Daulah b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh died in 1888 (see pl. i § 259, etc.).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt, prescribed as a voluntary book for the Bombay B.A. in 1909: date? (Nāṣirī Press).
§ 627. Abū ʿAlī walad i Rajab ʿAlī Dēōbandī.70
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i g̲h̲arīb (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd i K̲h̲āliq i Bī-c̲h̲ūn), model letters completed 4 S̲h̲awwāl 1279/25 March 1863 at the request of the author’s pupils in a maktab and divided into three faṣls containing letters addressed to superiors, equals and inferiors respectively: Delhi (Fārūqī Pr.) 1292/1875* (48 pp.).
§ 628. Mīrzā Āqā K̲h̲ān Kirmānī died in 1314/1896 (see pl. i § 330).
(Ṣad k̲h̲iṭābah)(beg. Ṣūrat i yak-ṣad k̲h̲iṭābah ast kih s̲h̲āh-zādah i āzādah Kamāl al-Daulah i Dihlawī … K̲h̲iṭābah i awwal. Dūst i ʿazīz i man Jalāl al-Daulah ʿāqibat i suk̲h̲an i turā), fictitious letters between two imaginary ¶ princes, Kamāl al-Daulah of Delhi and Jalāl al-Daulah of Persia on the ancient glory and present misery of Persia: Browne Coll. L. 4 (42 letters only. 160 foll. ad 1911), L. 5 (3 letters,71 of which the first is supposed to have been written from Tabrīz in Ramaḍān 1282/Jan.–Feb. 1866. 170 foll.), Majlis 772 (42 letters). Edition: printed, “it seems” (gūyā), according to the Majlis catalogue in the eleventh or twelfth year of the Calcutta weekly newspaper Ḥabl al-matīn (for which see Browne Press and poetry of modern Persia pp. 73–4).
Description: Browne Materials for the study of the Bábí religion pp. 222–4.
§ 629. Abū ’l-Qāsim “T̲h̲anāʾī” Farāhānī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 432) in connection with his letters. (See also Bahman Karīmī: Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim Qāʾim-maqām (Tihrān n.d.), and Mus̲h̲ār i, 1016 for a biography by Yaḥyā Daulatābādī.)
- Majmūʿah i k̲h̲arāʾid u ganjīnah i farāʾid (Muns̲h̲aʾāt (cf. § 634 (5) infra), Risālah i ʿarūḍīyah (cf. pl. iii § 312 supra), Dībāc̲h̲ah i Jihādīyah i kabīr, Dībāc̲h̲ah i Jihādīyah i ṣag̲h̲īr, S̲h̲amāʾil K̲h̲āqān baʿḍī az qaṣāʾid u qiṭaʿāt): Ṭihrān 1280/1864 (458 + 125 pp. Karatay p. 161); Tabrīz 1282/1865–6 (151 foll. Karatay ibid.); 1294/1877 (557 pp. Karatay ibid.).
§ 630. M. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Ārawī.72
- Bahār i Hind, model letters: Lucknow 1287/1870°* (24 pp.); [Cawnpore?] 1874*; 1876* ( n.k.).
- Gulistān i ḥikmat, model letters: Lucknow 1874° (40 pp.); Muḥammadī Pr. 1291/1874* (34 pp.); and several others.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i dil-āwīz (beg. Ṣāniʿī kih ba-dū ḥarf i kāf u nūn), specimens of epistolary composition, in the form of questions and answers, completed in 1280/1863–4: [Arrah] Nūr al-anwār Pr.73 1872* (40 pp.); Lucknow (n.k.) 1292/1875*; Cawnpore 1877° (40 pp.).
- Ruqaʿāt i ʿAzīzī, model letters: ʿAẓīmābād [i.e. Patnah] 1270/1854 (32 pp. See Karatay p. 2); Lucknow 1290/1873* (32 pp.); Cawnpore 1313/1895° (32 pp. Described as a fourth edition); and several others.
Ādāb al-makātīb, apparently unmentioned in the list of his works appended to Pt. iv of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī (for which see pl. i § 48, final paragraph).
Edition: place? 1281/1864–5 (Āṣafīyah i p. 114 no. 74).
§ 632. Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Kās̲h̲ānī b. M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ “ʿAndalīb” b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ “Ṣabā” (for the last of whom see pl. i § 425) was a poet of small output, a prose writer of repute, a calligraphist, a painter and withal a man of wide culture and austere character. Verses of his in praise of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh are quoted by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān, who does not mention the date of his birth. He was still living in 1310/1892–3, the date of a painting by him in the British Museum (Rieu Suppt. 412 (21)).
[Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 433–9.]
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān: place? 1281/1864–5 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 60 no. 312), Tabrīz 1294/1877 (ibid. no. 275).
§ 633. M. Ẓahīr al-Dīn K̲h̲ān b. M. Masʿūd Bilgrāmī composed his Targ̲h̲īb al-furqān in 1284/1867–8 (see pl. i § 97) and his Ẓahīr al-dārain or Ẓahīr al-Islām, a system of ethics, in 1278/1861–2, the alternative title being a chronogram.
- Ẓahīr al-ins̲h̲āʾ, model letters: Lucknow 1282/1865* ( n.k. 159 pp.); [1870?°] (159 pp.); 1876°* ( n.k. 164 pp.).
Mak̲h̲zan al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. C̲h̲ūn muns̲h̲aʾāt i k̲h̲awāṭir i udabā), a combination of several collections of eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century prose compositions dating from the time of Nādir S̲h̲āh to the reign of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh completed apparently in 1285/1868–9 and containing (1) pp. 4–23, a translation made in 1273/1856–7 by M. Ibrāhīm Nawwāb “Badāʾiʿ-nigār” Ṭihrānī of the well-known letter of ʿAlī to Mālik b. al-As̲h̲tar (see Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah, Cairo 1328, vol. ii pp. 109–47), and on the margin a poem (beg. C̲h̲unīn guft dānā kih bar Kirdgār *) from Badāʾiʿ-nigār’s K̲h̲usrawī nāmah, (2) pp. 24–125, the Muns̲h̲aʾāt of Mīrzā Mahdī K̲h̲ān (cf. § 543 supra) (beg. Ai kardah zi kilk i ṣunʿ tarkīb i bas̲h̲ar … Ins̲h̲ā-nāmah i ḥamdī kih mutarassilān) and on the margin other compositions and letters of Mahdī K̲h̲ān, firstly a preface (beg. Ḥabbad̲h̲ā īn bayāḍ i dil-ārā) ¶ written by him for the commonplace-book of Nawwāb Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā [Nādir S̲h̲āh’s eldest son], (3) pp. 126–79, muns̲h̲aʾāt of Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb “Nas̲h̲āṭ” Muʿtamad al-Daulah Iṣfahānī (cf. § 598 supra), (4) pp. 180–3, [the index does not state the title or author of this work which begins simply al-ḥ. l. ’l. R. al-ʿā. v.s.], (5) pp. 184–399, Muns̲h̲aʾāt of Mīrzā Abū ’l-Qāsim Qāʾim-maqām (cf. pl. i § 432 and iii § 629 supra), firstly a preface (beg. al-Ḥamdu li-man yaqṣuru ’l-lisānu ʿan ḥamdihi) written in 1232/1817 for the Miftāḥ al-nubuwwah of M. Riḍā Hamadānī (cf. pl. i § 39), later (pp. 240–92) an uncompleted work entitled S̲h̲amāʾil i K̲h̲āqān, together with numerous letters, official and private, (6) pp. 400–30, mun-s̲h̲aʾāt of Mīrzā Taqī ʿAlī-ābādī, of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign.
Editions: Ṭihrān 1286/1869–70* (432 pp.); 1303/1885–6 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 132 no. 21, where the place of publication (doubtless Ṭihrān) is not mentioned); 1314/1896–7 (see Āṣafīyah iii p. 58 no. 310).
§ 635. M. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [K̲h̲ān] b. M. Raus̲h̲an K̲h̲ān was a brother of the printer M. Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ān (cf. pl. i § 57076) and he edited or contributed prefaces to several works printed at the Muṣṭafāʾī Press, Cawnpore, in the middle of the 19th century.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi faiḍ-rasān.1 Edition: place? 1285/1868–9 (Āṣafīyah i p. 118).
§ 636. M. Anwār Ḥusain “Taslīm” Sahaswānī, born in 1230/1815, has already been mentioned for his Mulak̲h̲k̲h̲aṣ i Taslīm, on the art of writing chronograms (pl. iii § 405 supra).
- Tāj al-madāʾiḥ, rules for elegant writing: [Lucknow] n.k. 1288/1872°* (Pp. 102).
§ 637. Nawwāb Muḥsin al-Mulk S. Mahdī ʿAlī, born at Etawah (Itāwah) in 1837, entered the service of the East India Company and in 1867 became Deputy Collector of Mīrzāpūr. Invited to Ḥaidarābād by Sir Sālār-Jang, the Prime Minister (for whose son, Sir Sālār-Jang ii, see pl. i § 1627), he was appointed Inspector-General of Revenue in 1874. In 1876 he became Revenue Secretary and in 1884 Financial and Political Secretary. The title of Muḥsin al-Mulk was conferred upon him. It was he who was mainly responsible for substituting Urdu for Persian as the official language at Ḥaidarābād. Having retired in 1893, he settled at ʿAlīgaṛh, where he worked and wrote in support of Sir ¶ Saiyid Aḥmad’s educational and reformist efforts (cf. pl. i § 654). On Sir Saiyid Aḥmad’s death in 1898 he became Honorary Secretary to the Trustees of the ʿAlīgaṛh College. He died on 1677 October 1907.
His literary output consists mainly of articles contributed to Urdu periodicals, especially Sir Saiyid Aḥmad’s Tahd̲h̲īb al-ak̲h̲lāq (cf. pl. i § 654, 2nd paragraph), but he published also the Urdu work Āyāt i baiyināt (Mīrzāpūr 1871*), a refutation of S̲h̲īʿism, which he had himself abandoned early in life.
[Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu), Vol. ii p. 178; R.B. Saksena History of Urdu literature pp. 273–4; T. Grahame Bailey A History of Urdu literature (London 1932) p. 88. Who was who, 1897–1916 under Mohsin-ul-Mulk; Portrait in C.F. Andrews Zaka Ullah of Delhi, Cambridge 1929, facing p. 96.]
Nawwāb Waqār al-Mulk (commonly “Viqar ul-Mulk”) Mus̲h̲tāq Ḥusain b. S̲h̲. Faḍl i Ḥusain Kanbōh,78 born in 183979 near Amrōhah,80 was a Nāʾib Taḥṣīldār in British India when Sir Sālār-Jang (cf. above) gave him an appointment in the State of Ḥaidarābād. Eventually he became Deputy Prime Minister (Nāʾib Madār al-mahāmmī kā ʿuhdah pāyā, Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr) and in 1890 received the title of Waqār al-Mulk. In 1891 he retired and, like Muḥsin al-Mulk, devoted himself to the support of Sir Saiyid Aḥmad’s activities. He had since 1866 been a member of the Scientific Society (cf. pl. i § 654) and he contributed many articles to the Tahd̲h̲īb al-ak̲h̲lāq. On the death of Muḥsin al-Mulk in 1907 he became Honorary Secretary to the Trustees of the ʿAlīgaṛh College. He was the founder of the Muslim League. He died on 28 January 1917.
[Ḥayāt i Waqār, an Urdu biography (ʿAlīgaṛh 1925. See Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr); Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) ii p. 278); R.B. Saksena History of Urdu literature pp. 301–2; T. Grahame Bailey A History of Urdu literature (London 1932) p. 87; Portrait in C.F. Andrews Zaka Ullah of Delhi, Cambridge 1929, facing p. 96.]
- Makātīb i Nawwāb Muḥsin al-Mulk u Waqār al-Mulk, compiled by M. Amīn Zubairī Mārahrawī. Edition: place? date? (Āṣafīyah iii p. 58 no. 342).
§ 638. G̲h̲ulām-Ṣafdar was a son of Muftī G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar Qurais̲h̲ī Lāhaurī, who has already been mentioned (pl. i § 1391, etc.).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Ṣafdarī (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲. kē lāʾiq wuh Muns̲h̲ī i Ḥaqīqī), letters, legal documents, etc. (with Urdu translations en face), given to G̲h̲.-Ṣ. and his ¶ brother Muftī G̲h̲ulām-Ḥaidar by their father in the course of their education and collected and arranged in four bābs by the first named, who completed the work in 1287/1870: Cawnpore 1872° (86 pp.); 1292/1875* (86 pp. 2nd ed.).
§ 639. Nawwāb M. Kalb-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān died in 1887 (see pl. i § 1622). [See also Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu). Vol. ii p. 154.]
- S̲h̲igūfah i k̲h̲usrawī, addresses, prefaces and other compositions: Rāmpūr 1287–90/1870–3°* (edited with marginal notes by Amīr Aḥmad. 160 pp.).
§ 640. Mullā Gul Muḥammad “ʿĀlī” Jāland’harī b. Mullā G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn b. Ḥakīm G̲h̲ulām-Nabī was a raʾīs of Jāland’har (“Jullundur”) in the Panjāb.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i ʿĀlī (beg. Bahār i būstān i maujūdāt), fifty-one model letters (ruqʿahs) completed in 1291/1874: Delhi 1291/1874* (Pp. 72).
§ 641. M. Jaʿfar “Zamharī” b. Muns̲h̲ī Karam Aḥmad b. M. Zamān Mutawallī, a raʾīs of K̲h̲airābād (in the Sītāpūr District of Oudh), belonged to a family from which the Moguls had appointed administrators of the sarkār of K̲h̲air-ābād (Ābāʾ i kirāmas̲h̲ az jānib i salāṭīn i Dihlī bar ʿuhdah i taulīyat i sarkār i K̲h̲airābād manṣūb). The author of the Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an, completed in 1293/1876, speaks of him as having reached his thirtieth year and mentions prose compositions of his entitled Haft kis̲h̲war and Haft manẓar. A congratulatory poem on the accession of Edward vii was published by him at Lucknow in 1320/1902°.
[Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 35.]
- Sih nat̲h̲r i Zamharī: K̲h̲airābād 1292/1875*; [Cawnpore], Muḥammadī Pr., 1294/1877*.
- Ruqaʿāt i Ṣamadī (beg. Dabīrān i jādū-taḥrīr), model letters and other prose compositions in fanciful and bombastic language: Lucknow 1293/1876* (33 pp.).
- Parwaz83 i nigāris̲h̲ i Pārsī, model letters in “pure Persian” needing many marginal glosses, completed in 1300/1883: Istanbul 1300/1883°‡ (Ak̲h̲tar Pr. 119 pp. Cf. Karatay p. 150; D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 197).
§ 644. Muns̲h̲ī G̲h̲ulām-G̲h̲aut̲h̲ “Bīk̲h̲abar” Kas̲h̲mīrī was Muns̲h̲ī to the government of the North West Provinces at Allahabad.
[Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 17.]
- K̲h̲ūnābah i jigar, works in prose and verse, the former mainly letters: Allahabad 1892° (264 pp.).
§ 645. ʿAbd al-ʿAlī “Wālih” b. Maulawī M. Mahdī “Wāṣif” died in 1311/1893–4 according to the Āṣafīyah catalogue. His father has already been mentioned (pl. iii § 618 supra).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Wālih. Editions: 1311/1893–4 (Pts. 1 & 2. Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 32); 1312/1894–5 (Āṣafīyah i. p. 118 no. 224).
§ 646. Maulawī M. Aḥsan “Aḥsan” b. Muns̲h̲ī M. Aḥmad Bilgrāmī was born in 1244/1828–9. His acknowledged skill in Persian composition brought him many pupils. For a time he was at Ḥaidarābād as instructor to members of the family of Nawwāb Muk̲h̲tār al-Mulk and subsequently at the invitation of Nawwāb Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān (for whom see pl. i § 48, etc.) he visited Bhōpāl to teach ʿAlī Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, the author of the Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an, and his brother.
[Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 107; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 15.]
- Artang i farhang, letters edited by Maulawī M. Ḥakīm al-Dīn:84 Lucknow 1288/1872°* (Pp. 72).
- Nat̲h̲r i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī, letters addressed to S̲h̲āh-Jahān Bēgam, of Bhōpāl (for whom see pl. i § 990): Āgrah 1300/1883° (Majmūʿah i N. i S̲h̲.-J. u Naẓm i Wālā-Jāhī.85 The letters (Pp. 68) followed by a dīwān (Pp. 80)).
- Tuḥfah i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī: place? 1308/1890–1 (Āṣafīyah i p. 120 no. 243).
¶ § 647. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn “K̲h̲ayālī” Barēlawī.
- Nat̲h̲r i K̲h̲ayālī, a eulogy of Nawwāb S̲h̲āh-Jahān Bēgam, of Bhōpāl (for whom see pl. i § 990): Āgrah 1300/1883° (Pp. 16).
§ 648. M. Saʿīd “Ḥasrat” ʿAẓīmābādī (i.e. of Patna in Bihār) completed his dīwān (Kullīyāt i Ḥasrat, Bānkīpūr iii 448) in 1300/1883. Another collection of works by him ((1) G̲h̲unyat al-muftaqir, (2) Haft band i naʿtīyah, (3) Tawārīk̲h̲ (chronograms), and (4) Ruqaʿāt, Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2268–71) was completed in 1303/1885 and bears the chronogrammatic title Maqṣad al-balāg̲h̲ah.
- Ruqaʿāt i Ḥasrat, letters to his friends and their answers: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2271 (a press copy. 19th cent.).
§ 649. Ḥasan ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Garrūsī Amīr-Niẓām was Governor of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān during the time when Muḥammad ʿAlī Mīrzā [S̲h̲āh of Persia 1907–9] was Crown Prince (see Browne Press and poetry of modern Persia p. 15n.).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Amīr-Niẓām. Edition: place? 1328/1910(?) (Āṣafīyah iii p. 60 no. 289).
§ 650. ʿAbd al-Jabbār K̲h̲ān “Āṣafī” is described as maujūd (i.e. still living) in the Āṣafīyah catalogue, Vol. i, which was published in 1332/1914.
- Sih nat̲h̲r i Āṣafī musammā bah Maḥbūb86 al-kalām. Edition: place? date? (Āṣafīyah i p. 126 nos. 82, 222).
§ 651. K̲h̲ān Bahādur Āqā Mīrzā Muḥammad [b. Aḥmad Būs̲h̲ahrī], c.i.e., has already been mentioned as the author of Dūstdārān i bas̲h̲ar (pl. i § 1667 (9)) and other works. In the D̲h̲arīʿah he is described as a lawyer (muḥāmī) at al-Baṣrah.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i aʿlā, “an advanced manual of letter-writing” (Arberry): D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 391 no. 1559, place? 1313/1895–687 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 56); Bombay 1339/1922* (224 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i jadīd, mentioned on the title-page of the author’s Dūstdārān i bas̲h̲ar, vol. ii: D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 391 no. 1561.
§ 652. Appendix
- Ādāb al-mutarassilīn (beg. Baʿd az tarṣīṣ u taʾsīs), by ʿAbd al-Jalīl b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān: Madrās i 205 (204 pp. Defective).
- ¶ Ādāb i ins̲h̲ā, on the art of letter-writing in Persian and Urdu, by Tāʾib: [Lucknow] 1293/1876* (Anwār i Muḥammadī Pr. 36 pp.).
- Afṣaḥ al-ins̲h̲āʾ, by ʿAbd Allāh Bēg “Hūs̲h̲” (cf. no. (62) below): Cawnpore (Niẓāmī Pr.) 1291/1874* (76 pp.).
- ʿAjūbat88 al-marg̲h̲ūbah, an anonymous collection of letters (ruqaʿāt) and pithy sayings (nikāt) composed in Aurangzēb’s reign (1069–1119/1659–1707) and divided into eight ʿajūbahs: Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 60 no. 9 (36 foll.).
