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Dānis̲h̲-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī, sometimes called Ḥikmat i ʿAlāʾī or Kitāb i ʿAlāʾī (beg. Sp. u st. mar K̲h̲udāwand i Āfrīdgār Bak̲h̲s̲h̲āyandah i k̲h̲irad rā), a compendium of philosophy (logic, metaphysics, physics, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music) dedicated to ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah Abū Jaʿfar M. b. Dus̲h̲manziyār [ruler of Iṣfahān, d. 433/1041: see Ency. Isl. under Kākōyids (Cl. Huart)] and edited after the author’s death by his pupil, ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. M. Jūzjānī, who compiled the last four sections from Arabic works of the author: H. K̲h̲. iii 185 (Dānis̲h̲-nāmah), v p. 118 (Kitāb al-ʿAlāʾī), D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 58 no. 308, viii p. 47 no. 117, Ethé 2218 (Pts. i–iii, defective at end. ah 1064/1654), Būhār 215 (Pts. i, ii and first half of ¶ iii. 17th cent.), Rieu ii 433a (17th and 18th cent.), 438b (ah 1182/1768), Ivanow 1357 (Pts. i–iii. Language modernised. ah 1113/1701–2), Berlin 55 (1) (lacks the pt. on music), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. x/1 p. 91 no. 9), Majlis 123, Mas̲h̲had i fṣl. 1, mss., no. 98 (apparently Pts. i–iii only), iv p. 96 no. 557 (Pts. i–iii only).
Editions: Ḥaidarābād, Fīrōz Pr., 1309/1891–2 (Ḥikmat i ʿAlāʾī mausūm bah Māyah i dānis̲h̲. 2 vols. (?). See Āṣafīyah ii p. 1220 nos. 57, 278, 308, p. 1584 no. 155, Karatay p. 81); Tihrān a.h.s. 1315/1936 (Vol. i. Manṭiq and Ilāhīyāt only. Ed. S. Aḥmad K̲h̲urāsānī. Mas̲h̲had iv p. 305; Saʿīd Nafīsī Pūr i Sīnā p. 39); Tihrān a.h.s. 1331/1371/1953 (Ilāhīyāt i Dānis̲h̲-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī. Ed. M. Muʿīn. 190 pp. See Luzac’s ol. lxv/1 (1954) p. 7; Saʿīd Nafīsī Pūr i Sīnā p. 232 (124)); Tihrān a.h.s. 1331/ 1371/1953 (Risālah i manṭiq i Dānis̲h̲-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī, ed. M. Muʿīn and S.M. Mis̲h̲kāt. Cf. Saʿīd Nafīsī Pūr i Sīnā p. 232 (122)); Tihrān a.h.s. 1331/1371/1953 (Ṭabī‘īyāt i D.-n. i ʿA., ed. M. Mis̲h̲kāt. See Saʿīd Nafīsī op. cit. p. 232 (123)). For projected editions by S.M. Mis̲h̲kāt1 of other portions of the Dānis̲h̲-nāmah, see Indo-Iranica vi/3 (Jan. 1953) Persian section p. 31.
French translation: Danesh-nama-yi Ala’i. Le Livre de Science: I (Logique, Métaphysique) traduit par Mohammad Achena et Henri Massé. Paris 1955 (241 pp. Traductions de textes persans. See jras. 1956 p. 271, Farhang i Irān-zamīn vi/1 (1337) pp. 84–8). Le Livre de Science ii: Physique, Mathématique, Musique. Paris 1958. (276 pp.).
al-S̲h̲ifāʾ in Arabic; see Brockelmann i p. 454 (18), Sptbd. i p. 815 (18).
Persian translations: (a) Translation of Fann 1 (fī ’l-samāʿ al-Ṭabīʿī) of Jumlah ii (al-Ṭabīʿīyāt): Tarjamah i S̲h̲ifāʾ completed a.h.s. 1316/1937–8 by D̲h̲akāʾ al-Mulk M. ʿAlī “Furūg̲h̲ī” (cf. pl. i §§ 320, 1668): Tihrān a.h.s. 1316/1937–8 (Mas̲h̲had iv p. 297: Nafīsī Pūr i Sīnā p. 39 (4)). (b) Funūn i samāʿ i ṭabīʿī u āsmān u jahān u kaun u fasād az kitāb i S̲h̲ifāʾ, tr. M. ʿAlī “Furūg̲h̲ī”: Tihrān a.h.s. 1319/1940–1 (Nafīsī Pūr i Sīnā p. 39 (5)). (c) Tarjamah i S̲h̲ifāʾ, by S. ʿAlī b. M. b. Asad Allāh Imāmī ʿArīḍī2 Iṣfahānī, a pupil of Āqā Ḥusain K̲h̲wānsārī [who died in 1099/1688; see pl. i § 33] D̲h̲arīʿah iv p. 110.
Commentary on selected portions: S̲h̲arḥ i S̲h̲ifāʾ u Mat̲h̲nawī [with commentaries on selections from Rūmī’s Mat̲h̲nawī and on Ibn Sīnā’s Risālah i ʿis̲h̲q], by S. Ḥaqq-al-Yaqīnī (contemp.): Tihrān a.h.s. 1316/1937–8 (Mas̲h̲had iv p. 322).
¶ To Ibn Sīnā is ascribed:
- Ījāz al-ḥikmah (so Ethé) or Ījāz al-ḥikam (so Bodleian) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. Bi-dān-kih īn muk̲h̲taṣarī-st kih dar ʿilm i ḥikmah mubaiyan), a compendium of science in eleven masʾalahs: Bodleian iii 2828 (5), Ethé 1922 (10).
§ 586. S̲h̲ah-mardān3 b. Abī ’l-K̲h̲air [Rāzī according to the Majlis catalogue] must have written his Nuzhat-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī after 475/1082–3 (or 477/1084–5 according to the text quoted in the Majlis catalogue p. 492–9), since that is the date which he assigns (with a query) to an event witnessed by him at Kās̲h̲ān (N.-n., Maqālah x, Bāb i, last faṣl). It was based on an Arabic work which the author, a clerk and accountant by profession, had written together with other books during a period of unemployment in Astarābād and Gurgān (c̲h̲ūn muddatī dar Gurgān u Astārābād (so spelt) bar ʿuṭlat bi-māndam az ṣināʿat i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲ u ān dabīrī u istīfā-st). Another work of his own was the Rauḍat al- munajjimīn (see pl. ii § 81).
Nuzhat-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī (beg. Īzad taʿālā az sirr (or ḥukm) i ḥikmat u quwwat i qudrat jahān āfrīd c̲h̲unān-kih sazīd), an encyclopaedia, mainly of superstitions (see Ivanow jras. 1929 p. 864–6), dedicated to ʿAḍud al-Dīn ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah K̲h̲āṣṣ-bak Abū Kālījār Kars̲h̲āsp Ḥusām i Amīr al-Muʾminīn b. Malik i Māzandarān … ʿAlī b…. Farāmurz b…. M. b. Dus̲h̲manziyār, based on the author’s Arabic work Kitāb al-badāʾiʿ,4 and divided into a muqaddamah, two qisms, each of which contains six maqālahs ((1) man, his nature, properties, etc., (2) quadrupeds, (3) birds, (4) fishes, (5) plants, (6) metals (ajsād), (7) the elements, space and time, etc., (8) arithmetic, astronomy, logic, astrology, seals [? charms c.a.s.], etc., (9) physiognomy, (10) meteors (āt̲h̲ār i ʿulwī), (11) interpretation of dreams, (12) chemistry, dying, polishing, perfumes, etc.) and an anjām (on the creation of man, animals and the soul): Bodleian 1480 (foll. 172. ah 704/ 1304–5), Montreal McGill Univ. Lib. (ends at maqālah 4 of Qism ii. ah 807/1404. See Ivanow’s description in jras. 1929 p. 863, n. 2), Gotha 10 (foll. 168. Breaks off early in the Anjām. Early 15th cent.5), Chester Beatty Pers. Cat. 115 (foll. 143. c. 1400 ad), 255 (foll. 150. ah 1007/1599), Majlis 784 (foll. 187), Ivanow 1358 (extracts only. Early 18th cent.), Flügel ii p. 517 penult. (Maqālah ix (firāsat) only).
