In Volume 4: Law; Tradition; Religion; Sufism; Bahāʾism; Prayers; Hinduism; Translations from Sanskrit, Hindi, and other Indian Languages, Ethics; Philosophy; Logic
S̲h̲āriq al-maʿrifah (beg. C̲h̲ūn īn ṭālib i ʿirfān), on the Vēdāntā philosophy in twelve lamʿahs: Browne Pers. Cat. 35 (1) (37 foll. ah 1110/1698–9), Bodleian 1278 (extracts only. ah 1151/1738–9), Ethé 1975 (28 foll.)
Edition: Lucknow 1877° (first of four tracts in a Majmūʿah i rasāʾil).
§ 743. Ibn i ʿUmar Miḥrābī lived not later than 1037/1027, the date of the earliest of the dated mss. recorded below.
Ḥujjat al-Hind (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā. a. b. ḥamdi ’llāh wa-naʿti Rasūli ’llāh mī-gūyad duʿā-gūy i ahl al-Islām), a demonstration of the falsity of the Hindu mythology and of the superiority of Islām in the form of a dialogue between a parrot and a s̲h̲ārak: Rieu i 29a (114 foll. ah 1037/1627), 30 a (defective. ah 1063/1653), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1338 no. 324 (ah 1084/1673–4), p. 1276 nos. 132, 135, Browne Suppt. 388 (ah 1113/1701–2. King’s 149), Bānkīpūr xiv 1334 (M. S̲h̲āh’s 4th year [ah 1134/1722]), Ivanow 1135 (ah 1136/1723–4), 1136 (18th cent.), 1137 (extract only), Berlin 53(1) (ah 1138/1725–6), Ethé 2716 (ah 1157/1744), 2715, ii 3074 (n.d.), r.a.s. p. 7 (ah 1195/1781), Rehatsek p. 193 no. 32 (?) (perhaps a different work. ah 1228/1813).
Abridgement: Hidāyat al-Hind (beg. Ḥ. i mutawāfir mar K̲h̲āliqī rā hādī [read hudā?] ’l-muḍillīn shaʾn Ū-st), by M. Jān b. M. Ṣiddīq w. Ḥāfiẓ Sulṭān-Maḥmūd Tas̲h̲kandī: Rieu i 30 b (ah 1191/1777).
§ 744. Sulṭān M. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh, the eldest son of the Emperor S̲h̲āh-Jahān (1037–68/1628–58), was born in 1024/1615 and died in 1069/1659 (see pl. i no. 1321, etc.).
Majmaʿ al-baḥrain (beg. Ba-nām i ān-kih Ū nāmī na-dārad *), the technical terms of Hindu pantheism with their equivalents in the language of the Sūfīs, completed in 1065/1655 with a view to reconciling the two systems: Aumer 351 (1) (36 foll. ah 1080/1669–70), Bodleian 1820 (22 foll. a Fraser ms., therefore not later than mid 18th cent.), 1241 (13) (ah 1198/1784), 1821, Rieu ii 841 b (ah 1172/1758), 828 a (ah 1215/1801), Eton 36 (not later than ad 1788), Bānkīpūr xvi 1452 (18th cent.), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. x no. 9 (ah 1215/1800), Āṣafīyah i p. 472 no. 884 (ah 1244/1828–9), Ivanow Curzon 681 (probably ad 1871).
Edition with English translation: Majmaʿ-ul-baḥrain, or, The mingling of the two oceans. Edited with English translation, notes and variants of M. Mahfuz-ul-Haq, Calcutta 1929* (Bibliotheca Indica).
¶ Arabic translation: Tarjamat M. al-b., by M. Ṣāliḥ b. Aḥmad al-Miṣrī: Būhār Arab. Cat. 133 (39 foll. 18th cent.).