- Armag̲h̲ān i bī-bahā, letters by Dīn Dayāl, “Agent of Bhopal”: Cawnpore 1289/1872* (Niẓāmī Pr. 50 pp.).
- Badīʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ, on the art of letter-writing, by M. Sipahdār K̲h̲ān: Delhi 1265/1849* (75 pp.).
- Bahār i maʿnī (beg. Jauhar i tīg̲h̲ i zabānhā-yi naghmah-pardāzān), model letters, almost all private, in highly ornate prose, composed at Lucknow by Indrajīt D’hīr:89 Ivanow Curzon 724 (133 foll. Circ. 1843).
- Bahāristān i suk̲h̲an:90 Āṣafīyah iii p. 56 no. 302.
- Baḥr i ṭawīl, by ʿAbd al-ʿAlī: Flügel i 778 foll. 111–13.
- Baḥr i ṭawīl: Eton 156 (bb) (ah 1173/1759–60).
- Bayāḍ al-mutaʿallimīn [sic lege for al-mutlimīn?] (beg. Ulūf ulūf i sp. u st. Karīmī rā), a treatise on ins̲h̲āʾ by Abū ’l-Baqā(?) Ṣiddīqī Yatīmī Qurais̲h̲ī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Sulṭānpūrī Nūr-Maḥallī (cf. Taʿlīm al-mubtadīn no.(193) below): Ross and Browne 189 (1898 [Samwat presumably, i.e. 1841(?)] 60 foll.).
- C̲h̲ahār c̲h̲aman, epistolary models, by Ṣādiq Muḥammad “ʿĀs̲h̲iq”: Browne Suppt. 377 (n.d. Corpus 41).
- C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman: see Ins̲h̲āʾ i C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman.
- C̲h̲ār dar c̲h̲ār, by “Mus̲h̲fiqī” [Buk̲h̲ārī: cf. pl. i § 503]: Ethé 1767 (16).
- Dabistān i Faiyāḍ,91 model letters (followed by poetical extracts), by Wilāyat ʿAlī K̲h̲an:92 Lucknow ( n.k.) 1876* (20 pp.).
- Dānis̲h̲ i bahār, by Diyānat Rāy w. Ganēs̲h̲ Rāy: Āṣafīyah iii p. 56 no. 345 (ah 1226/1811).
- Dastūr al-hidāyat, by Qāsim nwjī (Nūjī? Naujī?), a resident of Bālkundah (Balkonda) in the State of Ḥaidarābād: Āṣafīyah i p. 122 no. 159 (ah 1275/1858–9).
- ¶ Dastūr al-imtiyāz, by K̲h̲wus̲h̲-ḥāl Rāy: Āṣafīyah i p. 122 no. 167 (ah 1203/1788–9).
- Dastūr al-maktūbāt, possibly the work of Naunid’hi Rāy (see no. (20) infra): Āṣafīyah i p. 122 no. 143 (ah 1260/1844).
- Dastūr al-maktūbāt (beg. T̲h̲anā-yi bī-untahā-yi lā tuḥṣā), model letters and other documents, some of which bear dates in the 18th century (the last two, for example, ah 1137/1724–5), by Naunid’hi Rāy:93 Cawnpore 1268/1852* (Pp. 18); 1271/1855* (Pp. 20); Lucknow 1285/1868* (Pp. 27); 1897° (Pp. 24); Delhi [1876°] (Pp. 16); and several others.
- Dastūr al-ṣibyān (beg. Ḥ. i wāfir Dabīrī rā kih ins̲h̲ā-yi āfrīnīs̲h̲), ninety-four model letters for beginners in three faṣls ((1) to superiors, (2) to inferiors, (3) to equals), by Naunid’hi Rāy, who does not mention the date of composition: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1249/1833–4. See ocm. vii/4 p. 69), Ross and Browne p. 157 no. 257 (3), Browne Suppt. 484 (Corpus 192 (1)). Editions: Cawnpore 1266/1850* (Pp. 28); 1267/1851* (Pp. 30); 1269/1853* (Pp. 28); [Lucknow?] 1874° (Pp. 24); Lucknow 1292/1875* (Pp. 16); [Delhi] 1293/1876° (Pp. 24); and many others.
- Dastūr i pārsī-āmūz, by Quṭb al-Dīn Aḥmad: Āṣafiyah i p. 122 no. 255 (ah 1156/1743).
- Ḍawābiṭ al-ins̲h̲āʾ: see Haft ḍābiṭah.
- Dībāc̲h̲ah i dil-gus̲h̲ā, in ornate prose and verse, by Maulawī Amīr ʿAlī: Browne Suppt. 494 (Corpus 98 (1)).
- Dībāc̲h̲ah i faraḥ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲, a description of a bazar in ornate prose and verse, described in the colophon as the Mīnā bāzār of Jāmī: Browne Suppt. 496 (ah 1241/1825–6. Corpus 98 (3)).
- Dībāc̲h̲ah i saʿādat, “a work similar to [no. (24)] above, and copied in the same hand”: Browne Suppt. 495 (Corpus 98 (2)).
- Durr al-ʿulūm (beg. Sitāyis̲h̲ kunam Īzad i Pāk rā *), on letter-writing, with many famous specimens of this art, in five laṭīfahs and three manṭūqahs, by Gōpāl Rāy Sūrdaj:94 Bodleian 1400 (145 foll. ah 1113/1702).
- Durr i maknūn, letters in elegant Persian by Qāḍī S. Bandah ʿAlī K̲h̲ān: Benares 1291/1874* (ed. with marginal glosses by M. ʿAskarī. 116 pp.).
Faiyāḍ al-qawānīn, a large (anonymous?) collection of historical letters in three daftars ((1) letters of kings and princes, including Akbar, Jahāngīr, ¶ S̲h̲āh-Jahān (25 letters), Aurangzēb (11), Farruk̲h̲-siyar, Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh (8), S̲h̲āh-S̲h̲ujāʿ (6), Murād-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (47), etc., (2) letters of nobles, (3) miscellaneous letters): i.o. 4012 (Irvine ms.), Lucknow Nawwāb ʿAlī Ḥasan K̲h̲ān,95 Principal of the Nadwat al-ʿulamāʾ (266 foll. See S. Najīb As̲h̲raf Muqaddamah i ruqaʿāt i ʿĀlamgīr p. 108), Āgrah Madrasah i Muḥammadīyah (defective. See S. Najīb As̲h̲raf Ruqaʿāt i ʿĀlamgīr i, preface, p. 10).
Descriptions: (i) Sarkar Hist. of Aurangzib ii p. 315; (ii) S. Najīb As̲h̲raf Muqaddamah i ruqaʿāt i ʿĀlamgīr p. 108.
A number of letters from the Faiyāḍ al-qawānīn are included in S. Najīb As̲h̲raf Nadwī’s Ruqaʿāt i ʿĀlamgīr, i (§ 505 (9) supra).
- Fartāb i suk̲h̲an, letters, by Mīrzā M. Ibrāhīm: G̲h̲āzīpūr 1292/1875* (20 pp.).
- Fawāʾid al-mubtadiʾ, an epistolary manual: Browne Suppt. 905 (ah 1239/1823–4. Corpus 145).
- Fawāʾid i Bahāʾīyah, a collection of the writings (marqūmāt) in Persian and Arabic of S̲h̲. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Ṣadr al-S̲h̲arīʿah b. Mīrzā ʿAlī M. K̲h̲ān Niẓām al-Daulah. Edition: Ṭihrān, date? (Mas̲h̲ḥad iii, fṣl. 15, ptd. bks. no. 95).
- Guldastah i anjuman: see Ins̲h̲āʾ i Guldastah i anjuman.
- Guldastah i farhang, model letters, by S. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Ḥasan S̲h̲ēr Bihārī: ʿAẓīmābād [i.e. Patna], Muḥammadī Pr., [1877*96] ( i.o. copy, 22 pp., is incomplete).
- Guldastah i Saʿdī, by Niyāz Ḥusain. Edition: 1892 (Āṣafīyah i p. 130 no. 247).
- Gulistān i s̲h̲uʿūr, an epistolary manual, by Nawwāb Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ān: Browne Suppt. 1099 (Corpus 178 (1). 26 foll. ah 1222/1807–8).
- Guls̲h̲an i murād (beg. C̲h̲ūn zabān i qalam i s̲h̲ikastah-bayān), a short manual of elegant composition by M. Ḥusain (?): Ross and Browne p. 119 no. 203 (2) (dated 1898 [presumably Samwat = ad 1841 (?)]).
- Gulzār i ʿAjam, model letters, by Maqbūl Aḥmad b. Qudrat Aḥmad Fārūqī Gōpāmauʾī: Lucknow ( n.k.) 1871* (72 pp.); 1882 ( n.k. Cf. ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ ptd. bks. p. 54 no. 4).
- Gulzār i dānis̲h̲, model letters, by ʿAbd Allāh “Fāʾiq”: [India] Muḥammadī Pr., n.d.* (58 pp.).
- Gulzār i Wilāyat, a manual of letter-writing, by Wilāyat ʿAlī Bhōrī: Cawnpore 1289/1872° (128 pp.).
¶ Haft ḍābiṭah, or Ḍawābiṭ al-ins̲h̲āʾ, rules for letter-writing in seven sections called ḍābiṭah by S. ʿAlī Naqī K̲h̲ān b. S. Ḥas̲h̲mat ʿAlī, a resident of Sāndī in Oudh: Rieu ii 530b (18th cent.), 531a (ah 1213/1799), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 54 no. 31, Ethé 2136–7, probably also r.a.s. P. 237.
Editions: Calcutta 1830°* (in Mujmooi Taleem Moossibiyan [Majmūʿah i taʿlīm al-ṣibyān], by Tamīz al-Dīn b. M. Arzānī Maḥmūdpūrī, pp. 61–73); place? 1261/1845 (Āṣafīyah i p. 136); [Cawnpore] Muṣṭafāʾī Pr. 1266/1849–50* (16 pp.); Meerut 1268/1851–2* (16 pp.); [Lucknow] 1865° (ascribed on the title-page to Raunaq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān); 1878°*; and several others.