¶ Edition: Ḥaidarābād 1309/1891–2 (according to Ivanow 1st Suppt. p. 158, but this is probably due to a confusion with the Ḥikmat i ʿAlāʾī published at Ḥaidarābād in 1309).
Detailed analysis: Gotha pp. 31–6.
§ 587. Of unknown authorship is: Baḥr āl-fawāʾid, an encyclopaedia of ethical (Ṣūfī), religious (Sunnī) and other subjects, composed in Syria during a period of five years in and around 555/1160,6 dedicated to Nuṣrat al-Dīn (ʿImād al-Dīn in S̲h̲ērānī’s ms.) Alp Qutlug̲h̲ C̲h̲abūg̲h̲ā Ulug̲h̲ Atābak Abū Saʿīd Arsalān Abah7 b. Aq-sunqur, and divided into 300 bābs arranged in “35”8 kitābs: Blochet ii 721 (225 foll. ah 979/1571–2), Lahore Prof. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī (180 foll. 16th cent. See ocm xiv/1 (Nov. 1937) p. 18).
Description and 7 pp. of extracts: Baḥr al-fawāʾid, by M. Iqbāl (in ocm. xiv/1 (Nov. 1937) pp. 16–27).
§ 588. The Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-ṣafāʾ, fifty-one tractates on science and philosophy composed in Arabic at al-Baṣrah by Abū Sulaimān M. b. Misʿar al-Bustī (known as) al-Maqdisī and his associates were known to Abū Ḥaiyān al-Tauḥīdī, who according to the S̲h̲add al-izār (cf. pl. i § 1559) died in 414/1023 (see Qazwīnī S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i Abū Sulaimān Manṭiqī Sijistānī pp. 349, 351). For further information concerning them see Brockelmann i pp. 213–14, Sptbd. i pp. 379–80, Ency. Isl. new ed. under Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ (Y. Marquet); Nicholson Literary history of the Arabs pp. 370–2, 474; etc.…
- Mujmal al-ḥikmah, apparently (to judge from the preface to the Persian translation, quoted in Berlin 90, Browne Coll. N. 1) a title equivalent to Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-ṣafāʾ or possibly that of an abridgment thereof.
Tarjamah i Mujmal al-ḥikmah (beg. (Berlin 90)(Sp. K̲h̲udāy rā ʿazza wa-jalla kih wājib al-wujūd ast u har-c̲h̲ih juz Wai ast mumkin al-wujūd ¶ ast, (Berlin 91) Sp. u minnat wujūdī rā kih …9), an abridged translation already in existence in 608/1211 (the date of Berlin 90), but containing in some mss. (e.g. Berlin 91, Browne Coll. N.1) a statement that it was prepared at the suggestion of S. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Saif al-Mulūk S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Mulk S̲h̲ams al-K̲h̲awāṣṣ i Tīmūr Gūrkān: Ḥ. K̲h̲. v. p. 406, Berlin 90 (204 foll. Sīwās, ah 608/1211), 91 (1) (ah 1050/1640), Majlis 112 (“az risālah i awwal dar arit̲h̲māṭīqī tā bāb i sīzdahum [of Risālah xix?] dar sabab i padīd āmadan i maʿdinīyāt. 140 foll. ah 667/1268–9), 104 (10 risālahs. ah 907/1501–2), Blochet i 114 (ah 848/1444), 115 (acephalous. ah 844/1440), 116 (ah 924/1518), Būhār 207 (defective at end. 15th cent. Full analysis), Ethé 2225 (ah 1036/1626), Eton 82 (ah 1085/1674–5), Flügel i 26 (ah 1202/1787–8), Ivanow 1364 (Qism i only. 18th cent.), Bodleian 1492 (not later than 18th cent.), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 69 no. 1, Browne Coll. N. 1 = Houtum-Schindler 46 (defective at end. List of 39 Risālahs,) Madras i 478, r.a.s. P. 184 (imperfect), Upsala Zetterstéen 389 (defective).
Edition: Bombay 1301/1884 (Rasāʾil10 i Ik̲h̲wān al-ṣafā. 50 rasāʾil. 167 pp. See Browne Coll. p. 1541, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1220 no. 347, Karatay p. 175); 1304/1886–7 (Tarjamah i R. I. al-ṣ. wa-k̲h̲ullān al-muruwwat wa-’l-wafā. See Būhār p. 15626).
Jāmiʿ (in the Leyden ms. Jawāmiʿ) al-ʿulūm (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. ans̲h̲aʾanā bi-taṣrīfihi), an encyclopaedia of “sciences” or branches of knowledge composed after a residence of three years at K̲h̲wārazm for ʿAlāʾ al-Dunyā wa-’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Takas̲h̲ b. K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh, comprising in most mss. forty “sciences” (fifty-seven, however, in Rieu Suppt. 142) and being presumably an earlier edition or perhaps an abridgment of the Ḥadāʾiq al-anwār: Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 560, Leningrad Acad. (ah 658/1259. Tumansky ms. See Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, p. viii), Leyden i 16 (40 sciences (enumerated in the catalogue), very old), Rieu Suppt. 142 (57 sciences (enumerated in the catalogue), of which the ʿilm al-misāḥah is missing in a lacuna. ah 977/1570), Blochet ii 722 (40 sciences. ah 1131/1718), Lahore ¶ Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. x/1 p. 91 no. 11), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1766 no. 85, iii p. 34 no. 111, and at least three at Istānbūl (see Horn p. 318).
Edition: Bombay 1323/1906° (224 pp. Cf. Āṣafīyah iii p. 34 no. 138, where the date is given as 1322).
- Ḥadāʾiq al-anwār fī ḥaqāʾiq al-asrār, called also Kitāb i sittīn (so in the Riyāḍ al-abrār, Rieu Suppt. p. 1049), or Sittīn i Rāzī (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1346 no. 358), (beg. al. Ḥ. l. ’l. ans̲h̲aʾanā bi-taṣrīfihi) an encyclopaedia of sixty11 sciences (firstly al-kalām, lastly ādāb al-mulūk) completed on 6 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 574/15 May 1179 (“according to the last lines of the last page” in Bodleian 1481: this date is absent from most mss.) and agreeing closely with the Jāmiʿ (Jawāmiʿ) al-ʿulūm except in the title, the additional “sciences” and some variations in the headings: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 19, Blochet iv 2350 (mid-14th cent. List of the sciences), Rieu Suppt. 143 (ah 893/1488), Heidelberg P. 134 (ah 899/1494. See Zeitschr.f.Semitistik vi/3 (1928), p. 227), Berlin 92 (fairly old. List of the last 20 sciences), 93 (ah 1247/1831–2), Bodleian 1482 (damaged. A Fraser ms., therefore not later than 18th cent. List of the sciences), 1482 (likewise a Fraser ms.), Ivanow 1359 (title Miftāḥ al-ʿulūm on fol. 3. 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2193 (extracts from the “Kitāb al-sittīn” of F. al-D. Rāzī. ah 1252/1836), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1346 no. 358 (“Sittīn i Rāzī.” ah 1262/1846), p. 1768 no. 77, Lindesiana p. 137 no. 736 (ah 1270/1853), Būhār 216 (B.S. 1296 [ad 1878?]. List of the sciences), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. x/1 p. 91 no. 10), and at least two at Istānbūl (see Horn p. 318).
- al-Risālat al-Kamālīyah fī ’l-ḥaqāʾiq al-ilāhīyah, a sketch of logic, divine philosophy and natural science in ten maqālahs: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 434, Mas̲h̲had iv p. 227 no. 952 (no preface. 93 foll. ah 655/1257).
§ 590. Abū Bakr al-Muṭahhar b. M. b. Abī ’l-Qāsim b. Abī Saʿd (or Abī Saʿid) al-Jamālī12 known as (al-maʿruf bi-) al-Yazdī was an inhabitant of the village of Māyak̲h̲ (so Rieu) or Yānaj (so Blochet iv 2374) or Māliḥ (jras. 1929 p. 864) or, as suggested by Ivanow, Mānj (probably = Munj, a village mentioned in the Fārs-nāmah i Nāṣirī p. 181 as in the bulūk of Bawānāt)13 in the district (nāḥiyah) of Bawān in the province of Iṣṭark̲h̲ [i.e. Iṣṭak̲h̲r].