Suʾāl u jawāb i Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh u Bābā Lāl (or B. Lāl Dās), called at least once Nādir al-nikāt, some seventy questions concerning Hindu belief (the first on the difference between nād and bēd) put by Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh to the Hindu ascetic Bābā Lāl Dās (cf. pl. i no. 1321 2nd par., 8th footnote) after the siege of Qandahār [in 1063/1653]1 with the answers of the latter, translated into Persian (according to a preface absent from some mss.) by Rāy C̲h̲andar-bhān “Barahman” (for whom see pl. i no. 730, etc.): Bānkīpūr xvi 1454 (19 foll. M. S̲h̲āh’s 12th year [ah 1143/1730]), Suppt. ii 2267 (an abstract, differently arranged and beginning Ḥ. u. t̲h̲. i bī-ʿadd mar Īzad i Bī-hamtā. Foll. 55b–59b), Browne Suppt. 776 (King’s 14 (1), not later than mid 18th cent.), Rieu ii 841 b (an abstract, beginning awwal ān-kih az wurūd i kalimah i muʿaẓẓamah. Foll. 248–59. ah 1172/1758), iii 1034 a (abstract? Foll. 169–75), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 14 no. 47 (ah 1281/1864–5), Āṣafīyah i p. 444 no. 627, Berlin 1081 (2), Bodleian 1241 (14), 1821 (2), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 73 no. 3.
(a) Delhi 1885° (Risālah i suʾāl u jawāb arranged and edited by C̲h̲iranjī Lāl 30 pp.);
(b) Les entretiens de Lahore [entre le prince impérial Dârâ Shikûh et l’ascète hindou Baba Laʿl Das. Edited with French translation by Cl. Huart and L. Massignon] (in Journal asiatique ccix (Paris, July–Dec. 1926) pp. 285–334).
Urdu translation: Risālah i aswilah u ajwibah i Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh u Bābā Lāl (see Garcin de Tassy i p. 274).
English translation of extracts: K.-R. Qanungo Dara Shukoh, Vol. i, Calcutta , pp. 337–47.
Ṭarīqat al-ḥaqīqah, described by Edwards as a tract in prose and verse on the Vēdānta philosophy, no mss. recorded?
Edition: Gūjrānwālah [1895°*] (36 pp.).
Urdu translation by Aḥmad ʿAlī Batālawī: Lahore [1923*].
§ 745. ʿAbd al-Rahmān b. ʿAbd al-Rasūl C̲h̲is̲h̲tī died in 1084/1683 (see pl. i no. 1329).
- Mirʾāt al-mak̲h̲lūqāt (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā. baʿd i hād̲h̲ā mī-nawīsad ḥaqīr al-faqīr), a translation and Islamising explanation, written in 1041/1631–2, of a Sanskrit verse treatise on Hindu cosmogony in the form of a dialogue ¶ between Mahādēv and Pārbatī handed down by the Munī [i.e. saint, sage] Bās̲h̲is̲h̲t (Vāsis̲h̲ṭ’ha): Rieu iii 1034 a (foll. 239–50. 18th cent.), Bodleian 1823 (foll. 33–58. A Fraser ms., therefore not later than 18th cent), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1356 no. 589.
§ 746. Mīrzā M. b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn M. has already been mentioned for his work, composed in ʿĀlamgīr’s reign, on some Hindu arts and sciences.
Tuḥfat al-Hind: see pl. iii no. 172.
Edition of most of the Muqaddamah: A grammar of the Braj Bhakha by Mirzā K̲h̲ān. The Persian text critically edited … with an introduction, translation and notes, together with the contents of the Tuhfatu l-Hind by M. Ziauddin. With a foreword by S. K. Chatterji (Qawāʿid i kullīyah i Bhāk’hā). Calcutta 1935* (Visva-Bharati Series, no. 3. 91 pp.).
§ 747. Rūp Nārāyan w. Harī-Rām K’hatrī, a resident of Siyālkōt, had spent four or five years at the holy shrines of Braj.
- Mak̲h̲zan al-ʿirfān (a chronogram = 1129/1717. Beg. Bar hūs̲h̲mandān i daqīqah-ras), an account of the holy land of Braj (i.e. the district surrounding Mat’hurā (“Muttra”) and Āgrah) and all places sanctified by memories of Gōpāl (i.e. Krishna): Rieu i 62 b (40 foll. ah 1180/1766).
§ 748. Nayah Narāyan walad C̲h̲īn Rāy K’hatrī ʿurf Sūd’hī was Muns̲h̲ī to Rājah Muḥkam Sing’h2 in the reign of Farruk̲h̲-siyar (1124–31/1713–19).
- Guls̲h̲an i asrār (beg. Sijadāt i niyāyis̲h̲ ba-ḥaḍrat i Wājib al-wujūdī sazāwār), on the myths and legends of the Hindus compiled from the Rāmāyana, the Mahābhārata, the Bhāgavata and the Harivansa, composed (i.e. perhaps begun) in 1125/1713, completed in 1134/1722 and divided into four bābs: Rieu iii 917 a (249 foll. ah 1261/1845).