- Ḥikāyat i pisar i Rūmī, a story, “écrit dans une prose très compliquée,” probably by Sanglāk̲h̲ (cf. pl. i § 1438), of a conversation on philosophical subjects between an unnamed Persian and a Turk: Blochet iv 2024 (10 foll. 19th cent.).
- Historical letters: Bodleian iii 2711 (defective at both ends).
- Humāy u Humāyūn, imaginary love-letters by ʿAlī Aṣg̲h̲ar called S̲h̲arīf (cf. no. (122) below): Ṭihrān (Majlis Pr.) ahs. 1305/1926* (83 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Aḥmadī: Aumer 321 foll. 26–68 (ah 1214/1799–1800. Opening words not quoted by Aumer).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Aḥmadī (identical with the preceding?), by Aḥmad b. ʿUmar: Āṣafīyah i p. 114 no. 173.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i bī-bahā, model letters, by Ḥakīm M. K̲h̲ān (cf. nos. (53) and (170) infra), who was alive at the date of publication: Fatḥgaṛh (“Fatehgarh”), Ḥasanī Pr., 1293/1876* (8 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i c̲h̲amanistān, model letters, by Mullā Miyān97 M. Fatḥ-yāb K̲h̲ān: Lucknow, Muṣṭafāʾī Pr., 1264/1848* (20 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i C̲h̲ar c̲h̲aman, by Sūraj Bhān “Hindū”: Peshawar 1904.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi dānis̲h̲-afzā, letters of Āṣaf-Jāh,98 Rifʿat al-Mulk99 and others, collected by D̲h̲ākir al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Aurangābādī: Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 202.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Darwīs̲h̲, by Darwīs̲h̲ Muḥammad100 (cf. no. (124) below): Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 136.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Daulat Rām, by Daulat Rā’ē b. ʿIzzat Rā’ē: [Delhi] [1868*] (Ḥasanī Pr. 16 pp.); Cawnpore 1874* ( n.k. 19 pp.); 1877* ( n.k. 20 pp.).
- ¶ Ins̲h̲āʾ i dil-afrūz, model letters, by Ḥakīm M. K̲h̲ān (cf. nos. (47) and (170)): Fatḥgaṛh (“Fatehgarh”), Ḥasanī Pr., 1876* (16 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Dīwān: Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 96.
- Ins̲h̲ā i durr i maknūn, letters by Lālah101 Sid’hārī Lāl: [Lucknow] [1868*] Gulzār i Kas̲h̲mīr Pr. (150 pp. in the i.o. copy, of which some pages are bound in the wrong order at the end).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Fāʾiz, spiritual letters of Maulawī M. Akram102 “Fāʾiz”: Cawnpore, Niẓāmī Pr., 1287/1870* (104 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Fārsī, an elementary letter-writer, by Muns̲h̲ī Ḥukm C̲h̲and: Lahore 1867* (Sarkārī Pr. 32 pp.); 1868* (Ganēs̲h̲ Prakās. 28 pp.); 1877° (24 pp.); and several others.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Furqānī, letters and other prose compositions, by S. Aḥmad Ḥasan103 “Furqānī”: Meerut [190?*] (Aʿlā ʿIllīyīn Pr. Ed. S.M. Karrār Ḥusain, the author’s son. 123 pp.); Cawnpore 1906° (ed. S.M. Karrār Ḥusain. 123 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi g̲h̲arīb, model letters, by M. Niẓām al-Dīn b. Raḥīm Allāh: [Āgrah 1877°*] (Ilāhī Pr.104 30 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Guldastah i anjuman: Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 58.
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i gunbad̲h̲ī (beg. Dar-īn gunbad̲h̲ bah … bar-kas̲h̲ āwāz *… bandah-wār ʿarḍ mī-dārad kih), a very short anonymous collection of model letters (title from colophon): Ivanow 1st Suppt. 792(4) (foll. 61b–68b. Circ. ad 1791).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i hūs̲h̲-fizā, model letters, by ʿAbd Allāh Bēg “Hūs̲h̲” (cf. no. (3) above): Cawnpore 1292/1875* (Niẓāmī Pr. 42 pp.).
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i Indar-p’hān105 i Siyālkōtī)(beg. Akt̲h̲ar i auqāt yārān i maʿnī-ras i suk̲h̲an-ās̲h̲nā), epistolary forms without references to particular persons or dates: Ivanow Curzon 721 (2) (late 19th cent.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i jadīd, model letters, by M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “At̲h̲ar” Rāmpūrī: Delhi [1928*] (Barqī Pr. 104 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Jaudat, by Multānī Lāl “Jaudat”: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 54 no. 34.
- ¶ Ins̲h̲āʾ i K̲h̲ān [Jān?] Muḥammad Mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ (beg. Ḥadīt̲h̲ i ʿis̲h̲q s̲h̲ud zīb i bayānam *), a verbose discussion of love, presumably spiritual, in ornate prose: Ivanow 408 (foll. 47–58. ah 1158/1745).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Laṭīf: r.a.s. P. 227.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Masʿūdī, letters written for the most part in the last quarter of the 18th century: Browne Suppt. 122 (ah 1240/1824–5. Corpus 54 (2)).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i maṭlūb (beg. Baʿd az adā-yi s̲h̲ukr i Āfrīdgār), a small collection of model letters by S̲h̲. Mubārak Fars̲h̲ī (so Ethé) or Mubārak Hās̲h̲imī (so Ivanow): Ethé 2134 (foll. 18. 1191 Bengali/ ad 1783), 2948(1), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 792(1) (foll. 17. 1198 Bengali/ ad 1791).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi maṭlūb, rules of elegant composition, by ʿAlīm al-Dīn Islāmābādī: [India] 1266/1850* (Nabawī Pr. 40 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Maẓhar, a letter-writer, by M. Maẓhar al-Ḥaqq: Cawnpore 1315/1897° (28 pp.).
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mirzā Majnūn Bēg): Āṣafīyah i p. 132 no. 120 (ah 1111/1699–1700).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mullā Ḥusain: Lindesiana p. 154 no. 500 (circ. ad 1780).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i munīr, by M. Amīn [b.?] M. Afḍal: Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 44 (ah 1017/1608–9).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Nādir: Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 147 (acephalous).
Ins̲h̲āʾ i Niʿmatī (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. Bandah i dargāh i bilā-is̲h̲tibāh Niʿmat Allāh Banī-Isrāʾīl), a small collection of model letters to parents, children, relations, friends etc., in 24 ruqʿahs representing different forms of letters by Niʿmat Allāh-Banī-Isrāʾīl: Ivanow Curzon 717 (1) (ah 1186/1772), Āṣafīyah i p. 118 no. 172 (ah 1234/1818–19), Berlin 1058 (4), Ethé 1768 (1), 2126 (2).
Editions: [Bombay] 1283/1866° (Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ … maʿrūf bah Ins̲h̲āʾ i Fāʾiq Ins̲h̲āʾi muk̲h̲taṣar u Ins̲h̲āʾ i Niʿmatī. Pp. 76, 12); Fatḥgaṛh(“Fatehgarh”) 1293/1876* (Pp. 12).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Nūr Allāh (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. u th. i Ilāhī … mī-gūyad bandah Nūr Allāh kih īn c̲h̲and aurāq dar qānūn i ādāb u alqāb): Ross and Browne p. 119 no. 203 (1) (dated 1898 [presumably Samwat = ad 1841 (?)]).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Nuṣrat i Fārsī, petitions and social letters, by M. Nuṣrat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. Nāṣir al-Dīn M.: Delhi [1879*] (Nuṣrat al-maṭābiʿ. Pp. 80, 32).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Qāḍī, model letters, by Qāḍī ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār: Lahore 1928* (Kās̲h̲ī Rām Pr. 64 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Qudsī (beg. (in Ivanow 413 and 414) Wa-ʿalā ’llāhi fī kulli umūrin tawakkul), “a treatise on epistolography, containing only specimens of ¶ various tricks, such as writing an epistle without using a certain letter of the alphabet, and other similar matters,” by Qudsī Munajjim: Ivanow 413 (early 19th cent.), 414 (foll. 35–53. Early 19th cent.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Riḍawī, by S. Taqī Riḍawī: Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 154.
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Rustamī, forty-eight model letters: Bombay 1313/1895° (appended, on pp. 58–81, to the Ins̲h̲āʾ i K̲h̲alīfah).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Sanjī, a guide to letter-writing by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Sanjī” (cf. pl. i § 1411] (79), and no. (201) below): Lahore [1931*] (Inqilāb Steam Press. 80 pp.).
- (Ins̲h̲āʾ i S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad) (beg. Junūd i nā-maʿdūd i ḥamd), by S̲h̲. al-D. A.: Browne Suppt. 125 (Christ’s Dd. 3.15).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i ṣibyān (beg. Ḥ. i bī-ḥ K̲h̲udāʾī rā kih muns̲h̲ī i ʿaql i hamah-dān), model letters of all kinds, some of them containing dates ranging from 1180/1766–7 to 1200/1786, arranged in thirty-six bābs: Ivanow 404 (foll. 228. Early 19th cent.), Curzon 167 (Bābs i– xii only. Late 19th cent.), Rehatsek p. 63 no. 12 (ah 1214/1799–1800).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i ṣibyān: Madrās 1288/1871* (Niẓām al-Maṭābiʿ. 44 pp.); [Madrās] 1295/1878* (40 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i ṣibyān, by Mahdī: Āṣafīyah i p. 116 no. 163 (ah 1231/1816).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Tamīz, elegant compositions, by Kālī-Rāy “Tamīz”: Cawnpore ( n.k.) 1876* (38 pp.).
- Ins̲h̲āʾ i Tayammunī (beg. Tayammunan bi-d̲h̲ikri man jarā bi-amrihi ’l-qalam), model letters compiled by “Tayammunī” Iṣfahānī: Ethé 2141 (foll. 60).