- ¶ Faraḥ-nāmah (in some mss. Farruk̲h̲-nāmah)14 i Jamālī (beg. S̲h̲. u sp. i bī-q. ān Parwardgārī rā kih Muʿallim i asmā). An encyclopaedia of k̲h̲awāṣṣ and the like, i.e. mainly (as appears from Ivanow’s description) of superstition’s “connected with every form of the organic and inorganic world, numbers, forms of divination, dreams, and some crafts”, completed in Ramaḍān 580/Dec. 1184,15 or according to some mss. in Rabīʿ al-T̲h̲ānī 597/Jan.–Feb. 1201, when the author was in his eighteenth year (so Rieu) or not yet twenty years old (so jras. 1929 p. 864 and Blochet iv 2374), modelled on the Nuzhat-nāmah i ʿAlāʾī (see pl. ii § 586), dedicated to the Wazīr Majd al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Masʿūd and divided into sixteen maqālats:16 Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 412 (Faraḥ-nāmah), Blochet i 834 (lacks Maqālats v–vii. ah 789/ 1387), 835 (ah 104ʿ/1633), iv 2374 (1) (ah 1115/1704. Illustrated), Browne Coll. Y. 3 (3) = Houtum-Schindler 47 (3) (ah 886/1482), Montreal McGill Univ. Lib. (ah 899/1493. Numerous Illustrations. See Ivanow’s description in jras. 1929 pp. 863–8), Berlin 607 (1) (Maqālats i–viii. ah 1115/1703), Ellis Coll. M 203 (89 foll. ah 1203/1788), Tihrān Malik Lib. 4951 (see Mi‘yār i Jamālī, ed. Ṣādiq Kiyā, p. 556), Cairo p. 515. Rieu ii 465b (lacks Maqālats xv–xvi and the latter part of xiv ah 951/1544). Flügel ii 1449 (without preface and otherwise defective) is a similar work.
§ 591. M. b. Amīn al-Dīn Abī ’l-Makārim Aiyūb b. Ibrāhīm al-Dunaisirī.
- Nawādir al-tabādur li-tuḥfat al-bahādur (beg. S̲h̲. u t̲h̲ Īzad-rā kih az kamāl i ḥikmat), a concise encyclopaedia completed in 669/1270 or 681/1282 or 682/1283 (all three dates being given in the conclusion as the date of completion) and dedicated to an unnamed sipahsālāh, who was governor of the fort of Qarā-Hiṣār: Blochet ii 723 (159 foll. Late 13th cent.).
§ 592. Quṭb al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Masʿūd S̲h̲irāzī, the greatest of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s pupils, died at Tabrīz in 710/1311 (see pl. ii § 97; Brockelmann ii p. 211, Sptbd. ii p. 296; Ency. Isl. under Ḳuṭb al-Dīn (Wiedemann); etc.).
Durrat al-tāj li-g̲h̲urrat al-Dubāj, known also, according to Ḥ. K̲h̲., as Unmūd̲h̲aj al-ʿulūm (beg. Agarc̲h̲ih bar ḍamīr i arbāb i kiyāsat), an encyclopaedia of philosophical sciences completed in 705/1305–6 (according to the Mas̲h̲had catalogue), dedicated to Dubāj b. Ḥusām al-Dīn ¶ Fīl-S̲h̲āh b. Saif al-Dīn Rustam b. Dubāj [Isḥāqāwand prince of Bayah Pas, or Western Gīlān, (capital Fūman): see Rieu ii 435b] and divided into a fātiḥah (in three faṣls), five jumlahs ((1) logic, in seven maqālahs, (2) philosophy proper (falsafah i ūlā) in two fanns, (3) physics (ʿilm i asfal kih ʿilm i ṭabīʿī ast) in two fanns, (4) mathematics (ʿilm i ausat kih ʿilm i riyāḍī ast) in four fanns ((a) Euclid, (b) Ptolemy’s Almagest, (c) arithmetic, (d) music), (5) metaphysics (ʿilm i aʿlā kih ʿilm i ilāhī ast) in two fanns) and a k̲h̲ātimah in four quṭbs ((1) uṣūl i dīn, (2) furūʿ i dīn, (3) ḥikmat i ʿamalī, (4) sulūk): Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 201, Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., no. 22 (ah 720/ 1320), Majlis 600 (Jumlah iv, fanns 1–3 only. Old), Blochet ii 724 (only Jumlah iv, fann 1 (Euclid). Late 15th cent.), Rieu ii 434a (lacks most of the preface and the initial part of the Fātiḥah. ah 1020/1611), 435a (Jumlah iv, fann 1 only. 17th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 906 (ah 1027/1618. Headings of the jumlahs and fanns quoted), Suppt. ii 2021 (very defective and disarranged. 18th cent.), Browne Suppt. 471 (ah 1050/1640–1. King’s 184), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1220 nos. 342 (Jumlahs ii–iv. ah 1062/1652), 71, 343, 344, Hamburg 225 (Jumlah iv, fann (b) only. ah 1062/1652), Ethé 2219 (ah 1075/1664, said to have been collated with an old and good ms. Headings of the main divisions quoted), 2220 (ah 1177/1764), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 874 (Jumlah iv, fann 4 (music) only. 18th cent.), Curzon 483 (Jumlahs i–iii. 19th cent.), 484 (K̲h̲ātimah, quṭbs 2–4, defective at end. 19th cent.), Būhār 217 (breaks off in the first quṭb of the K̲h̲ātimah, 18th cent.), 218 (Jumlah v and K̲h̲ātimah, 19th cent.), ʿAlīgarh Subḥ. mss. p. 3 no. 1 (“Juzw i duyum”, described as “metaphysics including astronomy” [sic?]), p. 4 no. 4 (Pt. i (logic)), p. 10 no. 2 (parts relating to Kalām), p. 22 no. 12 (Pt. 3), Cairo p. 516, Flügel i 24 (lacks Jumlah iv and K̲h̲ātimah), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques ii (St. Petersburg 1852–6) p. 57), Cataloghi iii p. 315 no. 28 (Jumlah iv, fann (b) only. 162 foll. Bibl. Medicea Laurenziana).
Edition: Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1317–20/1939–42 (5 vols. ed. M. Mis̲h̲kāt.17 Cf. jras. 1947 p. 265; Luzac’s O.L. 1942 p. 10; Karatay p. 106; Mus̲h̲ār i 662).
Extracts: Fortsetzung der Auszüge aus encyclopādischen Werken der Araber, Perser und Türken. Aus dem Durret-et-tadsch (Perle der Krone) Mahmud Schirasî’s. Von … Hammer-Purgstall. Vienna 1857* (Offprinted from the Denkschriften der philos.-hist. Classe der Kaiserl. Academie der Wissenschaften, Bd. viii. 17 pp.).
¶ § 593. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn18 M. b. Maḥmūd al-Āmulī, a mudarris at Sulṭānīyah in Ūljāytū’s reign (ah 703–16/1304–16) and a S̲h̲īʿite controversialist, completed in 753/1352 a commentary on the kullīyāt of Ibn Sīnā’s Qānūn (see Rieu Arab. Suppt. 791, Loth 780). [Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 344; Haft iqlīm no. 1188].