§ 749. According to the Bānkīpūr ms. (stated to be an autograph) the author, or translator, of the Muḥīṭ i maʿrifat was Kirpāl Dās “ʿĀrif”, son of Rām Kiran [Karan?], a D’hūsar by caste and a resident of Nārnaul, whereas according to Ross and Browne he was “Satídása son of Rám Bhá’í, of the Khatrí caste, known poetically as ʿÁrif, resident in the parganah of Kaythal (کیتهل), the ancient Kapistala”.
- Muḥīṭ i maʿrifat (beg. ʿAjz i bisyār u niyāz i bī-s̲h̲umār taslīm i bār-gāh i Jamīlī kih), on Yōga, divination and similar matters, translated from or based chiefly on the Hindī Svarōdaya (of Sadās̲h̲ēo according to the ¶ Bānkīpūr catalogue; of C̲h̲aran Dās, the pupil of Suk’hdēv-jī, according to Ross & Browne), divided into sixteen faṣls and completed in 1167/1754 in the reign of ʿĀlamgīr ii: Bānkīpūr xvi 1455 (78 foll. ah 1182/1768, autograph), Ross & Browne 142 (106 foll. ah 1271/1854–5), Rehatsek p. 211 no. 80.
§ 750. Kac̲h̲hārī [?] Sing’h, or perhaps Kanc̲h̲hārī Sing’h.
- (Tarjamah i fiqh i Hunūd)3 (beg. Huwa ’l-ʿAzīz Mubdiʿ i Ḥaqīqi awwal zamīn u āsmān u āb u ātas̲h̲ u hawā paidā kardah), a code of Hindu law preceded, without preface, by a section on the creation, etc., a bāb on the ruler and his office (ṣifat i ḥākim u kirdār i ḥākim), and an enumeration of the bābs contained in the work [possibly the Vivādārnava-sētu, for which see pl. iv no. 803 infra]: Berlin 1083 (180 foll. b. s. 1196/1782).
§ 751. Chief Pandit (Pandit Prad’hān) Rād’hā-kānt Tarka-Bāgīs.
Pūrānārt’ha– prakāsa, a Sanskrit account of the Hindu chronology and cosmogony, the S̲h̲āstras and the genealogies of the Hindu kings, composed at the request of Warren Hastings and completed in 1706 Śaka/1784: ms. b. m. or. 1124 (cf. Rieu i p. 643̲).
Persian translation: Tarjamah i S̲h̲āstar (beg. Param Ēswarī rā az ṣidq i iʿtiqād pranām mī-kunam), composed by Zōrāwar Sing’h at the request of Warren Hastings and divided into six bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Edinburgh 328 (25 foll. 1191 Faṣlī/ah 1189/1775), Browne Pers. Cat. 34 (72 foll. ah 1193/1779), Rieu i 63 b (27 foll. 1192 Faṣlī/1784), 64 a (275 foll. With N.B. Halhed’s English translation), Ethé 2003 (54 foll. 1194 Bengali/1786), 2004 (n.d.), Ivanow 1712 (early 19th cent.).
English translation by N. B. Halhed: b.m. ms. add. 5657 foll. 163–94, Rieu i 64 a (add. 7022. Transcribed from the preceding by J.H. Hindley).
§ 752. Muns̲h̲ī Kirpā-Rām Kāyat’h was a Munshī in the Persian translator’s office at Calcutta and knew Persian and Arabic as well as Sanskrit and Bengali.
- Untitled work (beg. Sp. i bī-q. i qudsī-asās Wāḥidī Buzurg rā lāʾiq u sazāwār ast) on the Hindu cosmogony, geography, astronomy, mythology and historical legends, compiled from Sanskrit sources for Warren Hastings: Rieu i 63 a (112 foll., defective at end. Late 18th cent.).
(Ṭarīq i qasam) (beg. Ṭ. i q. kih dar D’haram-S̲h̲āstar u dīgar S̲h̲āstarhā bah tafṣīl marqūm ast), on the forms of oath held binding by the Hindus, compiled from Sanskrit sources for Warren Hastings: Ethé 2005 (18 foll.), Ross & Browne 272 = 80 (10 foll.).