- Ins̲h̲ā-yi Zain Allāh, model letters, by M. Zain Allāh: Cawnpore 1292/1875* (Niẓāmī Pr. 54 pp.).
- Jāmiʿ al-funūn, by Muḥammad Bēg Bilgrāmī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 45 no. 32 (ah 1127/1715).
- Jāmiʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ, letters of some Amīrs and Muns̲h̲īs of the reigns of S̲h̲āh-Jahān and Aurangzēb followed by letters of those sovereigns themselves and of some other persons, without preface but with a subscription giving Muns̲h̲ī Bhāg-C̲h̲and106 as the compiler and the title as above: Rieu iii 984a (403 foll. Transcribed circ. 1850 from a ms. belonging to the Rajah of Balamgarh).
- Jāmiʿ al-maqānīn [sic, presumably for J. al-qawānīn] (beg. Ḥ. i mutawāfir u t̲h̲. i mutakāt̲h̲ir ba-bārgāh i Karīm i Qādir), introductory formulae for letters and other documents, by M. Fāḍil: Berlin 78 (1) (modern).
- ¶ Jilwah i raʿnā, by Imām al-Dīn Ḥusainī: Āṣafīyah i p. 120 no. 160.
- Kanz al-laṭāʾif (title, of doubtful authority, from fol. 1a, not from the text. Beg. Ḥamd ḥamd bar Muns̲h̲ī i Awwal), specimens of letters addressed to different classes of persons with the appropriate answers, compiled by Imām b. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd al-Mālī al-Amīrī al-S̲h̲īrāzī: Bodleian 2002 (63 foll. ah 907/1501).
- Kanz al-laṭāʾif (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Maujūdī-rā taqaddasat asmāʾuhu), fifty letters (risālahs) of various types (fī ’l-is̲h̲tiyāq, etc.), by Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad,107 as he calls himself, or Maulānā Iftik̲h̲ār al-ʿulamāʾ Saiyid al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ Abū ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Maulānā Zain al-Dīn, as he is called (in a heading apparently) in the Leyden ms. 292, who composed this work by order of a certain Majd al-Dīn (Fak̲h̲r al-Islām wa-’l-Muslimīn S̲h̲ams al-mas̲h̲āriq wa-’l-maʿālī Tāj al-mafāriq al-aʿālī Iftik̲h̲ār al-Ṭālibīyah Ik̲h̲tiyār al-Hās̲h̲imīyah) before 898/1493, that being the date of completion (apparently of an earlier transcription) occurring at the end of the last letter in the Paris ms. (Tammat al-risālat al-s̲h̲arīfah … fī ʿas̲h̲arah i [sic] Rabīʿ al-T̲h̲ānī sanah wa [sic] t̲h̲amānah wa-tisʿīn wa-t̲h̲amāni-miʾah): Leyden i p. 174 nos. 292 (first eleven letters only. 15th cent.), 291 (n.d.), Flügel ii 991 (4) (probably ah 974/1566), Blochet ii 1057 (foll. 58. Mid 17th cent.), i.o. 4623 (lacks fol. 1. 17th cent. See jras. 1939 p. 388), Bodleian 2001 (n.d.), Krafft 80.
- Kār-nāmah i farhang, model letters, by Amīn Allāh ʿAẓīmābādī: [Patna] 1874* (Faiḍ i ʿāmm Pr.108 116 pp.).
- Kār-nāmah i S̲h̲āh Muḥammad G’HṚTLI:109 Lahore Panjāb Univ. (Samwat 1894 [ ad 1837?]. See ocm. vii/3 p. 60).
- K̲h̲āwar-nāmah, “fārsī zabān kī ins̲h̲ā hai”: Peshawar 1884 (ah 1114/1702–3).
- K̲h̲ayālāt i rangīn, collected essays by M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ Bēg “Saifī”: Lucknow 1929* (Anwār al-maṭābiʿ. 182 pp.).
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ins̲h̲āʾ, a large collection of prose compositions beginning with the prefaces of Jalālā Ṭabāṭabāʾī (cf. pl. i § 723) to the dīwāns of “Qudsī, “Kalīm” and “Munīr”, ending with the Ruqaʿāt i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥamīd and evidently different from Sujān Rāy’s work of the same title (cf. ¶ § 501 supra), since the latter is arranged according to subjects, while this work is not: Bodleian 1416 (439 foll. n.d.).
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-muns̲h̲aʾāt (beg. Ḥamdī kih dar haijā-yi [sic: read hayajān-i ?] adā-yi ān janāḥ), model letters and formulae arranged in twelve sections according to the rank, profession, etc., of the persons addressed (firstly salāṭīn bā salāṭīn): Ethé 2126 (1) (31 foll. ah 1165/1752).
- K̲h̲ulāṣāt al-muns̲h̲aʾāt (beg. Ḥ. i nā-maḥdūdī kih muns̲h̲iyān i faṣāḥat-s̲h̲iʿār), a fragment, followed by fragments of other ins̲h̲ās: Ethé 2068.
- Kunūz al-rumūz (beg. al-Ḥ. l. al-Aḥad al-Ṣamad Rāfiʿ al-samāwāt bi-g̲h̲airi ʿamad), on the merits and exploits of Muḥammad in forty maqāmahs of prose mixed with verse, by Ḥusām b. M. al-Mas̲h̲s̲h̲āʾī (cf. Lailīyāt below): Gotha 4 (2) (ah 889/1484).
- Lailīyāt (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ʿalā nawālihi wa-ṣalawātuhu ʿalā M. wa-ālihi yaqūlu ’l-ʿabd …), on the merits of the night in five majālis of prose mixed with verses, by Ḥusām b. M. al-Mas̲h̲s̲h̲āʾī (cf. Kunūz al-rumūz above): Gotha 4(4) (ah 889/1484).
- Letters of S̲h̲. M. Jurjānī with a preface beginning Nām i K̲h̲udā ṣarīr i k̲h̲āmah i Wāsiṭī-niz̲h̲ād: Bodleian iii 2712(6).
- Maḍmūn i k̲h̲ayālī, by Āqā Abū ’l-Qāsim (cf. nos. (134) and (138) below): Edinburgh 375 v (3) (17th cent.), Rieu ii 796a (18th cent.).
- Majmaʿ al-afkār110 (beg.: Īn nusk̲h̲ah kih hamc̲h̲u gul … Bar ṣafḥah i ḍamīr i munīr i mustafīdān), a large anonymous collection of prefaces, letters and other prose compositions, beginning with seven prefaces by Jalālā Ṭabaṭabāʾī (cf. pl. i § 723 and pl. iii § 652(101) supra) and ending with four k̲h̲ātimahs: Bānkīpūr ix 872 (469 foll. 19th cent.).
- Majmaʿ al-ins̲h̲āʾ: r.a.s. P. 230 (460 foll. ah 1195/1781).
- Majmaʿ al-qawāʿid (beg. Ai Ān-kih ba-ḥamd i Tu c̲h̲ih yārā-yi dabīr *), on epistolary terms, forms, etc., possibly by Rājārām Lak’hnawī, who gives his name at the end, but may be only the copyist: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 967 (31 foll. ad 1882).
- Majmaʿ al-rasāʾil, a letter-writer with numerous specimens: Bodleian 1410 (defective at both ends. Foll. 105).
- ¶ Majmūʿah i anās̲h̲ī, or Risālah dar fann i ins̲h̲āʾ,111 (beg. ʿUnwān i nāmah i saʿādat i abadī), by S̲h̲. M. b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, completed perhaps in 995/1587:112 Ethé 2947 (1) (foll. 140b–215a. ah 1004/1595–6(?)).
- Majmūʿah i ins̲h̲ā: see Ins̲h̲āʾ i Mirzā Majnūn Bēg.
- Majmūʿah i k̲h̲uṭab i Pārsī, addresses, odes etc., of famous Muslims, edited by Sh. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz: Karāc̲h̲ī 1351/1932* (ʿAbbāsī Pr. 207 pp.).
- Majmūʿah i makātīb i Majmūʿah-dār, [correspondence between the East India Company and the Marāt’hās, edited with Marāt’hī translations by Gangād’har Nārāyan Majmūʿah-dār]: Poona [1924*] (Bhārat Printing Works. Pp. 256, 83, …).
- (Majmūʿah i mukātabāt) (beg. Dar jawāb i Pād-s̲h̲āh ʿĀlamgīr … ʿarḍ-dās̲h̲t i aḥqar i farzandān M. Akbar), an anonymous, untitled and disorderly collection of letters from the time of Akbar to that of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (or later): Ivanow 405 (= a.s.b. F.56. Late 18th cent. Cf. Sarkar Hist. of Aurangzib ii p. 313).
- (Majmūʿah i muns̲h̲aʾāt) (beg. Taḥāʾif i ʿmlān (read taḥmīdāt?) i wāfiyāt i ijābat-mas̲h̲ḥūn u s̲h̲arāʾif i taslīmāt), letters by many stylists, mainly of the first half of the eleventh/seventeenth century (headed in red ink on fol. lb Ruqaʿāt i Mīrzā Mahdī, but Mīrzā Mahdī’s letters begin on fol. 6) without title or compiler’s name: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 954 (65 foll. Probably ah 1131/1718).
- Majmūʿah i tarassul, model letters, by ʿAbbās ʿUṭārid “S̲h̲aṭrī”: Tabrīz 1262/1846° (16 foll.); 1262/1846° (28 foll.); [Persia] 1267/1851° (19 foll.).
- Makātīb i ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ, letters, etc., mostly in Arabic but some in Persian: [Cairo, 1900?°*] (488 pp.); Cairo ah 1328–40/1910–21 (Vols. i– iii. Faraj Allāh Zakī al-Kurdī. See zdmg. 1929 i p. *12*).
- Makātīb i fārsī, by M. Bēg S̲h̲irwānī: Āṣafīyah i p. 132 no. 59.
Makātīb i K̲h̲ān Aḥmad K̲h̲ān i Gīlānī: see pl. i § 481.
[Taqī Kās̲h̲ī no. 401 (Sprenger p. 32); Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ no. 1134.]