Nafāʾis al-funūn fī ʿarāʾis al-ʿuyūn (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲. u s̲h̲ i bī-intihā ḥaḍrat i Pāds̲h̲āhī rā), a large encyclopaedia composed partly in 735/1334–5 (mentioned as the date of composition at the end of Muḥammad’s life), completed in the reign of Jamāl al-Dīn [S̲h̲aik̲h̲] Abū Isḥāq [b.] Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh [Injū, ruler of Fārs and ‘Irāq 743–58/1342–57], dedicated to an unnamed Wazīr and divided into two qisms ((i) and 8519 modern or Muslim sciences in 36 fanns arranged in four maqālahs ((1) adabīyāt in fifteen fanns, the first k̲h̲aṭṭ, the last istīfā, or book-keeping, (2) s̲h̲arʿīyāt in ten fanns, the first kalām, the last daʿawāt, (3) taṣawwuf in five fanns, sulūk, ḥaqīqat, marāṣid, ḥurūf and futuwwat, (4) ʿulūm i muḥāwarī in seven fanns, (a) muḥāwarat, (b, c) tawārīk̲h̲ and siyar, a sketch of universal history to the accession of Arpā K̲h̲ān in 736/1335, (d) maqālāt i ahl i ʿālam, i.e. religious sects, (e) ansāb, (f) al-mawāqif wa-’l-wāqiʿāt i.e. Muḥammad’s campaigns, (g) aḥājī, or riddles, (ii) on seventy-five ancient sciences in 33 fanns arranged in five maqālahs ((1) ḥikmat i ʿamalī, in three fanns, tahd̲h̲īb i ak̲h̲lāq, tadbīr i manāzil and siyāsat i mudun, (2) uṣūl i ḥikmat i naẓarī, in four fanns (a) manṭiq, (b) falsafah i ūlā, (c) ʿilm i ilāhī, or metaphysics, (d) ʿilm i ṭabīʿī, (3) uṣūl i riyāḍī, in four fanns, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, music, (4) furūʿ i ṭabīʿī in nine fanns, (a) ṭibb, (b) kīmiyā, (c) sīmiyā, (d) taʿbīr, (e) firāsat, (f) aḥkām i nujūm, (g) al-k̲h̲awāṣṣ, (h) al-ḥiraf al-ṭabīʿīyah, veterinary science, falconry, washing, agriculture, etc., (j) ʿilm i dam u ʿilm i wahm, on holding the breath and other practices of Indian Yōgīs, (5) furūʿ i riyāḍī, in thirteen fanns, the first haiʾat, the last four masālik u mamālik, wafq i aʿdād, ḥiyal, raml, malāʿib or games): Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 364, Rieu ii 437b (slightly defective. 14th cent.), 435a (defective. 16th cent. List of the FANNS), 437b slightly defective. ah 1054/1644), 438a (detached portions. 17th cent.), Bodleian 1487 (most of maqālahs 1–3 of Qism i. “Good old Naskhî”), 1483 (ah 1025/1616. list of the maqālahs and fanns in qism i and of the maqālahs in ¶ qism ii), 1485 (slightly defective. ah 1040/1630–1), 1486 (lacks maqālah 3 of Qism ii. ah 1066/1655), 1484 (ah 1079/1668), 1488–91 (undated extracts and fragments), Blochet iv 2352 (Qism i, breaking off in fann 3 of Maqālah iv. ah 960/1553), 2351 (ah 1063/1653), ii 725 (ah 1046/1636), Lindesiana p. 190 nos. 369 (“Various dates, 1550–1800”), 147 (circ. 1600–1650), 197 (circ. 1700), 148–9 (imperfect. Circ. 1810), Edinburgh 330 (ah 1011/1602–3. list of the fanns), Berlin 94 (ah 1021/1612. list of the fanns in qism i), 95 (disarranged portions similar, apparently to Būhār 221), Flügel i 25 (two volumes, one of Qism ii transcribed in 1033/1624, the other containing disarranged portions of both Qisms, some dated 1051/1641 others 1089/1678. list of the fanns in qism ii), Ethé 2221 (ah 1037/1628), 2222–3 (two copies, both slightly defective), 2224 (detached portions), Būhār 221 (disarranged portions, similar apparently to Berlin 95. ah 1043/1633–4), 219–20 (19th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1226 nos. 345 (ah 1063/1653), 102, 128, p. 1778 no. 120 (extracts), p. 1422 no. 4 (?) (Iqtibās N. al-f., author not mentioned. Under Kīmiyā), Bānkīpūr ix 907–8 (17th cent.), 909 (damaged. ah 1219/1804–5), Eton 80 (breaks off in “Part ii, Book ii”), 81 (“second volume”), Ivanow 1360 (ah 1226/1811 (?)), 1361 (Qism i, maqālah 4, fann 5 (ansāb) only. Late 18th cent.), 1362 (table of contents only. 18th cent.), Tashkent Univ. 32 (ah 1244/1828), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., nos. 120 (ah 1295/1878), 122 (described as an abridgment (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲. u sitayis̲h̲, 169 foll.) made by the author himself), Browne Suppt. 1320 (Qism ii, maqālah 4, fanns 4–5 only (interpretation of dreams and physiognomy). Corpus 208), Cairo p. 518, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (2 copies in Mélanges asiatiques iii (1859) p. 734. Also Chanykov 151 (presumably complete), 152 (extracts), 153 (ʿIlm al-tawārīkh only (i.e. Qism i, maqālah 4, fann 2 (+3?)), Majlis i 785, Rehatsek p. 58 no. 44.
Editions: Tihrān 1307–9 (pp. 321; 264. Mus̲h̲ār i 1590): [Ṭihrān] 1316–17/1898–9* (2 vols. pp. 335; 272. Ed. M. Taqī K̲h̲wānsārī. Cf. Mus̲h̲ār i 1590); place? 1319/1901–2 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1226 no. 346);
Extract: Taʿbīr i k̲h̲wāb [i.e. Qism ii, maqālah 4, fann 4]: Ṭihrān 1320/1902–3 (see Mas̲h̲had i, fṣl. 1, ptd. bks., no. 17).
§ 594. M.b.M. b. S̲h̲. M. al-Jāmī.
- Riyāḍ al-nāṣiḥīn, a concise encyclopaedia composed circ. 835/1431–2 in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ Bahādur: Blochet ii 726 (107 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 595. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿAlī Amīrān Ḥusainī Iṣfahānī is the author of (1) Asrār al-ḥurūf, composed in 870/1465–6 for Prince Abū Bakr, the son of Abū ¶ Saʿīd Mīrzā Gūrkānī and at that time Governor of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān20 (see pl. ii § 22), (2) Durrat al- misāḥah, which he dedicated in 890/1485 to Abū ’l-Fatḥ Sulṭān” Maḥmūd G̲h̲āzī “Ruler of Īrān and Tūrān” (see pl. ii § 22), works on astrology (see pl. ii § 110), and falconry (pl. ii § 663).
Dānis̲h̲-nāmah i jahān (beg. Sazāwār i st. u sp. Mubdiʿī-st), an encyclopaedia of natural science, completed in 871/1466–7 in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān (see Mas̲h̲had iv p. 98), dedicated [like the Durrat al-misāḥah] to Abū ’l-Fatḥ Sulṭān Maḥmūd Gūrkān and divided into ten (in Ethé 2173 eleven) faṣls (on the spheres, the elements, etc.), twenty aṣls (meteorological phenomena), four natījahs (minerals, plants, animals and man) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on human anatomy): D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 46 no. 115, Rehatsek p. 118 no. 8 (ah 908/1502–3), p. 117 no. 7 (ah 1156/1743), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1732 no. 31 (9) (ah 1056/1646), iii p. 492 no. 471, Browne Coll. M. 1 (235 foll. 16th or 17th cent. List of the chapters), Browne Suppt. 470 (ah 1137/1724–5. King’s 187), Ethé 2173 (ah 1077/1667), 2174 (ah 1153/1740), 718 (beginning with Faṣl i (no preface) and ending with Aṣl xx. N.d. Headings of faṣls and aṣls quoted), Bodleian 1456 (a Fraser ms., therefore not later than 18th cent. Headings of the faṣls and natījahs and of the first and last aṣls quoted), Rieu ii 439b (breaks off in Natījah i. 18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 144 no. 686a (circ. ad 1790), Ivanow 1363 (late 18th cent.), Berlin 353 (88 foll. Modern and incorrect. Full list of headings), Bānkīpūr ix 905 (19th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. x/1 p. 92 no. 12), Mas̲h̲had iv 563, 564 defective at end).
Editions: India (see Mas̲h̲had iv pp. 98, 307 where the town of publication and the date are not mentioned, but on the latter page it is stated that the book was presented by Qāʾim-maqām in 1291); Lucknow 1880° (168 pp. Author called ʿInāyat al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿAlī Ḥasanī Iṣfahānī).
Discussion of the date: jras. 1927 pp. 95–6 (by W. Ivanow).