English translation: “On the trial by ordeal among the Hindus. By Alí Ibráhím Khán, Chief Magistrate at Banáres. Communicated by Warren Hastings, Esq.” (in Asiatick Researches i (Calcutta 1788) pp. 389–401).
§ 754. Ānand-g’han “K̲h̲was̲h̲” is the author of a dīwān (mss. Ethé 2906, dated 1205/1791, Bodleian 1202), of the Mat̲h̲nawī i Kaj-kulāh intended to consist of seven daftars (Daftar i, Ethé 2905, completed in 1208/1794, Daftar ii, Ethé 1725, completed in 1209/1794), and of several translations from the Sanskrit (see pl. iv nos. 774, 783 infra).
- Kitāb dar bayān i Srī Mahādēw jīw (beg. Sp. i bī-q. mar Ān Bī-c̲h̲ūn i Bī-c̲h̲igūn rā kih bah mujarrad i guftan i ḥarf i Kun [ms. fykn]), completed in 1206/1791–2 and divided into four ad’hyāyas, of which the last is a description of Benares: Blochet i 237 (58 foll. Late 18th cent.).
§ 755. Ātma Rām was a resident of Dāūd-nagar in [the Gayā District of] Bihār.
- D̲hak̲h̲īrat al-fuʾād (beg. Sp. i bī-ḥ. u t̲h̲. i bī-ʿadd mar K̲h̲āliqī rā kih insān rā), in three bābs ((1) on Hindu fasts (brat), (2) cosmogony and the origin of castes, (3) the distinctive marks (qas̲h̲qah, i.e. tilak) painted on their foreheads by the different Hindu sects) composed in 1210/1796 at the request of Colonel Sir John Murray:4 Berlin 1076 (233 foll. ah 1211/1796–7), Rieu ii 792 b (foll. 63–197. ah 1217/1802).
§ 756. Salāmat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Ṭabīb, entitled Ḥad̲h̲āqat K̲h̲ān, b. M. ʿAjīb began in 1212/1797–8 the legal work Ik̲h̲tiyār (see pl. iv no. 117 supra).
- Maṭlaʿ al-Hind (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. u sp. i. Īzad i Lā-yazāl), on the sciences of the Hindus in five maṭlaʿs ((1) falsafah u ṭibbīyāt [ṭabīʿīyāt?], (2) handasah, (3) ḥisāb, (4) haiʾat, (5) mūsiqī) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 248. ah 1262/1846), Rieu iii 1026 a (foll. 465–8. Extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).
§ 757. Mat’hurā-Nāt’h Barahman Mālwī (or Mālawī, i.e. of Mālwah in Central India) was Librarian of the Hindu College at Benares.
¶ Riyāḍ al-mad̲h̲āhib, or, as in Bodl. 1824 & the printed text, Kunh i d̲h̲āt Majmaʿ al-ṣifāt (beg. Ḥamdī kih sazāwār i Wājib i bar ḥaqq buwad), on the castes and sects of the Hindus, composed in 1228/1812 at the request of [Robert Thomas] John Glyn [Registrar of the city of Benares]: Ethé 2720 (foll. 56–167. Autograph), 2721 (defective), Rieu i 64 a (53 foll. Circ. ad 1812. Illustrations), Bodleian 1824 (title K. i d̲h̲. An abridgement? 37 foll.).
Edition: [Benares? 1812?°] (Kunh i d̲h̲. 40 pp. Illustrated. Described by Edwards as an abridgement of the R. al-m.).
This is one of the main sources of H.H. Wilson’s Sketch of the religious sects of the Hindus.
§ 758. Muns̲h̲ī D̲hū ’l-Faqār ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Mast” composed in 1229/1814, probably at Benares, the tad̲h̲kirah entitled Riyāḍ al-wifāq (pl. i no. 1191).
- Nairang i ẓuhūr (beg. Ba-nām i ān kih u maqṣūd i har nām*), on the mythology, castes, doctrines and sects of the Hindus in seven jilwahs: Sprenger p. 165, l. 8 from foot (cf. Rieu iii 1095 b), Rieu ii 854 a (96 foll. Early 19th cent.).
§ 759. Mirzā M. Ḥasan “Qatīl” died at Lucknow in or about 1233/1818 (see pl. ii no. 607, etc.).