- Maktab i ʿis̲h̲q, fictitious letters by ʿAlī Aṣg̲h̲ar called S̲h̲arīf (cf. no. (44) above): Ṭihrān ahs. 1307, 1309/1928, 1930* (2 pts. Majlis Pr. and Nahḍat i S̲h̲arq Pr. Pp. 95; 104).
- Maktūbāt i Aḥmadī, by M. Masīḥ Allāh K̲h̲ān. Edition: 1892 (Āṣafīyah i p. 134).
- Maktūbāt i Darwīs̲h̲, by Darwīs̲h̲ Muḥammad (cf. no. (51) above): Āṣafīyah i p. 134 no. 137.
- ¶ Maktūbāt i Ḥāfiẓ M. ʿAlī S̲h̲āh K̲h̲airābādī: Āṣafīyah iii p. 60 no. 304 (10 pp.).
- Maktūbāt i Mirzā M. Riḍā Najafī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 54 no. 27 (1215 Faṣlī = 1808(?)).
- Maktūbāt i Taqī al-Dīn Dihlawī (beg. Ṣaḥāʾif i ḥamd u fāʾiz [read dafātir?] i s̲h̲ukr kih dark̲h̲wur), letters of Mīr Taqī al-Dīn Dihlawī (about whom the cataloguer gives no information), in fourteen chapters: Madrās i 249 (108 pp., much damaged), 248 (transcribed recently from the preceding, apparently).
- Miʿyār al-imlā, by Dēbī Pars̲h̲ād Badāyūnī. Edition: 1287/1870–1 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 58).
- Muʿīn i bī-naẓīr, letters and essays, by M. S̲h̲afīʿ Allāh “Ṣafī” Ārawī and S. Najm al-Hudā Nadwī: Aʿẓamgaṛh 1343/1924* (Maʿārif Pr. 92 pp.).
- Mukātabah i Muḥammadīyah, letters between S̲h̲. M. T’hānawī113 Fārūqī and Maulawī M. Bas̲h̲īr al-Dīn Qinnaujī, edited by M. Ṣādiq ʿAlī Muẓaffarnagarī: Barēlī (“Bareilly”) 1285/1868* (Ṣiddīqī Press. 64 pp.).
- Mukātabāt i K̲h̲ān Aḥmad K̲h̲ān i Gīlānī: see pl. i § 481, and iii § 652 (121) above.
- Mukātabāt i S̲h̲amsī, by S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. Badr al-Dīn: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 52 no. 7 (ah 1014/1605–6).
- Munāẓarah i āb u ātas̲h̲: Eton 156 (h) (ah 1173/1759–60).
- Munāẓarah i c̲h̲as̲h̲m u surmah, by Āqā Abū ’l-Qāsim (cf. nos. (107) above and (138) below): Edinburgh 375 v (1) (17th cent.), Rieu ii 796a (18th cent.).
- Munāẓarah i c̲h̲as̲h̲m u zabān, by Raus̲h̲an-ḍamīr: Bānkīpūr xi 1098 ( xxviii) (18th cent.).
Munāẓarah i gul u mul,114 by whom?
Turkish translation: M. i g. [u] m. Farsçadan türkçeye terceme eden Aḥmad Faṣîḥ … Istanbul 1258/1867115 (72 pp. Karatay p. 133).
Munāẓarah i Ṭūṭī u zāg̲h̲, by whom?
Turkish version: Munāẓara-i ṭūṭī ile zāġ. Farsçadan çeviren Ṣerīf …, [Istanbul] 1287/1870 (56 pp. Karatay p. 134).
- ¶ Munāẓarah i zulf u s̲h̲ānah, by Āqā Abū ’l-Qāsim (cf. nos. (107) and (134) above): Edinburgh 375 v (2) (17th cent.), Rieu ii 796a (18th cent.).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i ʿAbd al-Razzāq, beginning with a preface to the author’s own poems (Gauhar i girān-bahā-yi suk̲h̲an …): Ethé 2144 (foll. 262–7).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Abū Bakr, by Abū Bakr b. Maḥmūd: Lindesiana p. 107 no. 470 (ah 1003/1594).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Aʿẓam (beg. Aʿẓamtarīn ṣifat u t̲h̲anāy ḥamd i K̲h̲āliqī-st), an epistolary manual written by M. Aʿẓam K’hartalī116 at the request of a holy man, S.M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ Gujrātī, and divided into a preface, five bābs ((1) introductory, (2) rules of composition, (3) various modes of expressing the same idea, (4) model letters and other documents, in three faṣls, (5) numerical notation and arithmetic) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on ethics): Rieu iii 988b (foll. 163. ad 1838), Āṣafīyah i p. 134 no. 124 (defective at end), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (2 copies. ocm. vii/4 p. 70).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Jalāl al-Dīn (beg. Īn rasāʾil i ʿālī u wasāʾil i maʿālī): Cairo p. 487 (in a volume containing three collections of Turkish muns̲h̲aʾāt, all apparently undated).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i k̲h̲ānadān i Muns̲h̲ī Jawāhir Mal K̲h̲aṭāṭ i Jawāhir-S̲h̲āhī, official and other letters by J. M. and members of his family: Lucknow 1887° ( n.k. 748 pp.).
- (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mīrzā M. Riḍāʾī (?)) (beg. Yā Rab nafasī dih kih t̲h̲anā pardāzam), letters in ornate prose: Browne Coll. D. 21 (15).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Muḥsinī, by S̲h̲arīf ʿAbd al-Raḥmān: Āṣafīyah i p. 134 no. 190 (defective at both ends).
- Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Rājah Amrit Lāl, model and actual letters by the author of the T̲h̲amarat al-maʿānī, a commentary on “Qatīl’s” S̲h̲ajarat al-amānī (see pl. iii § 204 (1) supra): [Lucknow] 1891° (208 pp.).
- Murāsalāt, model letters, by S. Riḍā ʿAlī-zādah:117 Lahore 1344/1926* (Mufīd i ʿāmm Pr. 194 pp.); 1345/1927* (same press. 2nd ed. 188 pp.); 1347/1928* (same press. 3rd ed. 144 pp.); 1353/1934* (Maqbūl i ʿāmm Pr. 198 pp.).
- Nādir al-ins̲h̲ā, by Kis̲h̲nājī Pandit: Āṣafīyah i p. 134 no. 176.
- ¶ Nafḥat al-ʿAjam, model letters selected from various collections by Wilāyat-ʿAlī G̲h̲āzīpūrī: Āgrah 1286/1869* (Muḥammadī Pr. 144 pp.).
- Nāfiʿ i mubtadī al-maʿrūf bi-Ruqaʿāt i Munawwarī, model letters by Munawwar Ḥusain b. Dāwud Ḥusain: ʿAẓīmābād [i.e. Patna] 1871* (C̲h̲as̲h̲mah i ʿilm Pr. 21 pp.).
- Nairang i faṣāḥat, letters of Muns̲h̲ī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, collected and edited by M. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr: G̲h̲āzīpūr 1292/1875* (Aṣg̲h̲ar ʿAlī’s Pr. 16 pp.).
- Nat̲h̲r al-durar, by Maulawī Rūḥ al-Amīn Dihlawī: Cawnpore 1282/1865–6 (Ins̲h̲āʾ i N. al-d. n.k. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ ptd. bks. p. 54 no. 16).
- Naubahār i ʿis̲h̲rat (subject ?), by Muns̲h̲ī S̲h̲īv Narāyan: Browne Suppt. 1335 (434 foll. Corpus 44).
- Original Persian letters and other documents, with facsimiles. Compiled and translated by Charles Stewart118 … (Ins̲h̲āʾ i jadīd yaʿnī maktūbāt al-mutaʾak̲h̲khirīn …): London 1825°* (225 pp.).
- Pand-nāmah i c̲h̲ahār-faṣl, collected essays, speeches and poems, by Ṭaʾirah Īrānī: Bombay 1312/1933* (ed. Hormuzd Kinkās̲h̲ Kirmānī. 103 pp. Bāstānī Pr.).
- Panj ruqʿah i Wilāyat, five letters (mystical essays according to Arberry) in artificial style in imitation of Irādat K̲h̲ān’s Panj ruqʿah: Lucknow 1872° (32 pp.); [1927*] (62 pp. With a biography of the author in Urdu by S. As̲h̲raf ʿAlī Ṣafīpūrī. Adabī Pr.).
- Pārsī nāmah, a reading-book in pure Persian, by Kartā Rām “Ṣafā”: Lahore 1890° (45 pp.); 91* (New Imperial Pr. 52 pp.).
- Persian and Urdu letter-writer, The, with an English translation and vocabulary. Compiled and translated by Captain T. H. G. Besant … with the assistance of Namat Khan Akbarabadi. Calcutta 1843° (pp. 175, 191); 1845°* (Bishop’s College Pr. pp. 175, 191).
- Qāl i bī-qīl, by Ḥusain b. ʿUt̲h̲mān: Āṣafīyah i p. 130 no. 138.
- Qānūnc̲h̲ah i ins̲h̲ā, by Nand-Rām b. Hīrānand: Āṣafīyah i p. 130 no. 209, possibly also no. 144.
- Qāwāʿid al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. Ḥ. u sp. i bī-ḥ. u q.), by “Wafāʾī”: Cairo p. 488 (n.d.).
- Rauḍat al-mutakallimīn wa-jannat al-mutarassilīn (beg. S̲h̲ukr u sp. u ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-q. ḥaḍrat i ulūhīyat rā), divided into three qisms: Berlin 1054 (2) (defective at end).
- ¶ (Risālah dar fann i ins̲h̲āʾ) (beg. A-lā ai dūstān i nuktah-pardāz *): Ethé 1763 (19).
- (Risālah dar fann i ins̲h̲āʾ) (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. a. b. bar ḍamāʾir i ʿārifān i īn fann), forms of letters for various classes of persons: Rieu ii 810a (foll. 39–111. Early 19th cent.).
- Risālah dar fann i ins̲h̲āʾ: see Majmūʿah i anās̲h̲ī.