§ 596. M. Fāḍil b. ʿAlī b. M. al-Miskīnī al-Qāḍī al-Samarqandī. Jawāhir al-ʿulūm i Humāyūnī (beg. Fāḍiltarīn i manẓū māt i jawāhir i ʿulūm), a large encyclopaedia of 120 “sciences” dedicated to M. Humāyūn Pāds̲h̲āh (whose history in Maqālah i, Qism ii, is brought down (in the Bānkīpūr ms. at least) to his restoration in 962/1555), and divided into a muqaddamah (in three qisms), three maqālahs (each in two qisms subdivided respectively into 22, 12, 22, 19, 12 and 33 bābs) and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar ʿalāmāt i qiyāmat u aḥwāl i āk̲h̲irat): Lindesiana ¶ p. 190 no. 367 (author’s name given as M. b. As̲h̲raf. Circ. ad 1760), Bānkīpūr ix 910 (disarranged and defective in places. 969 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 597. Ḥusain ʿAqīlī Rustamdārī, an extreme S̲h̲īʿite, travelled in quest of knowledge for twenty years in Persia and elsewhere. In 978/1570–1 he left S̲h̲īrāz and after a short stay in Iṣfahān went to Qazwīn, where to his disappointment he found the ʿulamāʾ both ignorant and wicked.
- Riyāḍ al-abrār (beg. Zīnat i majmūʿah i ʿulūm i rabbānī), an encyclopaedia of ninety sciences begun and completed in 979/ 1571 and divided into a fātiḥah (in three ḥadīqahs, (1) on Rāzī’s Kitāb i sittīn (cf. pl. ii § 589), an enumeration of its sixty sciences and a table of contents of the author’s own work, (2) on ʿAlī as the originator of all sciences, (3) a commentary on his K̲h̲uṭbah i S̲h̲iqs̲h̲iqīyah), twelve rauḍahs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rieu Suppt. 144 (406 foll. Late 16th cent.), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 15, mss., no. 54 (lacunae).
S̲h̲āhid i ṣādiq (beg. al-Ḥ. l. taʿālā wa-minhu ’l-mubtadā), an encyclopaedia begun in 1054/1644 and divided into five bābs (1) in 107 faṣls, on God, the Prophet, prophetship and saintship, faith, Islām, good and bad deeds, etc., (2) in 77 faṣls, on sovereignty, kingship, government, etc., (3) in 80 faṣls, on reason, knowledge, failings, talents, etc., the 79th faṣl containing chronological tables of important events from the Hijrah to 1040 (so Bānkīpūr) or 1042 (so Rieu) and the 80th an alphabetical list of Persian proverbs, (4) in 75 faṣls, on love, friendship, enmity, poverty, wealth, pleasure, sorrow, play, travel, etc., (5) in 96 faṣls, on the world, time, life, death, the spheres (aflāk), the elements, the kingdoms of nature (mawālīd), etc., the 51st faṣl containing maps and an alphabetical list of places with their longitude and latitude) and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar ḍabṭ i asmā, an alphabetical list of proper names (mainly places) carefully spelt out): Ethé 2226 (622 foll. ah 1117/1705), 2227 (Bābs i, ii and iii to faṣl 75), Bānkīpūr ix 913 (ah 1138/1726), Berlin 96 (lacks K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1150/1737), Rieu ii 7775a (early 18th cent.), iii 1005b (ah 1239/1824), 1005b (only the chronological tables from Bāb iii, Faṣl 79. Circ. ad 1850), 1005b (the same tables. 19th cent.), Mis̲h̲kāt ii pp. 594–605 no. 232 (defective at both ends. 17th or 18th cent.), Būhār 468 (18th cent.), Ivanow 1365 (defective at end. 18th cent.), 1366 (early 19th cent.), Majlis i 770 (ah 1314/1896–7), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (K̲h̲ātimah only. See ocm. x/1 p. 92 no. 13).
¶ Full list of the faṣls: Bānkīpūr ix pp. 152–69.
Edition: in Yādgār, ii/4–10 (see Qandīyah, ed. Iraj Afs̲h̲ār p. 130).
Translation of the K̲h̲ātimah (“Taḥqīq al-iʿrāb”) and of Bāb v, faṣl 51 (“Taqwīm al-buldān”): The geographical works of Sádik Isfaháni. Translated by J.C.21 from original Persian MSS. in the collection of Sir W. Ouseley, the editor. London 1832°* (152 pp. Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland).
§ 599. Ḥakīm al-Mulk Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad Gīlānī has been mentioned (pl. ii § 447) as the author of a tract on poisons and their antidotes. He was at Golconda in the reign of ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh (1035–83/1626–72)22 and in 1061/1650 composed one of the short tracts included in his Majmūʿah.
- Majmūʿah i Ḥakīm al-Mulk Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad i Gīlānī, miscellaneous extracts, model letters and short compositions (a few in Arabic), including tracts by the compiler himself on music, snake poison and antidotes,23 etc.: Āṣafīyah ii p. 970 no. 306, Berlin 45. 600.
ʿUqūl i ʿas̲h̲arah (beg. Ḥamdī kih lāʾiq i dargāh i kibriyā bās̲h̲ad), an encyclopaedia composed in 1084/1673–4 divided into ten ʿaqls (1) the celestial globe, in 16 fahms, nine firāsats and two kiyāsats, (2) the astrolabe, (3) geomancy (raml), (4) the terrestrial globe (physics, meteorology, geography, etc.), in 37 fahms and seven firāsats, the 22nd fahm containing meagre and dateless biographies of saints and the 23rd notices of divines and poets without dates, (5) medicine, including the interpretation of dreams, physiognomy, music, dancing, etc., (6) mountains (metallurgy, etc.), (7) minerals, vegetables and animals, (8) seas, (9) inventions and marvels, (10)time and space): Bodleian 1495 (318 foll. ah 1106/1695), ¶ Ivanow Curzon 485 (lacks ʿAql x. ah 1173/1760), Ivanow 1500 (2) (ʿAql ii only, on the astrolabe Bānkīpūr ix 914 (lacks ʿAql x, 18th cent.), Berlin 97 (lacks most of ʿAql ii and the whole of ʿAql iii. ah 1211/1796), Lindesiana p. 193 no. 714 (circ. ad 1800), Flügel i 27 (n.d.), Būhār 222 (19th cent.).
Edition: Bombay 1317/1899–1900 (311 pp. Mus̲h̲ār 1125).
§ 601. Amīn al-Dīn K̲h̲ān b. S. Abī ’l-Makārim b. S. Amīr K̲h̲ān Ḥusainī Harawī has already been mentioned as the author of the Maʿlūmāt al-āfāq (pl. ii § 213).
- Ras̲h̲aḥāt al-funūn (beg. (Sp. i bī-q. ān Maʿbūd i Muṭlaq), an encyclopaedia completed in 1123/1711 and divided into sixteen ras̲h̲ḥahs ((1) tafsīr, (2) ḥadīt̲h̲, (3) s̲h̲uʿab al-īmān, (4) ʿaqāʾid u kalām, (5) uṣūl i fiqh, (6) fiqh (7) Ṣūfīyah, (8) ḥikmat, (9) ṭibb, (10) ḥikmat i ʿamalīyah, (11) naḥw, (12) ṣarf, (13) maʿānī, (14) bayān, 15) badīʿ, (16) tārīk̲h̲, a sketch of universal history to the death of Aurangzēb): Lindesiana p. 113 no. 491 (ah 1256/ 1840), Rehatsek p. 201 no. 49 (ah 1265/1848–9), Bānkīpūr ix 915 (foll. 152. ah 1273/1856), Āṣafīyah iii p. 102 no. 1395 (defective at end), Rieu iii 1055a (extracts only circ. ad 1850).
§ 602. S̲h̲ākir K̲h̲ān b. Nawwāb S̲h̲ams al-Daulah Luṭf Allāh K̲h̲ān Ṣādiq Bahādur Mutahawwir-Jang, whose Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲ākir-K̲h̲ānī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 795), says in the Guls̲h̲an i Ṣādiq that he was born at Pānīpat in 1128/1714. Like his father, who was born in 1077/1666–7 and died in 1165/1752 (Guls̲h̲an i Ṣādiq, fol. 2b), he was honoured with the title of Ṣādiq i Nīk-nām.
- Guls̲h̲an i Ṣādiq (so in the Bānkīpūr ms., perhaps the title of a second edition), or Ḥadīqah i ḥādiq i ganjīnah i Ṣādiq (so according to Ethé, perhaps the title of a first edition) (beg. Ḥ. u sp. Hādiʾī rā kih gumrāhān), an encyclopaedia “treating of almost all the branches of Muhammadan literature, sciences, and arts” (ʿAbd al-Muqtadir), composed (i.e. apparently begun) in 1174/1760–1 (according to the author’s statement on fol. 26a of the Bānkīpūr ms.), completed in 1187/1773 (according to chronograms given by the copyist at the end of the table of contents), dedicated to the memory of the author’s father and divided into fourteen k̲h̲iyābāns (ten according to the table of contents in Ethé 2228, which may be an earlier edition): Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2022 (breaking off in the 31st bārīkī of the fifth (last c̲h̲aman of K̲h̲iyābān vi. 18th cent.), Ethé 2228 (K̲h̲iyābāns i–vi only, defective at end).
§ 603. Mīrzā M. Kirmānī was Muns̲h̲ī to Karīm K̲h̲ān Zand (reigned 1163–93/1750–79).
¶ K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ʿulūm: no mss. recorded.
Abridgment by the author himself: Lubb i K̲h̲. al-ʿu., in seven volumes: Ṭihrān ʿAbbās Iqbāl’s private library (D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 230).
§ 604. Rājah Kundan La‘l “As̲h̲kī” b. Mannūn Lāl “Falsafī” Dihlawī composed his Zīc̲h̲ i As̲h̲kī (autograph Āṣafīyah i p. 814 no. 299) in 1231/1816, which year according to the Āsafīyah catalogue was also the date of his death. (See pl i § 188a, pl. ii § 158).
- Nuzhat al-nāẓirīn, an encyclopaedia: Lindesiana p. 172 nos. 729 (circ. ad 1780), 629 (circ. ad 1810).
§ 605. M. Aslam Bangālī Pandwāʾī.
- Muk̲h̲taṣar i mufīd (beg. Subḥāna ’llāh Ḥikmat i bālig̲h̲ah i K̲h̲āliq), a concise encyclopaedia of cosmography, meteorology, astrology, geography, physiology, demonology, etc., composed in 1201/1787 and divided into a maṭlab (on mujarradāt u murak- kabāt) and twenty fāʾidahs: Berlin 100 (158 foll. ah 1255/1839), Bānkīpūr ix 916 (143 foll. 19th cent.), Ivanow 1368 (early 19th cent.).
§ 606. K̲h̲wājah S̲h̲āh Ḥasan Ajmērī was still alive in the early 13th/late 18th century.
- (Malfūẓāt i K̲h̲wājah S̲h̲āh Ḥasan i Ajmērī),25 lectures on a variety of subjects, music, prosody, medical prescriptions, archery, swords, prayers, invocations, amulets, magic, the talismanic virtues of the rubāʿīs of Abū Saʿīd b. Abī ’l-K̲h̲air (which are here arranged in alphabetical order), etc., etc., collected by his disciple M. Mahdī: Būhār 471 (401 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 607. Mīrzā M. Ḥasan “Qatīl b.” Dargāhī Mal26 was a Hindu named Diwālī Sing’h, who (according to Rieu’s authority, i.e. apparently “Qatīl’s” acquaintance “Muṣḥafī”27) became a convert to Islām in his eighteenth year and was given his new name and his tak̲h̲alluṣ by his converter, Mīrzā Bāqir S̲h̲ahīd Iṣfahānī. He must have been born in 1169/1755–6 or 1170/ 1756–7, since he was forty-one years old in 1211/1796–7, when he compiled a collection of his letters (Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 961). According to Rieu he “was born of a K’hatrī family settled in Faiḍābād”, but it seems that his family, and perhaps he himself, came from the ¶ Panjāb.28 He evidently lived for some time at Delhi,29 but most of his mature years were spent at Lucknow, where, according to the Riyāḍ al-wifāq (compiled in 1229/1814) he was Head Muns̲h̲ī to the King. His C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat was written in 1217/ 1802–3 on his return to Lucknow from Kālpī after an absence of two years and a half. Part of this period of absence seems to have been spent in Persia, since the letters written by him from the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (Rieu ii 794b, 858a) include “a contemporary record of the capture and blinding of Zamān Shāh, the Afg̲h̲an ruler of Ḳandahār, by his brother Maḥmūd Shāh, an event of ah 1217”. This may not have been his only visit to Persia, and according to the Būstān i Awad’h he visited also Arabia and Turkistān (bilād i ʿArab u ʿAjam u Turkistān hamah dīdah). He died at Lucknow in 1233/1818.30
As a poet and as a Persian scholar “Qatīl” had a considerable reputation in the India of his day.31 His dīwān, of which there appear to be two editions, is preserved in several mss. (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1937, Bānkīpūr iii 434–5, Rieu ii 726b, Aumer 126, Browne Suppt. 598, etc.). Collections of his letters have been published under the titles Maʿdin al-fawāʾid (Lucknow 1259–60/1843–4°. Pp. 90) and T̲h̲amarāt al-badāʾiʿ ([Lucknow] 1263/1847*. Pp. 391). Two collections existing in manuscript have been referred to above. These may or may not be the same as those preserved at Corpus Christi College Cambridge (Browne Suppt. 707) and in the Panjāb University Library (ocm. vii/4 p. 72).
[ʿIqd i T̲h̲uraiyā; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 488 (?); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2107; Riyāḍ al-wifāq (Sprenger p. 170); Miʿrāj al-k̲h̲ayāl; biography prefixed to the C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat in Lindesiana p. 173 no. 604; Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb (cited in Rieu ii 726b); K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ fol. 123a; Miftāh al-tawārīk̲h̲ p. 377; Sprenger p. 277 penult.; Garcin de Tassy i p. 380; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman pp. 390–2; Rieu i 64b; Būstān ¶ i Awad’h p. 109; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Qatil; Bānkīpūr iii p. 262]
- Farmān i Jaʿfarī (beg. Tajallī i Ṭūr i ʿaql), composed at the request of Nawwāb Mīrzā Jaʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān completed in 1206/1791–2 and divided into three parts (juzʾ) ((1) logic, (2) natural philosophy, (3) metaphysics) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Bānkīpūr ix 917 (ah 1258/1842), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1224 no. 115.
§ 608. Salāmat ʿAlī ṭabīb, entitled Ḥad̲h̲āqat K̲h̲ān, b. M. ʿAjīb is described in the Āṣafīyah catalogue as a resident (mutawaṭṭin) of Benares.
- Maṭāliʿ al-Hind (beg. Baʿd i h. u sp. i Īzad i Lā-yazāl), a compendium of philosophy, mathematics and astronomy compiled in 1223/1808–9 and divided into five maṭlaʿs ((1) falsafah i ūlā u ṭabʿīyat, (2) handasah, (3) ḥisāb, (4) haiʾat, (5) music) and a nuktah (dar bayān i baʿḍī rasm u ʿādāt i Hindūstān, very concise and of little value): Ivanow Curzon 505 (167 foll. ah 1226/1811), Bodleian iii 2699 (ah 1227/1812), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1768 no. 82.
§ 609. Faḍl i Imām b. M. Ars̲h̲ad K̲h̲airābādī is presumably the well-known Faḍl i Imām K̲h̲airābādī who was appointed Ṣadr al-ṣudūr at Delhi by the British-Indian government and died on 5 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1243/19 May 1828 (see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 162; pl. i § 333 (3), Mufti Intizamullah Shihabi’s introduction to Tarajim al-fudala (being a chapter of the Amad-namah by Mawlana Fadl-i-Imam Khairabadi) Karachi [1956?]‡ and A.S. Bazmee Ansari’s Appendix i to this work).
- Jāmiʿ i ʿulūm, on various subjects relating to ins̲h̲āʾ and adab: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (134 foll. ah 1239/1823. See ocm. x/1 p. 92 no. 14).
- Ṣiḥḥat i alfāẓ (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Mubdiʿī rā jallat qudratuh), a manual of Persian grammar, stylistics, epistolography and much else (e.g. sketches of geography, history, prominent poets, names of animals) composed in, or about, 1223/1808–9: Ivanow Curzon 718 (182 foll. ad 1835).
§ 610. M. Ḥusain b. Karam-ʿAlī Iṣfahānī wrote in 1222/1807 at Mas̲h̲had his compendium of general history (pl. i § 179; D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 47, where the title is given as Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲).
- Majmūʿah [i M. Ḥu. b. K.-ʿA. i Iṣfahānī] (beg. Sp. u st. u durūd u maḥmidat i bī-q..), extracts, astronomical, geographical, historical, biographical, mineralogical, biological, etc., compiled at Mas̲h̲had in 1224/1809: Rieu ii 776a (279 foll. ah 1225/1810, apparently autograph), Majlis i 628 (247 foll.).
¶ § 611. Aḥmad “Ṣafāʾī” b. M. Mahdī b. Abī D̲h̲arr Nirāqī, whose father has already been mentioned (pl. i § 287), died on 23 Rabīʿ ii 1245/22 Oct. 182932 (see Nigāristān i Dārā; Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 330; Rauḍāt al-jannāt p. 27; Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 343; Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 411; Sipahsālār Cat. i p. 520; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 826; Hadīyat al-aḥbāb p. 200 (Ṣāhib al-Mustanad)). He is the author of Miʿrāj al-saʿādah, a translation with slight alterations (D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 58) or a commentary (Rauḍāt al-jannāt p. 275) on his father’s Arabic handbook of ethics, the Jāmiʿ al-saʿādāt.
- Ḵhazāʾin, a miscellany designed as a complement to his father’s Mus̲h̲kilāt al-ʿulūm: Rauḍāt al-jannāt i p. 2715, D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 152; Persia 1295/1878 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1528); Ṭihrān 1308/1891 (410 pp. Karatay p. 11, Mas̲h̲had iii fṣl. 15, ptd. bks., no. 40).
§ 612. For the Jāmiʿ al-as̲h̲yāʾ, on Indian animals and plants, compiled by order of ʿAẓīm-nawāz K̲h̲ān Muftī Badr al-Daulah, see pl. ii § 554.
§ 613. Ḥakīm Wājid ʿAlī K̲h̲ān is the author of medical works entitled ʿIlm al-abdān and S̲h̲ifāʾ al-abdān (see pl. ii § 554).
Maṭlaʿ al-ʿulūm wa-Majmaʿ al-funūn (beg. (of preface) Maṭlaʿ al-ʿulūm i ʿaqliyah u naqlīyah, (of the work itself) Ḥamdī kih s̲h̲ān i K̲h̲udāwandī rā s̲h̲āyad), an encyclopaedia of sciences, arts, professions and crafts, composed in 1261–2/1845–6 (so on fol. 6, but in the k̲h̲ātimah (of Ivanow Curzon 486) 1268/ 1851–2 is given as the date of completion) and divided into two daftars (of which the first, entitled M. al-ʿu., deals in 37 bābs with as many “sciences”, while the second, entitled M. al-f., contains four bābs dealing respectively with the highest, middle, lower and lowest professions, crafts and occupations) and (at least in Ivanow Curzon 486) a brief k̲h̲ātimah containing a versified passage on the date of completion: Ivanow Curzon 486 (343 foll. (ah 1274/1858).
Editions: Āgrah 1264/1848* (641 pp.); 1862° (?) (1826 according to the catalogue, perhaps by a misprint. [Also 1262 according to Āṣafīyah ii p. 1224, no. 76] 542 pp.); Lucknow 1283/1866* (547 pp. N.K. Cf. Mus̲h̲ār i 1452); [Lucknow] 1870* (552 pp. N.K.); Lucknow 1889 (439 pp. Karatay p. 189); 1313/ 1895–6 (440 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1452); Cawnpore 1306/1889 (439 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1452. Perhaps identical with the 1889 edition recorded above).
§ 614. Maulawī M. Masīḥ al-Dīn K̲h̲ān was living at Calcutta when the first edition of his Miftāḥ al-ras̲h̲ād was published.
- ¶ Miftāḥ al-ras̲h̲ād li-kunūz muhimmāt al-maʿās̲h̲ wa-’l-maʿād, an encyclopaedia composed in 1263/1847 and divided into four maqṣads ((1) dar taqwīm i sinīn u s̲h̲uhūr u zamānah i aiyām u sāʿāt …, (2) dar bayān i saʿd u naḥs … (3) dar s̲h̲arāʾiʿ u ʿibādāt i ahl i Islām, (4) dar mutafarriqāt, on agriculture, Indian trade, weights and measures, etc.): Calcutta 1264/1848* (Āftāb i ʿālam-tāb Pr. 445 pp.);
§ 615. Brij Mōhan (Vraja-Mōhana).
- Mak̲h̲zan al-ʿulūm: Āgrah 1851* (355 pp. Maṣdar al-Nawādir Pr.); Bombay 1280/1863° (192 pp.); Delhi 1284/1867° (220 pp.); Lucknow 1868/ (163 pp. N.K./Mus̲h̲ār i 1414); Cawnpore 1873* (214 pp. N.K.); 1878°* (163 pp.).
§ 616. Farhād Mīrzā, Muʿtamad al-Daulah, b. ʿAbbās b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who died in 1888, has already been mentioned as the author of works entitled Qamqām i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār (pl. i § 259), Hidāyat al-sabīl (pl. i § 1624) and as the translator of William Pinnock’s Comprehensive system of modern geography and history (pl. i p. 121). He is also the author of Niṣāb i ingilīsī a metrical English-Persian vocabulary.
- Zunbīl, described in the Mas̲h̲had catalogue as similar to “Bahāʾī’s” Kas̲h̲kūl and completed in 1294/1877: Ṭihrān 1329/ 1911 (Mas̲h̲had 15, ptd. bks., no. 70).
- Ḥaẓīrat al-quds wa-d̲h̲ak̲h̲īrat al-uns, ba-ṭaur i kas̲h̲kūl (so Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī iv, appended list of works, p. 8, whereas according to Karatay the work is concerned with Taṣawwuf): Bhōpāl 1297/1880 (Ṣiddīqī Pr. 540 pp. Karatay p. 130).
§ 618. Mīrzā M. b. M. Rafīʿ, entitled Malik al-kuttāb, S̲h̲īrāzī was born in 1269/1852–3 (see pl. i § 662).
- K. i … Alf nahār mausūm bi-Durr al-asrār bi-ādāb al-ʿais̲h̲ etc., anecdotes and reflections on various subjects: Bombay 1313/1896° (Vol. i. 279 pp.).
§ 619. Ḥājī Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Abū Ṭālib Najjār Tabrīzī, known as Ṭālibof, was born at Tabrīz in 1272/1855–6, but spent most of his life in Caucasia and died at Temir K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ūrah (or Temīr K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ūrā) in 1328/1910. His works are among those regarded as having contributed most to the spread of enlightenment in ¶ Persia.33 They include Masāʾil al-ḥayāt yā kitāb i Aḥmad (Tiflīs 1324/1906 151 pp. See Karatay p. 5, Mus̲h̲ār i 1435) and Risālah i haiʾat i jadīdah34 (a translation of the Russian version of a work by Camille Flammarion. Istānbul 1312/1895. 230 pp. See Karatay ibid.). Mus̲h̲ār mentions the following works by him: Īḍāḥāt (Tihrān 1325/1907. Mus̲h̲ār i 189), Masālik al-muḥsinīn (Cairo 1323/1905–6. Mus̲h̲ār i 1437), Fīzīk (Istānbūl 1311/ 1893–4. Mus̲h̲ār i 1200), Siyāsat i Ṭālibī (Tihrān 1329/1911. Mus̲h̲ār i 986).
[Browne The press and poetry of modern Persia pp. 22, 106, 156, 161; Berthels Ocherk istorii persidskoi literary pp. 117–18; Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 254–5; Rijāl i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 214–28; Īraj Afs̲h̲ār Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir pp. 25–6 (portrait); Saʿīd Nafīsī S̲h̲āh-kārhā-yi nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir i pp. 373–4 (portrait); Mudarris Tabrīzī Raiḥānat al-adab iii pp. 4–5 (portrait; Dih-k̲h̲udā Lug̲h̲at-nāmah, pp. 47–51 (portrait).]
- Safīnah i Ṭālibī yā Kitāb i Aḥmad, talks (each headed Ṣuḥbat) on scientific and other subjects with the questions asked by the author’s real or imaginary son Aḥmad and the answers to them: Istānbūl 1311/1893–4 (232 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 996. Presumably Vol. i only); 1312/1894–5‡ (Vol. ii. 116 pp. K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd Pr. Cf. Mas̲h̲had i, fṣl. 1, ptd. bks. no. 30); 1319/1901‡ (Vol. i.35 243 pp. Portrait frontispiece. K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd Pr.). 1314–19/1896–1901 (3 vols. Pp. 243, 116, 200. Mus̲h̲ār i 966. It is not clear whether the 1319/1901‡ edition of Vol. i belongs to this edition).
§ 620. Appendix
- Bayāḍ i k̲h̲wus̲h̲būʾī (beg. Rawāʾiḥ i ḥamd i s̲h̲āʾiqah), in seventeen bābs on perfumes, electuaries, salves, sweetmeats and beverages, foods, houses and gardens; on the apparatus for camel and elephant stables, storerooms, armouries, wardrobes, libraries; on pyrotechnics, games, weights and measures, etc.: Ethé 2784 (182 foll. ah 1109/1698).
- ¶ C̲h̲ār gauhar i fiṭrat, an encyclopaedia of the natural and divine sciences, by G̲h̲ulām-Zain al-ʿĀbidīn b. Mīr ʿAlī Riḍā, who wrote also Ins̲h̲āʾ i G̲h̲ulām-Zain al-‘Ābidīn in eulogy of Nawwāb Ḥusain Munawwar K̲h̲ān (Madrās 1276/1859: see Arberry p. 212): Madrās 1276/1860* (124 pp.).
- K̲h̲azān u bahār, a compendium of sciences by Mīr ʿIwaḍ al-Riḍawī, who was in the service of Mīrzā M. ʿAlī Beg Kirmānī at Lahore and who divided his work into an introduction (on the creation and created beings), four maqālahs ((1) medicine, (2) astronomy, etc., (3) dabīrī u wazīrī u murāsalāt u mukātabāt i k̲h̲iṭābī u balāg̲h̲ī, (4) on poetical composition) and a conclusion (some anecdotes, a brief account of the author’s life and some of his poems): Ethé 2229 (47 foll., defective at end).
- Maḥāṣil al-kaunain, by S. G̲h̲ulām-Jīlānī “S̲h̲ajāʿat” G̲h̲āzī al-ʿAlawī b. S. G̲h̲ulām Muḥyī ’l-Dīn K̲h̲ān Bahādur commonly called (ʿurf) knwmyān (possibly Kannū Miyān36): Āṣafīyah ii p. 1768 no. 79.
- Majmūʿat al-ʿulūm: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1768 no. 80 (ah 1271/1854–5).
- Malqūt i jāmiʿ al-ʿulūm, by Abū ʿAbd Allāh ʿAlī b. Saʿd b. As̲h̲raf: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1768 no. 83
- Mas̲h̲kūl, miscellaneous extracts in Arabic and Persian prose and verse similar to the Kas̲h̲kūl of Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī: [Ṭihrān] 1300/1883° (332 pp).
- Riyāḍ al-nāṣiḥīn, an encyclopaedia of theology, ethics, law and sciences by M. b. M. Rabḥāmī: Bombay 1313/1896° (402 pp. Ed. M. ʿUt̲h̲mān and M. Ibrāhīm G̲h̲ulām-Qādirī); [1916*] (Muẓaffarī Pr. 400 pp. Ed. M. ʿUt̲h̲mān and ʿAbd al-Qādir b. Mus̲h̲tāq ʿAlī); Istānbūl 1318/1901 (402 pp. Karatay p. 120).
^ Back to text6. It is pointed out by M. Iqbāl (ocm. xiv/1 (Nov. 1937) p. 18) that the author, who says that he compiled the work in five years, speaks of al-Muqtafī (530–55/1136–60) as the contemporary Caliph in the Bāb i siyar al-K̲h̲ulafāʾ (fol. 130b in S̲h̲ērānī’s ms.) and that (on fol. 132b in S̲h̲ērānī’s ms.) he mentions the death of M. b. Kiyá Buzurg-umīd, which took place in 557/1162 (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. ii p. 453).
^ Back to text7. M. Iqbāl observes (ocm. xiv/1 (Nov. 1937) p. 1711) that Arslān Abah, presumably a younger brother of ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (for whom see Ency. Isl. under Zengī), is mentioned two or three times in the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr [pp. 24121, 24422, 26213] in connexion with the events of 544–7 and that he is not, as Blochet suggested, the same person as Būz Abah [or Youzaba, according to Blochet’s spelling], the Governor of Fārs.
^ Back to text8. The kitābs enumerated by Blochet from the list in the preface amount to 36 (or 37, if the chapter on the adab al-mulūk is to be counted as a kitāb), of which two according to him are absent from the text [of the Paris ms.]. M. Iqbāl speaks of 34 parts (ḥiṣṣah).
^ Back to text19. 85 (Qism i) + 75 (Qism ii) = 160, not 120, as seems to be stated or implied in the preface [but perhaps only in some mss.]. On the other hand the total of the fanns (37 + 33) is 60 and it is not clear from the cataloguers’ descriptions how these fanns are made to embrace 160 ʿulūm.
^ Back to text24. Probably a tak̲h̲alluṣ. It occurs in the chronogram quoted from the end of Bānkīpūr ms.:—Pay i tārīk̲h̲ i īn taʾlīf i UmmīC̲h̲u pursīdīm az ʿulmā-yi [sic] har s̲h̲ahrYakī z-īs̲h̲ān zi rūy i luṭf farmūdʿUqūl i ʿas̲h̲rah u uʿjūbah i dahr.
^ Back to text28. In the K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ he is described as a Siyālkōṭī by origin (Siyālkōṭī al-aṣl). According to the S̲h̲amʿi anjuman he belonged originally to Lahore, was converted by M. Bāqir, went to Delhi and then to Kālpī, where he became a companion of ʿImād al-Mulk (cf. pl. i § 797, 1370), and finally to Lucknow (Aṣlas̲h̲ az Lāhaur ast bar dast i M. Bāqir musalmān s̲h̲udah mad̲h̲hab i tas̲h̲aiyuʿ ik̲h̲tiyār kard sair i Dihlī numūdah u ba-Kālpī āmadah muṣāḥīb i ʿImād al-Mulk gas̲h̲l baʿdah dar Lak’hnau āmad).
^ Back to text29. According to the Riyāḍ al-wifāq (Sprenger p. 170) he was a converted K’hatrī of Delhi, and similarly in the Būstan i Awad’h he is described as one of the K’hatrīs of S̲h̲āhjahānābād. Rieu’s authority (presumably “Muṣḥafī”) says that “after staying several years in Dehli, he returned to Lucknow.”
^ Back to text30. A chronogram for this date is quoted from the Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb by Rieu (ii 726b). The Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲ quotes chronograms both for 1233 and for 1232. In the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman the date given is 1240.
^ Back to text31. Cf. S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 3914: Āsūdagān i Lak’hnau nisbat i talammud̲h̲ ba-wai durust mī-kardand, … ins̲h̲āʾ b̲a̲-f̲a̲ṣ̲ā̲ḣat mī nawis̲h̲t … as̲h̲ʿāras̲h̲ k̲h̲wus̲h̲- adā-st ammā maʿnī i tāzah kamtar ṭauʿ i yad i ū būdah az asātid̲h̲ahi zamānah i k̲h̲wud s̲h̲umurdah mī s̲h̲awad har c̲h̲and dark̲h̲wur i īn rutbah na-būd.
^ Back to text33. “In this category [those publications which were directly and obviously connected with the last risorgimento …, especially such as explicitly blamed and criticized the prevalent methods of government] the books of Ḥájji Mírzá ʿAbdu’r-Raḥím Ṭáliboff of Tabríz, and especially the Kitáb-i-Aḥmad, or Safína-i- Ṭalibí, in two volumes had a specially great effect which cannot be denied.” (Browne The Press and poetry of modern Persia p. 22).
^ Back to text35. In a note prefixed to this volume the Manager of the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd Press complains of an earlier unauthorised publication of the work by the Ak̲h̲tar Press. Appended to that note is a letter dated 2 Rajab 1318 in which the author associates himself with this complaint.