Haft tamās̲h̲ā (beg. Zīb i pīs̲h̲ānī i bayān), on the beliefs and customs of the Hindus and, to a minor extent, the customs of Indian Muslims, composed in the time of Nawwāb Saʿādat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (1798–1814: cf. pl. i no. 938 2nd par.) at the request of Mirzā M. Ḥusain, who had come to Lucknow from Karbalā and had returned thither in 1226/1811 (according to the Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr text) or 1228/1813 (according to Rieu), and divided into seven Tamās̲h̲ās ((1) beliefs of the smārtik, or orthodox Hindus, (2) the origin of man and the divisions of mankind, (3) beliefs of the heterodox Hindus, (4) Hindu festivals, (5) Hindu customs, (6) Customs of the Indian Muslims, (7) marvellous tales concerning Indian faqīrs): Rieu i 64 b (98 foll. ah 1266/1850).
Edition: Haft tamās̲h̲ā-yi Mirzā Qatīl, Lucknow 1292/1875 °* (n.k. 164 pp.).
§ 760. Muns̲h̲ī Sadāsuk’h “Niyāz” Dihlawī composed in 1234/1818–19 a history of India entitled Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ (pl. i no. 650 2nd par.).
- Tanbīh al-g̲h̲āfilīn (beg. Ḥamdī kih bah miʿrājas̲h̲ s̲h̲āh-bāzān i ʿuqūl), an account of Hindu sects and tribes and some other matters, completed not earlier than 1234/1818–19 and divided into eight maqālahs: Rieu iii 918 a (defective and incorrect. 303 foll. Circ. ad 1850).
- Tas̲h̲rīḥ al-aqwām (beg. Baʿd i ḥ. u sp. i. Īzad i Jahān-āfrīn), completed at Hānsī in 1825, dedicated to General Sir John Malcolm and divided into three faṣls ((1) a chronology of the Tīmūrids from Tīmūr to Akbar-S̲h̲āh, (2) (nearly the whole of the work) the Hindū castes, (3) certain Muslim families and tribes, namely (a) the Kings of Oudh, (b) the Afg̲h̲āns of Qaṣūr [cf. pl. i nos. 840 last line, 1333 3rd footnote], (c) the Bhaṭṭī tribe, (d) the Qawwāls, or singers, (e) the faqīrs called Bē-nawā or Bā-nawā): Rieu i 65 a (462 foll. 104 good pictures. ad 1825 Malcolm’s ms.), iii 918 b (145 foll. ad 1836).
§ 762. Miscellaneous works.
- Ahinsā-parkās̲h̲, a metrical denunciation of drinking and meat-eating, by Bukkah Kāk “Masrūr”: Siyālkōt 1899° (32 pp.).
- Mirʾāt al-muttaqīn, Hindu religious law, by Rājah Fatḥ C̲h̲and: Lucknow [1869*] (Kālī-prasād 122 pp.).
- Risālah dar aḥwāl i ẓuhūr i Srī Gupt u dīgar umūr i mutafarriqah, by Lālah Tulasī Rām Kāyast’h: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 4 no. 7.
- Risālah dar bayān i uṣūl i mad̲h̲āhib i qaum i Hind ba-mūjab i tafṣīl i dafaʿāt u d̲h̲ail. Dafʿah i awwal. Dar awāʾil i zamān aṣl i mad̲h̲hab i Hunūd bar waḥdānīyat i Allāh taʿālā būd: Bodleian 1822 (breaks off in Dafʿah 33. 40 foll.).
- Risālah dar ʿilm i jōg-sād’han, by P’hērū Mal: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1538 no. 51 (ad 1884).
- Risālah i mad̲h̲hab i Hunūd, by Ṭēk-c̲h̲and walad Himmat-c̲h̲and: Āṣafīyah iii p. 198 no. 1450 (ah 1138/1725–6).
- Silsilah i Jōgiyān (beg. C̲h̲ūn iqtiḍā-yi Rabbānī u k̲h̲wāhis̲h̲ i Yazdānī) an anonymous work on the sects of Indian devotees in five firqahs, afterwards called aṣls, ((1) Vishnuites, (2) Shivaites, (3) Shāktas, (4) Nānak-S̲h̲āhīs, (5) Shrāvakas and Yatis (Srāwak and Jatī)), followed by two faṣls ((1) on the tenets of these sects, (2) a description of Benares): Ethé 2974 (71 foll. 48 portraits).