- Risālat al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn (beg. Nuk̲h̲ustīn ḥamdī kih k̲h̲āmah i badāʾiʿ-nigārī), specimen love-letters in a highly rhetorical style: Bodleian iii 2713 (84 foll. ah 1199/1785).
- Riyāḍ al-maʿānī, by Malik Muḥammad …: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (161 foll. See ocm. viii/1 p. 58).
- Ruqaʿāt i ʿAbbās ʿAlī, by ʿAbbās ʿAlī: Āṣafīyah i p. 124 no. 141.
- Ruqaʿāt i Āg̲h̲ā ʿAlī Akbar S̲h̲īrāzī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. MSS. p. 53 no. 25 (52 foll.).
- Ruqaʿāt i bī-naẓīr, model letters, by Ḥakīm M. K̲h̲ān (cf. nos. (47) and (53) above): Fatḥgaṛh (“Fatehgarh”), Ḥasanī Pr., 1876* (8 pp.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Dayā Rām: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. vii/1 p. 140 no. 150(1)).
- Ruqaʿāt i faiḍ-āgīn, model letters, by Nand Kis̲h̲ōr: Lucknow 1294/1877°* ( n.k. 32 pp.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Ḥāfiẓ, by M. Mujīb Allāh K̲h̲ān “Ḥāfiẓ”:119 Cawnpore 1295/1878°* (Niẓāmī Pr. 24 pp.).
- Ruqaʿāt i ʿItrat (beg. S̲h̲arāristān i ṭais̲h̲ dast [sic]), letters and other compositions of ʿAbd al-Mannān “ʿItrat”: Madrās i 30 (a) (48 pp.), probably also ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 34 no. 42 (Kullīyāt i ʿItrat (G̲h̲azalīyāt, Maktūbāt and Afsānah i K̲h̲air al-k̲h̲abar)).
- Ruqaʿāt i Kanhar Dās (beg…. kih bar-ārandah i murādāt i jāwīdānī), a few private letters: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2326 (1) (13 foll. 1193 Faṣlī [ ad 1786?]).
- Ruqaʿāt i K̲h̲wājah ʿAlī Akbar, letters written to officials connected with Lahore and other persons: Bānkīpūr xi 1098 ( xvi) (18th cent.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Mahābīr-prasād, model letters: [Delhi] 1874* (Majmaʿ al-ʿulūm Pr. 146 pp.).
- Ruqaʿāt i Muḥammad Makārim (beg. S̲h̲. i bī-ḥ. u madḥ i bī-ʿadd mar Ḥaḍrat i ʿIzzat), sixty letters by M.M. b. Jalāl al-Dīn Tālgrāmī to his friends, etc.: Ivanow 412 (late 18th cent.).
- ¶ Ruqaʿāt i Munawwarī: see Nāfiʿ i mubtadī.
- Ruqaʿāt i Muẓaffar Ḥusain (beg. K̲h̲āmah i k̲h̲ām-kār k̲h̲ār-k̲h̲ār i ān dārad kih), letters of M.Ḥ. b. S. Mubārak ʿAlī: Browne Suppt. 708 (foll. 95b–131, defective at end).
- Ruqaʿāt i Rustam ʿAlī K̲h̲ān: Āṣafīyah i p. 124 no. 203.
- Ruqaʿāt i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad, letters of S̲h̲. M. b. ʿIṣmat Allāh b. S̲h̲. ʿUmr i Darāz (or ʿUmr-darāz) Anṣārī: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (n.d. See ocm. viii/1 p. 58).
- Ruqaʿāt i taslīm, by S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ulām-Jīlānī Qādirī, Mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ of the town of Mēdak in the State of Ḥaidarābād. Edition: 1315/1897–8 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1784 no. 354).
- Rusūm al-muḥāḍarah (beg. Alfāẓī c̲h̲and dar alqāb u ādāb u durūd u mufāwaḍāt u muḥāwarāt i k̲h̲uṭūṭī …), a short treatise for beginners: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 964 (40 foll. v.s. 1888/1831).
- Ṣadr al-kitāb, model letters by S̲h̲ukr ʿAlī: Browne Suppt. 834 (Corpus 130).
- Safīnah i Raḥmānī. Edition: place? date? (Āṣafīyah i p. 126 no. 84).
- Saʿīd al-kalām, model letters, by M. Nāṭiq: ʿAẓīmābād [i.e. Patna] 1286/1869* (C̲h̲as̲h̲mah i s̲h̲ād Pr. Pp. 64, 12).
- S̲h̲araf-nāmah (beg. Ḥamdī kih futūḥ i ān mūjib i rauḥ i rūḥ), specimens of letters, orders, etc., by ʿAlī S̲h̲araf: Bodleian 1361 (ah 1124/1713).
- S̲h̲auq-angīz (beg. Baʿd az adā-yi waẓāʾif i t̲h̲anā-yi Rabbānī), forms of letters to relations, friends, etc., and answers to them, interspersed with many pieces of poetry, by an anonymous author who in the preface praises his spiritual guide, S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Subḥān: Ethé 2108 (66 foll. 38th regnal year [of Aurangzēb, ah 1105/1694?]).
- Sunbulistān i taḥrīr, a letter-writer, by M. Fauz al-Kabīr Ḥanafī Ṣiddīqī: Cawnpore 1314/1897° (82 pp.).
- Surūr i aṭfāl, models of composition: Lindesiana p. 218 no. 342 (“About 1750, although dated ah 1089 = 1678”).
- Tahniyat-nāmah, by Walī Muḥammad: Āṣafīyah i p. 120 no. 194 (ah 1270/1853–4).
- Taʿlīm al-mubtadīn [sic], an ins̲h̲ā for children by Abū ’l-Baqā Qurais̲h̲ī Nawān-Maḥallī [evidently the same person as the author of the Bayāḍ al-mutaʿallimīn mentioned above (no. (11))]: Lahore Panjāb Univ. ( v.s. 1894 [ ad 1837?]. 51 foll. See ocm. viii/1 p. 59).
- Taʿlīm al-ṣibyān, by Qalandar ʿAlī b. Mīr G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1740 no. 34 (3).
- Taʿlīm i k̲h̲irad-afrūz: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 43 no. 3 ( ad 1840).
- ¶ Tarassul i S̲h̲ihābī (title from a note on fol. 43a, not from the text. Beg. Sp. i bī-nihāyat u ḥ. i bī-g̲h̲. ḥaḍrat i Wājib al-Wujūdī rā jallat ʿaẓamatuhu … kih ṣafaḥāt), model letters to different classes of persons (including, twenty-fifthly, Ḥaidarī dervishes) and for different occasions, forms for legal documents (in which occur the only dates, 831 (twice), 838 and 745), tables of the raqam notation, etc.: Browne Pers. Cat. 108 (3) (foll. 43–87).
- Taʿrīf i Mat’hurā, in praise of Muttra, by Harbans Muns̲h̲ī: Ethé 2118 (2).
- Taʿrīf i qalyān i tanbākū: Ethé 1767 (9).
- Ṭarz i taḥrīr, a letter-writer, by M. S̲h̲ēr K̲h̲ān: [ʿAlīgaṛh] 1878°* (M. al-ʿUlūm. 28 pp.).
- Tauṣīf i dār al-k̲h̲ilāfah i S̲h̲āhjahānābād, by Ḥājjī K̲h̲air Allāh, Dīwān of the sarkār of Rustam K̲h̲ān: Ethé 2118 (3) (ah 1134/1722).
- Tuḥfah i Sanjī, a letter-writer in the s̲h̲ikastah script, by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Sanjī” Qandahārī (cf. pl. i § 1411 (79), and no. (83) above): Lahore 1315/1897° (74 pp.); 1316/1899° (80 pp.).
- Tuḥfat al-ṣibyān:120 ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 53 no. 14.
- Uslūb al-ins̲h̲ā, by Nawwāb S. Bunyād Ḥusain. Edition: Cawnpore (Niẓāmī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ ptd. bks. p. 54 no. 20).
- Uṣūl i ins̲h̲āʾ by Qārī121 ʿAbd Allāh: Lahore ahs. 1306/1928* (Mufīd i ʿāmm Pr. 2nd ed. 112 pp. 3rd ed. 71 pp.
- Zād al-mutarassilīn, model letters by S̲h̲. M. ʿAbd al-Karīm: Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 61 no. 10 (92 foll.).
- Zubdat al-murāsalāt, compositions of Maḥbūb ʿAlī and ʿĀbid ʿAlī edited by S. Farzand i ʿAlī: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (129 foll. N.d. See ocm. viii/ i p. 59).
^ Back to text1. I.e. presumably S. ʿAbd al-Razzāq Gīlānī, who deputised for Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh at Multān and subsequently at Lahore and at the latter’s request received from S̲h̲āh-Jahān the title of S. ʿI. K̲h̲. In Aurangzēb’s fourth year he was appointed Faujdār of Bhakkar and in the tenth year Ṣūbah-dār of Tattah. His subsequent career was unknown to S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān Aurangābādī (Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii p. 475).
^ Back to text2. M. ʿAẓīm (who received from his father in 1119/1707 the title of ʿAẓīm al-S̲h̲aʾn), the second son of Prince M. Muʿaẓẓam (S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam Ḅahādur S̲h̲āh), was born in 1074/1664 and in 1108/1697 was appointed Governor of Bengal by his grandfather Aurangzēb. In 1114/1703 Bihār was added to his governorship and, making Patna the seat of his government, he named it ʿAẓīmābād. He was killed in 1124/1712 in the battle between Jahāndār S̲h̲āh (cf. pl. i § 761) and his brothers after their father’s death.
^ Back to text3. An official of this title is mentioned in the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, i p. 2166, as having vacated the Qalʿah-dārī of the Mustaqarr al-k̲h̲ilāfah [Āgrah? (Cf. K̲h̲āfī K̲h̲ān, Muntak̲h̲ab al-Lubāb (Calcutta 1874) ii p. 575, and p. 576 where the qalʿah-dār of that place is mentioned)] at the time when Aurangzēb set out for Ajmēr to fight against Dāra-S̲h̲ukōh [in 1069/1659].
^ Back to text4. The qiṭʿah (beg. Kadk̲h̲udā s̲h̲ud) is found under the heading Qiṭʿah i tahniyat i s̲h̲ādī i Kāmgār K̲h̲ān in the Lucknow editions of the Ruqaʿāt (see no. (5) infra). Other mss. are: Edinburgh 375(11) (18th cent.), Ethé 1671 (1191/1777).
^ Back to text5. The date 1107 [1695–6] is appended to the description to this work in the ocm., presumably as the date of composition, but in the 1262 edition the preface (p. 511) contains a chronogram indicating 1249/1833–4 (C̲h̲u Mirʾāt al-jamālas̲h̲ nām kardam * Buwad Mirʾāt i k̲h̲ūb aʿdād i sālas̲h̲). That this chronogram is spurious seems probable from the fact that the Āṣafīyah ms. of the Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Amīn al-ins̲h̲āʾ is said to be dated 1170.
^ Back to text7. For whom see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 568–77, Beveridge’s trans. i pp. 731–34. The title of Mīrzā Rājah was conferred upon him by Aurangzēb in the twelfth year of the reign (M. al-u. iii p. 5719).
^ Back to text10. According to the Madrās catalogue it is a collection of letters from Muʿtabar K̲h̲ān to Aurangzēb “containing details of an expedition undertaken by him under the imperial orders”, but perhaps this is true only of some of the letters.
^ Back to text12. Presumably he was a descendant of Yār Aḥmad Iṣfahānī (d. 918/1512), who after the death of Amīr Najm al-Dīn Masʿūd Jīlānī, S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl’s Wakīl (see Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 4 p. 47), was appointed to succeed him and surnamed Najm i T̲h̲ānī (see Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 4 pp. 532, 6721, Ḥasan Rūmlū xii pp. 1112, 13621, Seddon’s trans. pp. 513, 6418). For a descendant who flourished in India, Bāqir K̲h̲ān Najm i T̲h̲ānī, see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i p. 40812, Beveridge’s trans. i pp. 385–8.
^ Back to text13. The same verse introduces the ins̲h̲āʾ of Marwārīd (see § 439 supra) [and that of Iskandar Bēg Muns̲h̲ī (see § 467 supra) as well as the Bombay edition of Mahdī K̲h̲ān Astarābādī’s ins̲h̲āʾ (§ 543 infra). v.s.].
^ Back to text14. Presumably Ḥifẓ Allāh K̲h̲ān “Ḥifẓī” b. Nawwāb ʿAllāmī Saʿd Allāh K̲h̲ān, who was Ṣūbah-dār of Sīwastān and Tattah towards the end of Aurangzēb’s reign and died in 1112/1700–1 (see Bānkīpūr viii p. 87, where his biography in the Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū is summarised).
^ Back to text15. For Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān, who died in 1114/1702, see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 171–4, Beale Oriental biographical dictionary. His father, S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s Wazīr, has already been mentioned in this work (pl. i § 734).
^ Back to text16. The relevant portion of the qiṭʿah i tārīk̲h̲ at the end of the preface is Hātifī guft sāl i tārīk̲h̲as̲h̲ * Kih Zihī Muns̲h̲ayāt [sic] i Mād’hau-Rām, above which in the Cambridge University Library ms. (according to Browne) are the figures 1140. Zihī Muns̲h̲ayāt i Mād’hau-Rām, if that were the chronogram, would indicate 1120 [1708–9], an incorrect date, since the work is composed partly of letters written for Kōkultās̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, whose service the author did not enter before 1124. If kih is part of the chronogram, the total comes to 1145.
^ Back to text23. Cf. the opening words of Berlin 32 (1). According to D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 1699 these are the opening words of the Bayāḍ i Imām-qulī Mīrzā [b. Nādir S̲h̲āh], which Mahdī K̲h̲ān incorporated in the fifth volume of his Ins̲h̲āʾ.
^ Back to text26. The verse which begins thus is prefixed also to Marwārīd’s Ins̲h̲ā [(§ 439 supra), that of Iskandar Bēg Muns̲h̲ī (§ 467 supra) and that of M. Nabī Najm i t̲h̲ānī (§ 516 supra). v.s.].
^ Back to text31. Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i p. 36: Muns̲h̲ī i bī-badal būd u ins̲h̲āʾ i ū dar k̲h̲uṭūṭ-nawīsī ṭaur i k̲h̲āṣṣī dārad ḥaif kih muns̲h̲aʾāt i ū jamʿ na-s̲h̲ud agar tadwīn mī-yāft c̲h̲as̲h̲m i nāẓirān rā kuḥl al-jawāhir mī-kas̲h̲īd.
^ Back to text33. Mīr M. Panāh G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān [ii] Fīrōz-Jang Amīr al-Umarāʾ, the eldest son of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh, died at Aurangābād in 1165/1752 (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 361–2, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 592–3; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 49–50; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Ghazi-uddin.)
^ Back to text36. According to the preface of the Bāg̲h̲ i gulhā-yi ḥusn the titles of the (non-extant?) third and fourth parts are Mardumak i ʿain i tamās̲h̲ā and Paimānah i fikr i durdī-kas̲h̲ān i jūy i maʿnī.
^ Back to text41. K̲h̲wājah Imām al-Dīn “Imāmī” b. Qāḍī K̲h̲ān b. K̲h̲wājah Bāds̲h̲āh K̲h̲ān lived at Lucknow and wrote a metrical risālah i qāfiyah. Towards the end of his life he attached himself to Tāj al-Dīn Ḥusain K̲h̲ān Kanbō (rifāqat i T. al-D. Ḥ. K̲h̲. K. guzīd) and was murdered at Cawnpore by one of the latter’s mulāzimān. See Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 35.
^ Back to text45. The identity of this nawwāb is made clear by a nasab-nāmah relating to Mīrzā ʿAlī b. Nawwāb Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur Qiyām-Jang k̲h̲alaf al-ṣidq i Nawwāb Muʾtaman al-Mulk D̲h̲ū ’l-Faqār al-Daulah Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān K̲h̲ān-i-K̲h̲ānān Bahādur Sālār-Jang k̲h̲alaf al-ras̲h̲īd i ʿUmdat al-Mulk Nawwāb M. Isḥāq K̲h̲ān Bahādur (Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ p. 31).
^ Back to text47. From the fact that in the preface to the Mufīd nāmah the author calls himself S̲h̲āh M.Z…., it may be inferred that his name was S̲h̲āh-Muḥammad and that the word S̲h̲āh is not merely a title, since titles of this kind are usually (but not invariably) omitted when writers introduce their own names. It follows that Edwards and Arberry are probably mistaken in calling him Muḥammad Zāhidī.
^ Back to text52. Of the prefaces to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s dīwān and Ṣabā’s S̲h̲ahans̲h̲āh-nāmah (cf. pl. i § 425) Rieu (Suppt. p. 122b) says: “The above prefaces are probably unequalled examples of the turgid, stilted, and desperately prolix style which may be called Persian Euphuism, and which still finds admirers in the East.”
^ Back to text55. No prince of this name is mentioned by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān in his list of the fifty-seven sons of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh who were living (with two (or four?) exceptions apparently) at the time of his death (Rauḍal al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. [172–3]).
^ Back to text57. “The title is a chronogram for ah 1248 = ad 1832” according to Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad. If that is so, the title as given must be either incorrect or subject to some deduction, since it comes to 1259.
^ Back to text60. Presumably in allusion to the letters of Ḥabīb Allāh Nāʾiṭī contained in the collection, but possibly Ḥabīb-Allāhī may be a slip for Ḥafīẓ-Allāhī, which would be an allusion to the person for whom the work was compiled.
^ Back to text71. So according to the title, but, “in fact, one unbroken diatribe against the Arabs, Islam and the post-Muḥammadan dynasties of Persia” (Browne Materials for the study of the Bábí religion p. 222).
^ Back to text76. It seems possible that this work is incorrectly ascribed to M. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān in the Āṣafīyah catalogue. A work of that title by Ḥifẓ Allāh was published at Cawnpore by Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr in 1869 (see pl. iii § 601 supra).
^ Back to text94. Cf. Bānkīpūr viii p. 11211 (“Srî Gûpâl, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Tamîz, a Brahman of the Sûrdaj tribe”). It seems possible that this person, a pupil of “Bēdil” (cf. § 504 supra), is identical with author of the Durr al-ʿulūm.
^ Back to text103. Hasan according to Arberry, Ḥusain according to Edwards. For his dīwān, published at Cawnpore in 1324/1906 with (in some copies) a biography by his son, see Edwards col. 97 and Arberry p. 259 (Kullīyāt i Furqānī).
^ Back to text104. For the Ilāhī Press, Āgrah, see Arberry pp. 17912, 20628, 460, 1, 6 from foot. The place of publication and the date of the i.o. copy are given by Arberry as “Ilāhī, [Lucknow. 1878]”, but this seems to be incorrect. According to the u.p. Quarterly Catalogue [1878/2] the printer of the Āgrah edition was Mac̲h̲c̲h̲hū K̲h̲ān and the date of registration September 1877: the name of the press is not mentioned.
^ Back to text107. To this author Ḥ. K̲h̲. (v p. 248) ascribes a short (muk̲h̲taṣar) Persian work on ins̲h̲āʾ entitled Kanz al-balāg̲h̲ah, of which he gives no further particulars, but which is probably the Kanz al-laṭāʾif under an incorrect title.
^ Back to text116. Spelling unconfirmed. A village named Karatthal near Vīramgām in the Aḥmadābād Division is mentioned in the list of Indian post offices. For a certain S̲h̲āh Muḥammad K’HṚTLĪ (or G’HṚTLĪ) see above under Kār-nāmah.
^ Back to text118. b. 1764, Major in the Bengal Army, Assistant Professor of Persian in the College of Fort William 1800–6, Professor of Arabic, Persian and Hindustani at Haileybury 1807–27, d. 19.4.1837. See dnb. and Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography.