In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales
§ 705. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain al-Wāʿiẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī, who died (probably) in 939/1532–3, has already been mentioned as the author of the Ras̲h̲aḥāt i ʿain al-ḥayāt (pl. i § 1277).
Laṭāʾif al-ṭawāʾif (beg. Baʿd az adāʾ i laṭāʾif i taḥmīdāt i Ilāhī), humorous anecdotes arranged in fourteen bābs according to the classes of men to which they relate ((1) the Prophet, (2) the Imāms, (3) kings, (4) amīrs ministers of state, etc., (5) men of letters, secretaries, courtiers, officers, (6) Arabs of the desert, elegant speakers, etc.,(7) s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, scholars, lawyers, etc., (8) philosophers, physicians, astrologers, etc., (9) poets, (10) wits (ẓarīfān), (11) misers, gluttons and parasites, (12) covetous persons, thieves, beggars, etc. (13) children and slaves, (14) simpletons, liars and impostors), [compiled probably at Harāt1] and completed in G̲h̲arjistān for the diversion of the Sulṭān Naṣīr al-Daulah wa-Ẓahīr al-Millah S̲h̲āh Muḥammad whose court the author had reached after his release in 939/1532–3 from a year’s imprisonment at Harāt: Berlin 1013 (a.h. 1015/1607), 1014 (n. d), 1015 (shorter recension dedicated to Ẓahīr al-Dīn M. Amīr Bēg, wazīr of K̲h̲urāsān. Beg.: Kafīl i amr i K̲h̲urāsān wakīl i ḥaḍrat i K̲h̲āqān * kih hast bāṭinas̲h̲ az nūr i g̲h̲aib ʿaks-pad̲h̲īr. a.h. 1275/1858), Bodleian iii 2518 (a.h. 1055/1645), i 454 (a.h. 1114/1702), 455–6, Lindesiana p. 154 no. 617 (a.h. 1061/1651), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (a.h. 1081/1671. See ocm. ix/1 p. 23), Rieu ii 757b (a.h. 1087/1676), 758 a (a.h. 1233/1818), Suppt. 100 (3) Bābs xiii (defective) and xiv only. ah. 1088/1677), Blochet iv 2091 (late 17th cent.), Ivanow 297 (early 18th cent.), 1st Suppt. 775 (late 19th cent.), Būhār 443 (a.h. 1160/1747), 444 (19th cent.), Ethé 778 (a.h. 1191/1777), 779, 1762 (15) (selections), Bānkīpūr viii 732 (18th cent.), 733–4, Rehatsek p. 230 no. 44 (a.h. 1214/1799–1800), Browne Coll. x. 5 (a.h. 1253/1837–8), Bombay Univ. p. 229 no. 147, Edinburgh New Coll. p. 10, Eton 86, 87 (an abridgment), Leyden v p. 295 no. 2748 (Daventer), Majlis 622 (2), Upsala Zetterstéen 414.
Extracts: C. Schefer Chrestomathie persane, tome i (Paris 1883) pp. 105–130 (Persian numerals), notes etc. Pp. 95–131.
¶ § 706. The Hitōpadēśa, a Sanskrit collection of fables derived in great part from the Panchatantra, was translated into Persian by a certain Tāj al-Dīn, whose full name (possibly Tāj al-Dīn Muʿīn al-Mulkī) appears in a variety of different forms, Tāj [al-Dīn] Muftī al-Mlkī (Ivanow 1709, Ethé 1985, Berlin 1086), Tāj Muḥammad Muftī al-Mlkī (Ivanow Curzon 685), Tāj Muftī Mlkī (Bombay Univ. p. 174), Tāj Muʿīn al-Dīn Mlkī (Rieu ii 757), Tāj al-Dīn Muftī al-Mlkī (Ross-Browne 198, Aumer 143), Tāj al-Dīn Muftī (Ethé 1983), Tāj i Maʿālī (Ethé 1984), and Tāj al-G̲h̲anī (Bodleian 1320). The translation was made from the Hinduwī2 by order of Malik al-mulūk [sic] al-s̲h̲arq wa-’l-g̲h̲arb Naṣīr3 al-Daulah wa-’l-Dīn, feoffee of the province of Bihār (muqṭaʿ4 i s̲h̲iqq i Bihār), who must have lived before the adoption of the word ṣūbah in Akbar’s time to indicate a province.
Mufarriḥ al-qulūb (beg. Sp. i bī-q. mar ḥaḍrat i Pāds̲h̲āhī (or S̲h̲āhī) rā kih az jumlah i bandagān i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲): Hamburg 201 (a.h. 1062/1652), Blochet i 231 (a.h. 1062/1652), Ivanow 1709 (a.h. 1098/1687?), Curzon 685 (a.h. 1240/1824), Browne Pers. Cat. 326 (1) (not later than a.d. 1727), 324 (circ. a.d. 1813), Suppt. 1229 (Corpus 96), 1230 (Jesus 8), Bombay Univ. p. 174 no. 94 (M. S̲h̲āh’s 24th year [i.e. 1154/1741]), Rieu ii 757a (a.h. 1195/1781), Ross-Browne 198 (18th cent.), Ethé 1983 (not later than a.d. 1818), 1984–5, 1986 (an abridgment. a.h. 1221/1806), r.a.s. P. 339 (a.h.1217/1802–3), Aumer 143, Berlin 1086, Bodleian 1320 (fragment only), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. xliii no. 6, Rehatsek p. 232 no. 51, Madrās i 340 (d), Mehren p. 29 no. 79 (defective at end).
Editions: Lucknow 1869°* (pp. 78), 1300/1883* (pp. 80), Delhi 1871* (pp. 79).
Description (of the bad Ms. Blochet i 231): Mufarriḥ al-qulūb [in the Arabic character]. L’électuaire des cœurs ou traduction persane du livre indien intitulé Hitoupadésa par Tadjeddin. MS. persan de la Bibliothèque du Roi no 386. Par M. S. de Sacy (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi, x (Paris 1818) pp. 226–64).
¶ Urdu translation (from the Persian): Ak̲h̲lāq i Hindī,5 prepared in 1217/1802 by Mīr Bahādur ʿAlī,6 Mīr Muns̲h̲ī̲ of Hindūstānī at the College of Fort William, by order of J.B. Gilchrist: B.M. Catalogue of Hindustani msS. 94 (early 19th cent.)
Editions: Calcutta 1803°* (Ukhlaqi Hindee, or Indian ethics, translated from a Persian version of the … Hitoopudes, or Salutary counsel, by Meer Buhadoor Ulee, … under the superintendence of J. Gilchrist. Pp. 171), Madrās 1845° (pp. 280), 1296/1879° (pp. 136), Bombay 1848* (pp. 272), 1875°* (pp. 122), 1884* (pp. 120), London 1868°* (Ak̲h̲lák i Hindí … Edited, with an introduction and notes, by Syed Abdoolah. Pp. 33, 196), etc.
§ 707. To Abū ’l-Muẓaffar (or Abū ’l-Manṣūr) ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Bahādur K̲h̲ān [ruler of Buk̲h̲ārā 947–57/1540–9] was dedicated:
- Rauḍat al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq,7 an imitation of the Gulistān in eight chapters: Blochet iv 2361 (18th cent.), possibly also Rehatsek p. 163 no. 128 (2).
§ 708. The Sing’h-āsan battīsī,8 or thirty-two tales concerning King Vikramāditya (in Hindī Bikramājīt) which were related to King Bhōj by thirty-two statues9 standing round an enchanted throne, are extant not only in the Sanskrit original10 but also in Hindī,11 Persian and Urdu translations. The earliest Persian translations, so far as is known, were made in Akbar’s reign (963–1014/1556–1605). One of these, the Nāmah i k̲h̲irad-afzā (a chronogram = 989/1581), undertaken by ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī with the help of a pandit in 982/1574,12 has already been mentioned (pl. i § 614 (2)), but no copies of this ¶ translation have yet been identified. There are, however, two translations of Akbar’s time in the following list of the extant Persian versions.
- S̲h̲āh-nāmah (beg. Sipās i Bārī taʿālā jalla jalāluhu wa-ʿamma nawāluhu), dedicated to Akbar by C̲h̲aturbhūj [or C̲h̲aturbhūj Dās according to Bodleian 1324] b. Mihr-C̲h̲and Kāyat [a resident of Sōnpat according to the preface of Bisbarāy’s translation]: Bodleian 1324, Hamburg 202.
- Miftāḥ al-akbar (beg. Sazāwār i ḥamd i bī-qiyās Pāds̲h̲āhī ast kih wujūd i aʿyān rā), a translation made from “the Hindī original” at Akbar’s command by S. Muẓaffar b. S. Ḥās̲h̲im al-Ḥusainī al-Hūpyānī (?): Rāmpūr (a.h. 1212/1797–8. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 226).
- Sing’h-āsan battīsī (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-s̲h̲umār bah ān Āfrīdgār i Kubār kih az ṭāʿat u ʿibādat i ʿābidān), a version made in 1019/1610–11, in Jahāngīr’s reign, by Bihārī Mal (or Bihārah13 Mal) b. Raj-Mal (?)14 K’hatrī: Ethé 1988 (a.h. 1194/1780), Gotha Arab. Cat v p. 521 no. 85**, Berlin 1087 (a.h. 1239/1823), Būhār 446 (a.d. 1826).
- (Afsānahā-yi Rājah Bikramājīt) a translation of 32 short tales [apparently the Sing’hāsan battīsī, though Rehatsek does not say so] written in Jahāngīr’s reign [by a translator whom Rehatsek does not name,15 but possibly Bihārī Mal or Bis̲h̲an Dās: Rehatsek p. 217 no. 6 (a.h. 1116/1705).
- Sing’h-āsan battīsī (beg. Ḥamd mar ḥaḍraṭ i Malik al-Mutaʿāl u t̲h̲anā-yi bārgāh i Īzad i Lā-yazāl i Bī-c̲h̲ūn … (fol. 8b) Srī Mahādēv u Pārbati bar Kailās Parbat kih jā-yi būdan i Srī Mahādev ast nis̲h̲astah būdand) a version prepared in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Jahān (in his 25th year [i.e. 1061–2/1651–2] according to Kis̲h̲an Dās: see Rieu ii 763b) by Bisla-Rāy b. hrkrb-Dās (as he is called in the B.M. ms. of Kis̲h̲an Dās’s version) or “Basant Roy Ryat” (as he is called in the Madrās catalogue, i.e. presumably Basant Rāy Kāyat’h), or Ibn Har-karan (as he is called in the B.M. ms), on the basis of the translations of C̲h̲atur-bhūj and Bihārī Mal: Leyden v p. 173 no. 2567 (?) (a version made in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s time, but the catalogue gives neither the translator’s name nor the opening words. Transcribed in Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s reign [1124–31/1713–19]), Blochet iv 2115 (?) (beg. Waqtī kih Srī Mahādēv bar Kailās̲h̲ Parbat kih makān i ūst nis̲h̲atah būd. The original of Bodleian 1325, which, though without preface, was identified by Ethé as Bisba-rāy’s version. a.d. 1742), Rieu ii 763a (a.h. 1196/1782), Ethé ¶ 1990 (from R. Johnson’s library), 1992 (fragment breaking off in 6th tale), Bodleian 1325 (transcribed in 1814 from Blochet iv 2115. Accompanied by Lescallier’s French translation), iii 2695 (a.h. 1231/1816). Madrās 339 (a.h. 1248/1832).
Kis̲h̲an bilās, a translation written by Kis̲h̲an-Dās Bāsdēv (so Rieu), or Kis̲h̲an-Dās b. Mulūk-C̲h̲and Tanbūlī (so Berlin), a resident (mutawatṭṭin) of the ṣūbah of Lahore, for his employer16 Nawwāb Jār Allāh17 Amīr al-umarāʾ, and existing apparently in two forms:
- (beg. ʿĀlam ʿālam sitāyis̲h̲ mar Qādirī [sic] bī-niyāzī rā kih ātas̲h̲ i waḥy) written in Jahāngīr’s reign [and therefore before Bisba-rāy’s version]: Ethé 1989 (n. d.).
- (beg. Ḥamd i K̲h̲udāwand sarāyam nuk̲h̲ust*) written in Aurangzēb’s reign and described as a revised version of Bisba-rāy’s translation: Rieu ii 763b (18th cent.), Berlin 1088.
- Risālah i sarīrī (beg. Irṣāʿ [sic] i sarīr i qidam ba-jawāhir i zawāhir i ḥamd), an anonymons translation prepared in 1084/1673–4 in Aurangzēb’s reign: Ivanow 1702 (a.h. 1197/1783).
- Sing’h-āsan battīsī (beg. Dargāh i Mujīb al-daʿawāt īn-ast Har kih bi-k̲h̲wānad az kān i karam … Guftand D’hār nām i s̲h̲ahr i buzurg … Dar-ān s̲h̲ahr Rājah Bhōj), an anonymous abridgment: Edinburgh 329 (foll. 30. a.h. 1190/1776), Rieu ii 736 b (foll. 30. a.h. 1198/1784).
- Sing’h-āsan battīsī (beg. ʿĀlam ʿālam sipās u s̲h̲ukr mar Qādirī rā kih ins u malak), a translation made from the Sanskrit in 1845 by S. Imdād ʿAlī and Sīv Sahāy Kāyat’h,18 both of Gulāvat’hi in the Bulands̲h̲ahr District, for Mr. (afterwards Sir) Edward Clive Bayley:19 Rieu iii. 1006a (foll. 70. a.d. 1845).
- Sing’h-āsan battīsī (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd u sp. i Īzad i Mutaʿāl kih jumlah i jahān rā ba-anwāʿ i ārāyis̲h̲ ārāstah), translated by C̲h̲and walad i Mād’hau Rām: Mehren p. 29 no. 80.
Unidentified mss.: Ivanow 1701 (beg. Ḥikāyat i Mahādēv u Pārbatī. Yak waqt Srī Mahādēv bar Kailās parbat. a.h. 1155/1742), Bombay Univ. p. 276 (beg. Yak waqt Srī Mahādēv bar Kailās Parbat. a.h. 1225/1810), Browne Pers. Cat. 318 (beg. Āwardah and kih waqtī Srī Mahādēv bar Kailās kih tak̲h̲t-gāh i julūs i Mahādēv bar ān-ast jilwah-farmāy būdand. Ends with ¶ 32nd tale. a.h. 1227/1812), Suppt. 774 (King’s 221), Mehren 81 (beg. Waqtī Srī Mahādēv bar Kailās Parbat nis̲h̲astah būdand Pārbatī dast u pā bastah ʿarḍ numūd Mī-k̲h̲wāham kih afsānah i yakī az rājahā-yi pīs̲h̲īn kih sak̲h̲āwat u sh̲ajāʿat. Ends with 23rd tale), Edinburgh New Coll. p. 9, Ethé 1991 (beg. Rūzī Srī Mahādēv u Pārbatī bar kūh i Kailās kih jā-yi istiqāmat i s̲h̲ān būdah nishastah būdand. “The wording of this copy, although following in the main that of Ibn Harkarn’s differs from it in many passages and is especially much fuller”. Ends with 25th tale. From C. Wilkins’s library), 1993 (beg. Ḥikāyat i ibtidā-yi Gand’harb Sēn. Srī Mahādēv farmūdand kih yak rūz Rājah Īndar nis̲h̲astah būd u raqṣ mi-s̲h̲ud. A collection of tales apparently from the Sing’h-āsan battīsī. a.d. 1806). A metrical version is recorded in Browne Suppt. 773 (corpus 106).
French translation (probably of Bisba-rāy’s version): Le Trône enchanté, conte Indien traduit du persan. Par M. le Baron Lescallier. New York 1817°* (2 vols.).
§ 709. [The Mahābhārata, a Sanskrit epic poem, or collection of ancient lays of different dates, is the longest poem in the world. The main story describes the internecine war of two closely allied tribes, the Kuru and the Pandu, for the supremacy of the land of Doab, with Hastinapura, the modern Delhi, as its capital. Innumerable legends regarding Krishna are interwoven with the story of battle, which is conducted by a series of challenges and personal combats, which would seem originally to have been related in ballads. V. S.]
Razm-nāmah (beg. Ai haz̲h̲dah hazār ʿālam az s̲h̲auq i Tū mast * … Rāwiyān i ak̲h̲bār i Hindūstān dar kutub i k̲h̲wud c̲h̲unīn nawis̲h̲tah and), a prose translation, for which Abū ’l-Faḍl wrote in 995 a preface, made, by order of Akbar, by four translators: ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī, Ibn ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Ḥusainī, surnamed Naqīb-K̲h̲ān, Muḥammad Sulṭān T’hānīsārī and Mullā S̲h̲īrī:20Blochet i 218 (described by Blochet as an autograph of Naqīb K̲h̲ān, who says in the colophon: … Naqīb K̲h̲ān b. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Ḥusainī kih az s̲h̲āgirdān i Abū ’l-Faḍl wazīr i Khāqān būd īn grant’h Mahābhārat rā dar muddat i yak-nīm sāl az zabān i Sahans-krit ba-zabān i Fārisī tarjamah kardah (cf. Rieu i 576), 219 (superb ms. Early 17th cent.), 220 (small fragment. 17th cent.), Eton 152 (Bk. xii. Owner’s date 1064/1654), 149–51, Ethé 1928–44 (seventeen copies, complete and ¶ incomplete, of which 1939 (Bks. iii– iv) is dated 1082/1672 and 1937 (Bks i– ii) 1098/1687.), 2918–21 (Bks. i– iii, iii, v– xi and xiii– xviii respectively), Ross-Browne 192, Ivanow 1695 (a.h. 1099/1688), 1696, Bodleian 1306 (Bks. i– iii dated 1143/1730, Bks. iv– xviii dated 1099–1101/1687–90), 1307–12 (of which 1308 (Bks. i– iv, xii– xvii) is described as “differing from the other copies in many respects”, Bk. xii in particular being “in a much larger and more extensive redaction than any of the preceding copies”), Rieu i 58a (a.h. 1107/1696 (see correction Rieu iii 1078b)), 57a (a.h. 1177/1763. P ictures), 58b, Berlin 1079 (a.h. 1197–8/1783–4), Būhār 103 (Bks. i– vii (?) with lacunae. 18th cent.), 104 (Bks. xii– xiii. 18th cent.), 105 (Bks. xiv– xv. 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr xvi 1448 (Bks. i– ix. 19th cent.), Āṣafiyah i p. 232 no. 266 (“Jild i awwal”), Caetani 72 (Razm-nāmah), Dresden 452–3, 454, Madrās i 343, Rehatsek p. 232 no. 52 (?) (five books only (unspecified)), possibly also r.a.s. P. 14–15 (Bks. i– vi and ix– xviii. a.h. 1126/1714).
Edition (Bks. i– vii only ?): Mahābhārat i Fārisī Lucknow [1897–1900°] (5 pts (only ?)).
Reproduction of the illustrations in a ms. belonging to the Mahārājah’s Library at Jaipūr: Memorials of the Jeypore Exhibition 1883. By T. H. Hendley. Vol. IV. The Razm Námah London [1883°*] (preceded by a summary of the story).
- Tarjamah i Mahābhārat (beg. Ābrū-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ i c̲h̲as̲h̲mah-sār i suk̲h̲un* … Āwardah and kih dar aiyām i pīs̲h̲īn bik̲h̲rad-nihādī būd dil az kāʾināt bar-dās̲h̲tah u himmat bar ṭalab i maqṣūd i aṣlī gumās̲h̲tah), a translation in ornate prose by “Faiḍī”, who completed the first parva on 1 Rabīʿ i 997/18 January 1589 (see Ethé 1945) and who died in 1004 /1595 (see pl. i § 706): Bodleian 1314 (Bk. v (Ūdam Parb), possibly in “Faiḍī’s” version, at any rate not in that of Abū ’l-Faḍl. Beg. Bīs̲h̲am Pāban guft Pāndawān kih buzurgtarīn i aqwām būdand ṣuḥbat i kadk̲h̲udāʾī. a.h. 1041/1632), 1313 (Bk. i, apparently defective at end), Ivanow 1697 (2nd half of Bk. xii, apparently in “Faiḍī’s” translation. a.h. 1138/1725–6), Ethé 1946 (Bks. i– ii a.h. 1142/1730), 1933 (Bk. ii in “Faiḍī’s” version with i, iii and iv in that prefaced by Abū ’l-Faḍl. a.h. 1150/1737), 1945 (Bks. i– ii. N. d.), 1947 (Bk. ii in “Faiḍī’s” version with other parvas apparently by other translators), 2922 (Bk. ii), Bānkīpūr xvi 1449 (all the 18 parvas, beginning Ābrū-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ i c̲h̲as̲h̲mah-sār i suk̲h̲un and therefore in part at least by “Faiḍī”. 19th cent.), possibly also Lindesiana p. 136 nos. 835–6 (a.d. 1770–1), and Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 34.
- (Muk̲h̲taṣar i Mahābhārat) (beg. S̲h̲ukr u sipās mar K̲h̲udāwandī rā kih ba-qudrat i kāmilah), an abridged paraphrase made in 1011/1602–3 at the request of Akbar by Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. ʿImād al-Dīn Ḥasan Sabzawārī ¶ see (pl. i § 137, iii § 140): Rieu iii 1043a (foll. 92 b–123. a.h. 1136/1724), Ethé 1955 (2) (in a volume containing three abridged paraphrases by Ṭāhir M., viz (Bāb i) an extract from the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, (Bab ii) the Mahābhārata, (k̲h̲ātimah) the Āc̲h̲ārya Parva or Harivaṅśa Purāṇa. a.h. 1173/1759).
- (Tarjamah i Mahābhārat) (Asmēdah parb), (beg. Āg̲h̲āz i parb i c̲h̲ahārdahum az kitāb i Mahābhārat kih Asmēdah Parb gūyand. Dar āk̲h̲ir i parb i S̲h̲ā̲s̲h̲ak mad̲h̲kūr s̲h̲ud kih Rājah Judis̲h̲tir az Bhik’ham Nipāmah pursīd kih mā c̲h̲ih kār kunīm kih ān gunāhi kih mā k̲h̲wīs̲h̲ān u birādarān i k̲h̲wud rā kus̲h̲tah īm az mā dūr s̲h̲awad), a translation of the fourteenth parva, shorter and plainer in style than that prefaced by Abū ’l-Faḍl: Rieu Suppt. 24 (a.h. 1175/1761).
- (Tarjamah i Mahābhārat), a translation of unknown authorship (much fallen and more faithful than that prefaced by Abū ’l-Faḍl) in which according to Browne Pers. Cat. 36 the translation of Book iv (Virāta Parva) opens with the words Fann i C̲h̲ahārum az kitāb i Mahābhārat kih musammā ast bah Bīrāt Parb Janamējah (B.M. Janamējay) guft kih buzurzān (B.M. Adds i man) kih az tars i Jurjōd’han dar baldah i Bīrāt gūs̲h̲ah guzīdand: Rieu i 58b Bk. iv only. Late 18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 36 (Bk. iv preceded by the last three lines of Bk. iii).
- Tarjamah i Mahābhārat (beginning of the preface unknown. Beginning of the translation: Bait-k̲h̲wānān i kilīsā-yi dānis̲h̲ ba-d-īn-gūnah), a translation “probably prepared by a Hindu, judging from the epithets of respect added after the names of Hindu deities”: Ivanow Curzon 677 (beg. Ābrū-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ i c̲h̲as̲h̲mah-sār i suk̲h̲un, but these opening words of “Faiḍī’s” translation are doubtless a spurious substitute for a lost beginning. Most of the preface is missing, but all the 18 parvas are there. 19th cent.).
- Gulistān i jannat, an abridged translation by Muns̲h̲ī Narāyan Dās Pūrī: Lahore 1868* (pp. 244).
- (Tarjamah i Mahābhārat), a translation made21 in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s twenty-seventh regnal year [1157–8/1744–5]: Āṣafīyah iii p. 98 no. 1515.
§ 710. The Sanskrit epic poem entitled Rāmāyaṇa, which recounts the story of the Rāma and his loss and recapture of his wife Sītā, seems, like several other Hindu classics, to have been first translated into Persian at the instigation of Akbar.
- (Tarajamah i Rāmāyan) (beg. Bar ḍamāʾir i arbāb i baṣāʾir mak̲h̲fī na-mānad kih īn kitābī-st dar miyān i ahl i Hind mas̲h̲hūr kih ān-rā Rāmāyan mī-k̲h̲wānand), an abridged and far from literal prose translation, ¶ probably that undertaken by Akbar’s order in 992/1584, completed in four years and submitted to him in 997/1589 by ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī (cf. pl. i § 614 (4)): Blochet i 224 (a.h. 1062/1651. In a note at the end the translation is ascribed to Abū ’l-Faḍl), Ethé 1963 (a.h. 1122/1710), Ross-Browne 75 (18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat.33 (172 or 18th cent), Rieu i 55b (a.h. 1219/1805).
- (Tarjamah i Rāmāyan) (beg. Hamah ā̲g̲h̲āzhā dar andak aiyām* Ba-nām i Rām mī-yābād saranjām* Ḥamd u sipās i bī-ḥadd sazāwār i dargāh i Yagānah īst kih (so in Blochet i 222 and Aumer 349, but in Ivanow-Curzon 682–4 the initial verse is followed by Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-ḥadd sazāwār i Ān-kih jamīʿ i d̲h̲arrāt)), an abridged prose translation completed in 1092/1681 by Gōpāl b. Srī Gōbind, who mentions in the preface that he had previously translated the tenth book of the Bhāgwat [Bhāgavata Purāṇa]: Ivanow Curzon 682 (a.h. 1184/1771), 683, 684, Blochet i 222 (a.h. 1190/1776), Aumer 349 (defective at end).
- (Tarjamah i Rāmāyan) (beg. Zīb i har nus̲k̲haʾī sipās i K̲h̲udāst*), an abridged prose translation made in 1097/1686 by C̲h̲andarman Kāyat’h b. Srī Rām: Ethé 1964 (a.h. 1107/1696. Followed by a sort of appendix to the Rāmāyaṇa translated from the Sanskrit by C̲h̲andarman).
- Tarjamah i Rāmāyan (beg. of Kānda ii Gūnāgūn st. u sp. ba-dargāh i ān D̲h̲ū ’l-Jalāl), a prose translation made at Benares by Ānand-g’han “K̲h̲was̲h̲”, whose writings include a paraphrase of the Gayā-mahātam (Ethé 1962) made in 1791 at the request of Jonathan Duncan [Resident and Superintendent at Benares 1788–95], Baḥr al-najāt, a paraphrase of the Kās̲h̲ī̲-k’hand made likewise at Duncan’s request (Ethé 1959, transcribed in 1207–8/1792–4, Ivanow 1713), a dīwān (Ethé 2906, transcribed in 1205/1791, Bodleian. 1202) and the Mat̲h̲nawī i kaj-kulāh, of which Daftar i (Ethé 2905) was completed 1208/1794 and Daftar ii (Ethé 1725) in 1209/1794: Ethé 2926 (Kāndas ii– vii. a.h. 1205–9/1791–4).
- Rāmāyan i Amar-parkās̲h̲, a prose translation by Amar Sing’h: Lucknow 1294/1877°* (pp. 546).
Unidentified translations: Lindensiana p. 233 no. 108 (In prose or verse ? a.h. 1124/1712), Būhār 107 foll. 251–85, Āṣafīyah i p. 220 no. 463.
(a) (Mat̲h̲nawī i Rāmāyan) (beg. T̲h̲anāyi s̲h̲ukr Ān Bak̲h̲s̲h̲andah jān rā),an abridged verse translation by Girdhar Dās, completed in ¶ a.h. 1033/1623–4 and dedicated to Jahāngīr: Ethé 1965 (a.h. 1136/1723), 1966 (n.d.), Rieu i 56b (a.d. 1804).
Descripion: Sri Ram Sharma, “A little known Persian version of the Ramayan” in Islamic culture vii/4 (October 1933) pp. 673–8.
(b) (Rām u Sītā) (beg. Ḵ̲h̲undāwandā zi jām i ʿis̲h̲q kun mast), an abridged poetical translation made in Jahāngīr’s time by Saʿd Allāh “Masīḥ” or “Masīḥā” Kairānawī Pānīpatī (cf. pl. i § 246): Ivanow Curzon 265 (a.h. 1152/1739), Ethé ii 3044 (a.h. 1158/1745), i 1967 (a.h. 1186/1773), 1968 (a.h. 1207/1792), 1969 (A.D 1803), ii 3045 (a.h. 1270/1854), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 40 no. 37 (a.h. 1173/1759–60), Bānkīpūr iii 321 (18th cent.), 322 (a.h. 1217/1802–3), Browne Pers. Cat. 295 (a.h. 1237/1821–2), Rieu ii 689a, Bodleian 1315, Bombay Univ. p. 196 no. 117.
Edition: Place ? a.h. 1310/1892–3 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1478 no. 26).
(c) Farruk̲h̲-nāmah, by Turk ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Turkī. Edition: Ḥaidarābād 1903 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 628).
(d) Unidentified translations: Ethé 1970, Bodleian iii 2700, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 42 no. 80.
The Hindī Rāmāyan begun at Benares in 1575 (a.d.) by Tulsī-Dās, who died in 1624, has also been translated into Persian prose.
- [Tarjamah i] Rāmāyan (beg. Sujūd i mā ba-dargāh i Srī Rām jīw kih az tuhmat i wujūd mubarrā), a translation by Dēbī-Dās Kāyat’h divided, like the original, into seven kāndas: Rieu i 56a (a.d. 1804).
§ 711. In 994/1586 was composed
- Dāstān (bar wazn i Gulistān), an imitation of the Gulistān in eight chapters (“On the manners of kings. The morals of Durwayshes. On love and youth. On old age and weakness. On the advantages of silence. Praise of magnanimity. Blame of avarice”.): Rehatsek p. 225 no. 27 (a.h. 1043/1633–4).
§ 712. S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Faḍl b. Mubārak, who was born at Āgrah in 958/1551 and died in 1011/1602, has already been mentioned as the author of the Akbar-nāmah (pl. i § 709 (1)) and the Āʾīn i Akbarī (pl. i § 709 (2)), etc.
ʿIyār i Dānis̲h̲ (beg. Sp. i azal u abad K̲h̲udāwandī rā kih karān tā karān), a modernised and simplified version of the Anwār i Suhailī (for which see § 699 (2) supra) written by order of Akbar, completed on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 996/10 July 1588, divided into sixteen bābs and a k̲h̲ā̲timah, the two introductory chapters, omitted by Ḥusain Kās̲h̲ifī, having been restored on the basis of Naṣr-Allāh’s earlier version: Blochet iv 2095 (early 17th cent.), 2096–7, Ethé 767 (a.h. 1090/1679), 768 (a.h. 1152/1740), 769, 770 (P ictures), 771–7, Ross-Browne 182, Caetani 18 (a.h. 1096/1684), ¶ Browne Pers. Cat. 314–15 (a.h. 1124/1712), 316, Suppt. 877 (?) (Corpus 58), Browne Coll. H. 23 (part only), Berlin 1011 (a.h.1126/1714), 1012, Rieu iii 1043a (a.h. 1136/1724), ii 757a (early 18th cent), 756b (a.h. 1183/1770), 757a (a.h. 1217/1803. P ictures), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 777 (a.h. 1144/1731), Ivanow 292–3, Curzon 106 (circ. a.d. 1847 ? P ictures), Edinburgh 340 (a.h. 1184/1770), Lindesiana p. 109 nos. 112 (circ. ad. 1770), 7 (a.h. 1212/1797–8), Hamburg 198 (a.h. 1186/1773), 199–200, Bodleian 439 (a.h. 1189/1775), 438, 440, iii 2514–15, Bombay Univ. p. 281 (a.h. 1190/1776), Glasgow ( a.h. 1192/1772. see jras. 1906 p. 601 no. 25), Eton 91, Aumer 142, r.a.s. P. 330, 331, Calcutta Madrasah 163, Bānkīpūr viii 735–7, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (2 copies. See ocm. ix/1 p. 25), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 51 nos. 4, 6, Vollers 954, Būhār 445, Flügel iii 1855 (P ictures), 1856, Leningrad Univ. no. 627 (Salemann-Rosen p. 17), Peshawar 1907, Rehatsek p. 227 no. 35.
Edition: Cawnpore 1879° (pp. 304).
Description with extracts and French translations: ʿIyār i dānis̲h̲ [in the Arabic character] ou Le Parangon de la science; traduction persane du Livre de Calila, faite par le vizir [sic] Abou ’l-fazl … par M. Silvestre de Sacy (in Notices at extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothéque nationale, tome x, pt. 1 (Paris 1818°) pp. 197–225).
ms. English translation of the prefaces, introduction and part of Chapter iii: Aberystwyth 14–15 (two copies).
Urdu translation: K̲h̲irad-afrōz, by Ḥafīẓ al-Dīn Aḥmad, Calcutta 1805*, 1815°*, Hertford 1857* (ed. E. B. Eastwick), Madras 1879*, etc.
English translation of an extract from the Urdu: The Khirud-ufroz: translated from the Oordoo into English, and followed by a vocabulary …, by T.P. Manuel, Calcutta 1861° (pp. 49. The portion of the work contained in the “Hindoostanee Reader”, vol. 3); Lucknow 1892* (pp. 99).
Abridgement (in Persian): Nigār i dānis̲h̲: Lucknow 1284/1868* (pp. 150), 1873° (pp. 150), 1882† (6th ed.), 1304/1886* (pp. 178), 1305/1888* (pp. 178), 1898° (pp. 178).
- Ṭūṭī-nāmah (beg. Baʿd i sipās i K̲h̲udāwand i zamān u zamīn), an abridged version of the Ṭūṭī-nāmah written by order of Akbar and containing fifty-two tales, Like Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī’s version:23 Rieu ii 754a (with a Dak’hanī interlinear translation of the first 35 tales. 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1278 no. 145 (a.h. 1195/1781).
¶ § 713. It has already been mentioned (pl. i § 614 (10)) that in 1003/1595 ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī received orders from Akbar to complete the Baḥr al-asmār, a fragmentary translation of an Indian work of fiction made for Zain al-ʿĀbidīn, king of Kas̲h̲mīr (a.h. 823–75/1420–70),24 and that, having translated the last volume (jild i ak̲h̲īr) in five months, he was instructed to modernize the Persian of the earlier translation (jild i awwal). When he wrote about this undertaking in the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ (ii pp. 401–2), he was hoping to finish the work in two or three months. As i have shown in an article contributed to the Woolner Commemoration Volume (Lahore 1940, pp. 249–50), the Baḥr al-asmār is a translation of the Kat’hā-sarit-sāgara, a large collection of Sanskrit tales compiled by Sōmadēva about a.d. 1070 (English translation by C.H. Tawney, Calcutta 1880–4 (Bibliotheca Indica, 2 vols), new edition London 1924–8 (The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney’s translation of Somadeva’s Kathā Sarit Sāgara (or Ocean of streams of story) now edited with introduction, fresh explanatory notes and terminal essay by N.M. Penzer. 10 vols. Privately printed)).
- Baḥr al-asmār (beg. Jahān jahān t̲h̲anā sitāyis̲h̲ nit̲h̲ār i sāḥat i ʿizzat i Mālik al-mulkī sazāst),25 ʿAbd al-Qādir’s abridged translation based in part on an earlier translation, as stated above, and divided into eighteen nahrs subdivided into maujs: Ethé 1987 (beginning in second mauj of Nahr I and breaking off early in Nahr ix (or X ?). Good P ictures. Transcribed from a Ms. belonging to colonel Martin).
§ 714. Majd al-Dīn M. al-Ḥasanī [or al-Ḥusainī] al-mutak̲h̲alliṣ bi- “Majdī”, as he calls himself in his preface,26 lived in Persia under S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās i [985–1038/1587–1629]. That he had some special connection with Kās̲h̲ān seems probable from “the predilection and minuteness” with which, according to Rieu, he speaks of that place.
Zīnat al-majālis (beg. T̲h̲anā-yi nā-mutanāhī u ḥamd i nā-maḥṣūr*), a large collection of anecdotes, etc., composed in 1004/1595–6 [and after?] from long-collected materials, the main sources being some well-known historical and other works, enumerated in Rieu ii 758b, Bodleian 1493, Bānkīpūr supp. i 1790. See also Niẓām al-Dīn, Introduction to the Jawámiʿ u’ l-ḥikáyát (gms, London 1929) p. 29. It is divided into nine parts (juzʾ) each subdivided into ten faṣls, the ninth juzʾ being less anecdotic than the ¶ rest and relating to (1) human monstrosities and longevity, (2) geographical sketch of the world and of Persia (abridged mainly on the Nuzhat al-qulūb, but with some new details according to Barbier de Meynard Dictionaire géographique, preface p. xx), (3) remarkable buildings and seas, (4) talismans and wonders of the world, (5–7) properties of domestic and wild animals, beasts of prey and birds, (8) jokes, (9) history of the Mongols and of some other dynasties, ending with the accession of ʿAbd al-Laṭīf K̲h̲ān Uzbak in 947/1540–1, (10) history of the Ṣafawids, sketch of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl’s reign, brief reference to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp’s accession and two victories, announcement of the author’s intention to write a separate work on S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāp’s reign: Bodleian 1494 (lacks faṣls 7–9 of Juzʾ vii and breaks off in Juzʾ ix, faṣl 2. a.h. 1071/1661), 1493 (Breaks off in Juzʾ ix, faṣl 3), Rieu ii 758 a (slightly defective. a.h. 1079/1668), 759b (slightly defective. 18th cent.), Suppt. 395 (lacunae, late 18th cent.), iii 1004a (a few detached positions only. 19th cent.) i.o. 4626 (a.h. 1086/1675. See jras. 1939 p. 390), Lindesiana p. 184 no. 123 (a.h. 1090/1679), Browne Pers. Cat. 317 (lacks faṣls 9 and 10 of Juzʾ ix. a.h. 1091/1680), Suppt. 745 (n. d.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1790 (17th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 738, Ivanow 284 (bad and defective, 18th cent.), Curzon 92 (lacks Juzʾ viii. 18th cent.), Ellis coll. M 235 (18th and 19th cent.), Berlin 1017 (lacks faṣls 9–10 of Juzʾ i and 1–8 of Juzʾ ii. Modern), 1018 (lacunae. a.h. 1248/1832), Āṣafīyah i p. 226 no. 446, Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 79, Leningrad Acad. (Miklukho-Maklai 71, defective. Early 19th cent.), Pub. Lib. (Chanykov 70), Univ. nos. 180, 365 (Salemann-Rosen p. 16).
Editions: [Ṭihrān] 1262/1845° (foll. 312. Cf Mas̲h̲had fṣl. 14, ptd. bts.no. 117); Ṭihrān 1270/1853–4 (see Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg 1868) p. 519); Tabrīz 1279/1863 (23 foll. [sic?]. Karatay p. 126); [Persia] 1309/1891–2 (Āsafīyah iii p. 104).
A few extracts translated Elliot Hist. of India ii p. 506.
Detailed analyses: Bodleian 1493, Rieu ii pp. 758–9.
§ 715. In 1022/1613 Ḥājjī Qiṣṣah-k̲h̲wān Hamadānī went from ʿIrāq to Ḥaidarābād and was admitted to the court of Sulṭān Muḥammad Quṭb-S̲h̲āh (a.h. 1020–35/1612–26). Having brought with him several copies of the romance of Amīr Ḥamzah, he showed them to the sulṭān and was ordered to write a new version. The authorities mentioned by him are Maulānā Abū ’l-Maʿālī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī, K̲h̲wājah S̲h̲uʿaib Turs̲h̲īzī, K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Qādir [i] Marāg̲h̲ah, Masʿūd Makkī, Jalāl Balk̲h̲i, Naṣr i bāzaragān i Tirmid̲h̲ī and Rāzī b. Rāzī. Two accounts of the origin of the romance are given by the author in his preface. According to the first it was written by Masʿūd Makkī, a man renowned for eloquence, who ¶ narrated a portion of it ever day in order to divert the people from their machinations against the Proplet. According to the second account it was composed at the court of an ʿAbbāsid Caliph by distinguished philosophers (physicians ?) who read it to the Caliph in order to cure him of delirium (?).27 The author goes on to say that the romance was translated into Persian in the time of the Sāmānids, that the translators were Abū ’l-Maʿālī Nīs̲h̲āp̲ū̲r̲ī̲ and Jalāl Balk̲h̲ī, “and that Sulṭân Ḥusayn Mus̲h̲tâqî wrote the story from its beginning down to the captivity of Ȋraj.”28
- Zubdatal-Rumūz (beg. K̲h̲ulāṣah i kalimāt i rāwiyān i ak̲h̲bār u suk̲h̲an-pardāzān i ʿālī-miqdār), a redaction of the Qiṣṣah i Amīr Ḥamzah divided into many unnumbered sections, which begins with the birth of Būzurjmihr and in which the hero is always called Ṣāḥib-qirān: Rehatsek p. 227 no. 32 (vol. i only. a.h. 1032/1623), Bānkipūr viii 739 (defective at end. 18th cent.).
§ 716. The author of the Maʿdin al-jawāhir does not mention his name in the preface but the tak̲h̲alluṣ ʿṬarzi” seems there in some verses praising Jahāngīr and the author calls himself Ṭarzī i miskīn in the k̲h̲ātimah of the shorter version (Lucknow ed. p. 1715). Some of the mss. [of the larger edition only?] contain an ik̲h̲titām or concluding chapter which is autobiographical (dar bayān i aḥwāl i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲ u niyāgān i rafīʿ al-s̲h̲aʾn). The colophons of most of the mss. lacking the ik̲h̲titām call him Mullā Ṭarzī. At the end of the Edinburgh ms. 351 (in the colophon according to the catalogue) he is called Mullā Daulat K̲h̲ān “Ṭarzī”.
Maʿdin al-jawāhir (beg. Jahān jahān niyāyis̲h̲ Jahāndarī rā sazad), a collection of moral anecdotes modelled on Saʿdī’s Gulistān, completed in 1025/1616, dedicated to Jahāngīr and existing in two editions, of which the larger contains twenty-two bābs ((1) dar bayān i darajah i s̲h̲ahādat (2) dar ʿis̲h̲q u maḥabbat, (3) dar jūd u sak̲h̲āwat, etc.) and in some mss. an ik̲h̲titām or k̲h̲ātimah or 23rd bāb. (dar bayān i aḥwāl i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲ u niyāgān i rafīʿ al-s̲h̲aʾn), while the shorter contains seventeen bābs and in some mss. an ik̲h̲titām or k̲h̲ātimah which is not an autobiography: Calcutta Madrasah 182 (1) (17 bābs. a.h. 1069/1658–9), Ross-Browne 184 (acephalous. 17 bābs. 17th cent.), Ethé 794 (22 bābs, but no ik̲h̲titām. a.h. 1102/1691), 793 (22 bābs and ik̲h̲titām), 795 (17 babs and ik̲h̲titām) ¶ Berlin 1023 (17 bābs. a.h. 1139/1727), Ivanow 300 (22 bābs and k̲h̲ātimah. a.h. 1153/1740), Bānkīpūr ix 950 (17 bābs. a.h. 1169/1755), Lindesiana p. 230 nos. 495 (a.h. 1169/1755–6), 201 (a.h. 1191/1777), Edinburgh 351 (23 bābs, of which the last corresponds to the ik̲h̲titām. a.h. 1188/1774), 352 (same bābs? a.h. 1206/1791–2), Eton 202 (b), Blochet iv 2098 (headings of bābs omitted. 18th cent.), Bodleian 464 (17 bābs.), 465 (17 bābs. a.h. 1227/1812), iii 2519–22 (4 copies of shorter version), Āṣafīyah i p. 132 nos. 152, 102, Būhār 447 (defective at both ends.), 441 (very defective), Aumer 189 (22 bābs), 190 (17 bābs and k̲h̲ātimah, defective at end), Rieu iii 1038 b (extracts only), Meherji Rana p. 92.
Edition (of the shorter version): Lucknow 1293/1876°* (pp. 172).
§ 717. A collection of fifty-two tales, to which the compiler in his short preface gives the title Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt and which dates in part from the years 1025/1616 and 1028/161929 (these being mentioned, according to Ethé, as the dates of composition at the end of the fourth and the second tale respectively), is preserved in an India office ms. (Ethé 797), which seems to contain no mention of the compiler’s name. According to Blochet, however, a Paris ms. of what appears to the same work (Blochet iv 2130) ends with a colophon in which the compiler gives his name as Sh. M. ʿAẓīm and describes himself as a Sindī. This needs confirmation, of course.
Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt (beg. Ai k̲h̲āmah i siḥr-sanj bi-k̲h̲ram*), a collection of fifty-two tales ((1) Ḥikāyat i pāds̲h̲āh kih dar talās̲h̲ i mard i bi-g̲h̲am saʿy kard, (2) Ḥikāyat i s̲h̲āh-zādah kih dar ḥayāt i pidar safar ik̲h̲tiyār kard, (3) Ḥikāyat i mardī munʿim az s̲h̲ahr i Ḥalab, (4) Ḥikāyat i Masʿūd i Dimas̲h̲qī u Ḥajjāj, … (36) Dāstān i Bāzargān i Baṣrah, in substance identical, like the succeeding eight stories, with a tale in the Bak̲h̲tyār-nāmah, … (52) Ḥikāyat i tājir i Miṣrī): Ethé 797 (title fol. 2b, l. 6. a.h. 1046/1636–7(?)), Blochet iv 2130 (title in preface. 50 tales ((1) les vicissitudes par lesquelles passa un roi du Khorasan, qui avait une fille, pour laquelle il chercha un mari, (2) l’histoire d’un prince de la Chine, Afradj Shah, lequel, durant le règne de son père, entreprit de voyager à travers le monde, avec les conseils que lui donna le roi de la Chine sur la manière dont il devait se comporter dans chaque contrée, (3) l’histoire d’un riche joaillier d’Alep, qui avait beaucoup voyagé sur mer au temps de sa jeunesse). Transcribed ¶ in 1216/1802 from a ms. completed in 1025–1616),30 possibly also r.a.s. P. 334–7 (4 vols. of which no full description has been published, but of which Vol. iv is devoted mainḷy (foll. 1–117 out of 195) to M. b. ʿAlī b. M. Samarqandī’s Sindbād-nāmah, for which see § 681 supra), Ivanow 301 (No title. Beg. Āwardah and kih dar Maghrib-zamīn jinnī būd. Early 19th cent.) contains about a score of tales (mostly with some moral maxim to be proved) corresponding in most cases with tales in the Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt. The first, for example, Ḥikāyat i S̲h̲āh i Jinniyān u pisar i ū u S̲h̲. Ṣanʿān u S̲h̲. Ḥasan b. S̲h̲. Maḥmūd, may be identical with tale 11 (Ḥikāyat i S̲h̲. Ṣanʿān u murīdān), the second (Ḥikāyat i c̲h̲ahar kas i rafīq) with tale 12 (Ḥikāyat i c̲h̲ahār mard), the third (Ḥikāyat i s̲h̲āh-zādah i jawān-bak̲h̲t) with tale 14 (Ḥikāyat i s̲h̲ah-zādah i jawān u jawān-bak̲h̲t), and so forth. On the other hand Blochet iv 2135 (Kitāb i Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt, “recueil d’anecdotes en prose, sans nom d’auteur. La première histoire est celle du roi sassanide Kobad, de sa favorite Dilaram, de Bouzourdjmihr et de Bakhtdjamal;31 la seconde, celle de Salim-i Wasiti et de Hadjdjadj;32 la troisième celle de Seïf el-Moulouk et de Bediʿ el-Djémal;33 on y trouve ensuite l’histoire de Mani,34 des extraits du Béhar-i danish35 (folio 184), et une liste de proverbes rangés alphabétiquement (folio 267)”. 19th century) is evidently quite different.
Other mss. to which the title Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt36 is ascribed in the catalogues: Āṣafiyah ii p. 1274 no. 50 (23 tales a.h. 1080/1669–70), Blochet iv 2471 foll. 513–41 (three tales stated to be from the Jāmiʿ al-ḥikāyat [sic, in the singular], but apparently not definitely identifiable with any of those in Ethé 797, the first being a tale of ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āh, king of C̲h̲īn u Māc̲h̲īn, his son Fīrūz-S̲h̲āh and ten qalandars), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (begins abruptly with the story of As̲h̲raf K̲h̲ān, King of K̲h̲urāsān. First words: Ammā rāwiyān i ak̲h̲bār. 163 foll. a.h. 1209/1795. Dorn p. 410 no. 482), r.a.s. P. 241 (a.h. 1221/1806).
¶ § 718. Jagjīvan-Dās b. Rāy-Mal was a resident of Delhi.
- Risālah i Kanchan Ratan (?)37 (beg. Bi-smi ’llāhi ’l-Raḥmāni ’l-Rahim* Hast kilīd i dar i ganj i Ḥakīm * Ibtidā mī-kunam man īn kitāb rā ba-nām i Ḥakīmī kih), a turgidly written story of a sage named K. R., composed in 1030/1621 under Jahāngīr: de Jong 165.
§ 719. Mīr M. Mūmin “ʿArs̲h̲ī” b. Mīr ʿAbd Allāh “Waṣfī” Ḥusainī Tirmid̲h̲ī Akbarābādī was a younger brother of Mīr Ṣaliḥ “Kas̲h̲fī” (see pl. i § 274) and like him was a skilled calligraphist. He died in 1091/1680 at the age of ninety. For his Kullīyāt see Ivanow 791. For separate copies of his mat̲h̲nawī entitled Mihr u wafā (a chronogram = 1053/1643), which is dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān, see Sprenger no. 104, Blochet iii 1894 and Madrās 148. For his mystical mat̲h̲nawī entitled S̲h̲āhid i ʿArs̲h̲ī, which was completed in 1069/1658–9, see Sprenger no. 103 and Berlin 954. For his dīwān see Sprenger no. 105 and Āṣafiyah i p. 728 no. 305.
[ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii p. 444; Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, afzāyis̲h̲ (cf. Rieu i p. 154 a penult.); Majmaʿ al-nafāʾis (biography translated by Sprenger, p. 335); Tad̲h̲kirah i k̲h̲wus̲h̲-nawīsān pp. 26, 101; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no.1751; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under ʿArshi; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 279.]
- S̲h̲akaristān (a chronogram = 1031/1622. Beg. Ba-nām i Ān-kih nāmas̲h̲ bar zabānhāst*), an imitation of the Gulistān and the Bahāristān in six bābs ((1) dar bayān i aḥwāl i ajdād u murs̲h̲idān i pāk-nihād, (2) dar sīrat i pāds̲h̲āhān u sarīrat i wazirān, and so on): Ethé 823 (autograph ?).
§ 720. Wais Beg “Fiṭrat” is the author of a dīwān (Ethé 1560) which contains numerous chronograms ranging from 1007/1598–9, the date of his birth, to 1059/1649. That he was a Persian who went to India is clear from the existence of chronograms relating to (1) his first son, Sanjar Bēg, who was born in 1025/1616 and went to India in 1046/1636–7, (2) S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, (3) Sulṭān-Muḥammad ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āh. and (4) Jahāngīr’s death.
- Dil-gus̲h̲ā (beg. Ḥ. u. st. Maʿbūdī-rā kih āfrīnis̲h̲ i jān u jahāniyān), a collection of anecdotes compiled in 1039/1629–30 and divided into ten faṣls ((1) dar bayān i adab u muruwwat u maʿdilat i pāds̲h̲āhān u amīrān, (2) dar bayān i baʿḍī az ḥikāyāt i faraj baʿd az s̲h̲iddat, and so on): Ivanow Curzon 707.
§ 721. ʿAbd al-Nabī “Nabī” b. K̲h̲alaf Fak̲h̲r al-Zamānī Qazwīnī, who was born at Qazwīn about 998/1590, has already been mentioned (pl. i § 1115) as the ¶ author of the Mai-k̲h̲ānah, which he began at Ajmēr in 1022/1613 or 1023/1614 and completed at Patnah in 1028/1619.
- Nawādir al-ḥikāyāt wa-g̲h̲arāʾib al-riwāyāt (beg. Ibtidā-yi kitāb i N. al-ḥ ba-nām i K̲h̲udāwand i Karīm i Kār-gus̲h̲āy), a collection of anecdotes consisting, according to the preface dated 1041/1631–2, of five ṣaḥīfahs, the first of which, the only one completed when the preface was written, is divided into twelve bābs ((1) instance of divine protection, (2) twelve prophets from Adam to Jirjīs, (3) Muḥammad, (4) the Twelve Imāms, (5) saints, (6) kings, (7) wazīrs, (8) philosophers, (9) dabīrs (or secretaries), (10) nadīms (favourite companions of kings), (11) astrologers, (12) dreams and their interpreters), while the second, according to a table of contents at the beginning of the b.m. m.s., contains anecdotes arranged under twelve headings relating to moral qualities (devotion to the Prophet’s family, justice, truthfulness, generosity etc.): Rieu iii 1004 b (Ṣaḥīfah i only a.h. 1053/1643), 1020b (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Lindesiana p. 118 no. 194 (what ṣaḥīfahs? a.h. 1007/1598–9, but this date is impossible).
§ 722. Jaʿfar Niqābī b. Maḥmūd Muʾmin Ṭabʿī Kark̲h̲ī.
- (Qiṣṣah i Āzād-Sarw S̲h̲āh i Marw u pisar i ū S̲h̲āhzādah Malik Aḥmad) (beg. Awwal i īn nāmah i nāmī u ibtidā-yi īn ṣaḥīfah i girāmī ba-nām i Malik al-ʿAllām [ī] kih), dedicated to al-Sulṭān ibn i Sulṭān [sic] wa-’l-K̲h̲ān ibn i K̲h̲āqān Ṣafī al-Ḥusain [read al-Ḥusainī] Bahādur K̲h̲ān, i.e. evidently S̲h̲āh Ṣafī the Ṣafawī (a.h. 1038–52/1629–42): Berlin 28 (4) (a.h. 1048/1639).
§ 723. ʿAziz Allāh Ḥusām al-Dīn Banārasī.38
- Gauharistān (beg. Minnat u munnat mar Jān-āfrīnī rā kih gulistān i guftār), an imitation of Saʿdī’s Gulistān composed in 1048/1638–9, dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān and divided into seven gauhars and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rāmpūr (a.h. 1107/1695–6. Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 242), Bānkīpūr ix 952 (a.h. 116/1704–5).
§ 724. Bark̲h̲wurdār “Mumtāz” b. Maḥmūd Turkamān Farāhi left his birthplace, Farāh, in early life for Marw i S̲h̲āhjān and entered the service of Aṣlan K̲h̲ān,39 ¶ the Governor. Two years later he went to Iṣfahān and was appointed Muns̲h̲ī to Ḥasan-Qulī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āmlū, the Qūrc̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī. While at Iṣfahān he heard a charming tale and, having written it down and adorned it with the flowers of his rhetoric, he gave it the title of Ḥikāyat i Raʿnā u Zībā. This tale and others subsequently added to it formed eventually a large collection of nearly four hundred tales, to which he gave the title of Maḥfil-ārā. Later he returned to Farāh and afterwards spent some time at Harāt and Mas̲h̲had. Thence he went to the district of Darūn and K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān and for three years was in the service of Minūc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān40 b. Qarc̲h̲ag̲h̲āy K̲h̲ān, who had been appointed Governor of the province to check the inroads of the C̲h̲amis̲h̲kazak.41 In one of the raids of this wild tribe Bark̲h̲wurdār’s goods were plundered and he lost the manuscript of his Maḥfil-ārā, the fruit of many years labour. He wrote down again at K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān so much of it as he could remember and gave it the title of Maḥbūb al qulūb.
[Autobiographical statements in the preface (summarised in Rieu, Blochet and Ency. Isl. under Mumtāz (Berthels).]
Maḥbūb al-qulūb (beg. Ilāhī buzurgī wa ḥis̲h̲mat turāst *), a collection of bombastically written tales and anecdotes arranged according to subject in a muqaddimah (subdivided into five maqālahs dealing with (1) kadk̲h̲udāʾī …, (2) tarbiyat i farzand …, (3) kasb i hunar …, (4) ḍiyāfat …, (5) s̲h̲ukr-gud̲h̲ārī i niʿmathā-yi … Īzad …), five bābs ((1), p. 49, dar ādāb i tawāḍuʿ u s̲h̲arm …,42 (2) p. 61, dar ādāb i ḥusn i k̲h̲ulq …, by far the larger part (pp. 92–203) of this bāb being devoted to the tales headed Ḥikāyat i Malik Sarafrāz43 [king of Egypt] u Ganjūr i ʿābid u d̲h̲ikr i Yāqūt S̲h̲āh i Jinnī [sic in the 1298 edition] u S̲h̲amsah u Qahqahah [his two wazīrs44], in the short introduction to which the author says that he heard the story of king Sarafrāz at Harāt when in the service of Ṣafī-Quli K̲h̲ān, (3), p. 203, dar bayān i murāʿāt i muqaddamāt musāʿadat i iqbāl …, (4), p. 349, dar bayān i ādāb i muṣāḥabat …, (5), p. 402, dar bayān i fawāʾid i qanāʿat …), and a k̲h̲ātimah (the story of Raʿnā and Zībā): Blochet iv 2116 ¶ (a.h. 1158/1754 (?). Many P ictures, described in Revue des bibliothèques, 1899, p. 66), 2117 (S̲h̲amsah u Qahqahah (Fīrūz-s̲h̲āh45 i Miṣrī u Ganjūr i ʿābid etc.) only. Mid 19th cent.), Ethé 801 (Raʿnā u Zībā only, beginning (as on p. 436 of the 1298 edition) Ṭarrāḥ i qiṭaʿāt i rangīn i guls̲h̲an i īn maqālah. a.h. 1159/1746), 802 (a portion occupying foll. 136b–260 and beginning Dar murāʿāt i jānib i dūstān i ṣādiq i muwāfiq [evidently the beginning of Bāb 4, which in the 1298 edition opens with the words Bāb i c̲h̲ahārum dar bayān i ādāb i muṣāḥabat u murāʿāt i jānib etc.]. a.h. 1159/1746), 800 (beginning C̲h̲ihrah-pardāz i ʿarāʾis i ḥarīm i ʿajz u niyāz (as in Berlin 289) and containing first the short introduction to the S̲h̲amsah u Qahqahah) in which the author mentions his stay at Harāt, them the Ḥikāyat i fīrūz-S̲h̲āh i Miṣrī u Ganjūr i ʿābid, (then other matter ?) and finally the story of Raʿnā and Zībā. N. d.), Rieu ii 767b (beg. Ilāhī. a.h. 1215/1800), 768b (a.h. 1220/1806. 55 Pictures), Majlis 684 (beg. Ilāhi. a.h. 1226/1811) Berlin 288 (beg. Ilāhī. Modern), 289 (beg. C̲h̲ihrah-pardāz i ʿaraʾis i ḥarīm i ʿajz u niyāz. S̲h̲amsah u Qahqahah only, corresponding roughly to foll. 56b–211a of Berlin 288, which has 308 leaves. a.h. 1245/1829), Bānkīpūr ix 951 (beg. Ilāhī 19th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (defective. See ocm. ix/1 p. 23), Bodleian iii 2535 (S̲h̲amsah u Qahqahah, Maḥbūb al-qulūb, and Raʿnā u Zībā. N. d).
Editions: Bombay 1268/1851–2° (pp. 558. Cf. Āṣafīyah ii p. 1610, Berlin p. 317. Edwards gives date as 1267); 1298/1881‡ (M. al-q. al-mas̲h̲hur bi-S̲h̲amsah u Qahqah [sic]. Pp. 522. Cf. Karatay p. 24, Mashhad 14, ptd bks., no. 187); 1304/1886 (468 pp. See Karatay p. 24); 1326/1908°* (M.al-q. m. bah S̲h̲. u Qahqahah. Pp. 10, 536).
Edition of Raʿnā u Zībā only: [Persia] 1302/1885° (K. i R. u Z. 26 foll. Illustrated).
Translations of extracts: Fortune and misfortune, two tales translated … by Edward Rehatsek. Bombay 1870* (pp. 120). W.A. Clouston A group of Eastern romances and stories from the Persian, Tamil and Urdu, Glasgow (privately printed) 1889°, pp. 3–190, 355–452. Amusing stories; translated … by Edward Rehatsek. Bombay 1871.
Description: F.F. Arbuthnot Persian portraits, London 1887 pp. 119–30.
§ 725. Mullā Abū ’l-Barakāt “Munīr” Lāhaurī died in 1054/1644 (see pl. iii § 470 supra).
¶ Kāristān, or Kār-nāmah46 (beg. Sipās i gūnāgūn Pāds̲h̲āhi rā sazāwārast kih pāds̲h̲āhān i rūy i zamīn), the romance of Wālā-ak̲h̲tar, Prince of Hurmūz, in bombastic prose interspersed with verses, composed at Jaunpūr in 1050/1640–1 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān: Ivanow 366 (2) (a.h. 1070/1659–60), Āṣafīyah i p. 130 no. 162 (a.h. 1084/1673–4), ii p. 1280 no. 108, p. 1786 no. 2, iii p. 58 no. 351, Ethé 2083 (a.h. 1107/1695), 2084 (a.h. 1122/1710), 2085–7, 1764 (5), Eton 37 (a.h. 1108/1696–7), Blochet iv 2100 (a.h. 1141/1728), Madrās i 341, 205 (a), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 52 no. 15, p. 51 no. 8, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. ix /1 p. 24), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 75 no. 2, Browne Suppt. 998–1000 (Christ’s Dd. 3. 25, Corpus 21 and 105), Vollers 955.
Edition: Lucknow 1264/1848°* (pp. 72. Marginal notes).
§ 726. In 1041/1631–2 (sic47), when Ẓafar K̲h̲ān “Aḥsan” (for whom see pl. i § 1121) took charge of the government of Kas̲h̲mīr, he met there the nonagenarian Ḥāfiẓ M. Riḍā,48 who after living for fifty years in India and travelling extensively in that country had finally settled in Kas̲h̲mīr. The reminiscences and anecdotes related by the Ḥāfiẓ on his occasional visits to the Governor so interested the latter that on his instructions they were put into writing by an author whose name, unmentioned apparently in the Bānkīpūr M.S., is given in the Āṣafīyah catalogue as Mīrzā Muḥammad Qazwīnī. The result was the Aḥsan al- ḥikāyāt, of which the title contains an allusion to the Governor´s tak̲h̲alluṣ. In 1053/1643 Ḥāfiẓ M. Riḍā went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and died at al-Madīnah on his way home.
- Aḥsan al-ḥikāyāt, thirty-one anecdotes relating mainly to well-known Muslim rulers: Bānkīpūr vii 740 (a.h. 1259/1843), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1274 nos. 1–2.
§ 727. Mullā “Ṭughrā” Mas̲h̲hadī went to India in Jahāngīr’s reign (1014–37/1605–28) and was still alive at the accession of Aurangzēb (1068/1658) (see pl. iii § 483 supra).
- Ḥusn u ʿIs̲h̲q (beg. Rāwiyān i ak̲h̲bār … c̲h̲unīn riwāyāt kunand kih), a short allegorical story in ornate prose ascribed to Mullā Ṭughrā but absent from his Kullīyāt and, according to Ivanow, much simpler in style than “Ṭug̲h̲rā’s” authentic compositions: Ivanow 1st suppt. 816 (21) (late ¶ 18th cent.), Rieu ii 850 b (a.h. 1250/1835), Bombay Univ. p. 280 (4), possibly also Bodleian 1241 (10) (Qiṣṣah i ʿIs̲h̲q u Ḥusn, beg. R. i a…. c̲h̲. r. k. kih dar Maʿmūrah i Tan az iqlīm i wujūd Sulṭān ʿIs̲h̲q nām).
§ 728. S̲h̲. ʿInāyat-Allāh Kambō Lāhaurī, who died at Delhi in 1082/1671, has already been mentioned (pl. i § 737) as the author of the Tārīkh i dil-gus̲h̲ā and of the Guls̲h̲an i ʿInāyat (pl. iii § 481 supra).
Bahār i dānis̲h̲ (beg. (M. Ṣāliḥ’s preface) Fātiḥah i kitāb i mustaṭāb i āfrīnis̲h̲….(author’s preface) Dībāj i pīrāyah-dih i dībājah i suk̲h̲an ḥamd i Ḥakīmī ast),the romance of Jahāndār Sulṭān and Bahrawar Bānū, with which many other tales are interwoven, based according to the author’s preface on a story heard by him in the Indian language from a young Brahman, completed in 1061/1651, in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Jahān, and furnished with a preface by M. Ṣāliḥ Kanbō (for whom see pl. i § 738): Rieu 7656–766 b (eleven copies, three of 17th cent.), Blochet iv 2103(late 17th cent.), 2104–5, Bodleian 472 (lacks M. Ṣāliḥ’s preface. a.h. 1122/1710), 466–71, 1976, iii 2523–5, Ethé 817 (very defective. a.h. 1122/1710), 807 (a.h. 1145/1732), 806 (Pictures),808–16, ii 3060, Ross & Browne 60, 183, Berlin 1050 (lacks M. Ṣāliḥ’s preface. a.h. 1124/1712), 1048 (Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s reign [ a.h. 1124–31/1702–18]), 1049, Ivanow 302 (a.h. 1134/1721–2), 303, 1st Suppt. 780 (a.h. 1148/1735), Curzon 107 (a.h. 1168/1755) 108 (19th cent. Bad Pictures) Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (a.h. 1138/1725. See Mélanges asiatiques vii (1876) p. 404), Univ. no. 173 (Salemann-Rosen p. 12), Lindesiana p. 158 nos. 199 (a.h. 1188/1774), 88, 919, p. 196 no. 463, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1274 nos. 51 (a.h. 1197/1783), 149, 114, 118, Browne Pers. Cat. 320 (a.h. 1198/1783), 321, 322 (selections. a.d. 1754), Suppt. 190–2 (Christ’s Dd. 4. 15, Corpus 8, King’s 48), Edinburgh 121–2, New Coll., p. 10, Vollers 956–7, Mehren 92, Aumer 178–9, Madrās 323–6, Bānkīpūr viii 741–2, Aberystwyth 19 (3), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 51 no. 7, Lahore Panjab Univ. (see ocm ix /1 p. 27), Majlis 676, Peshawar 1803, Rehatsek p. 220 no. 13.
Editions: Calcutta 1252/1836* (pp. 420); [Delhi] Muṣṭafāʾī Press 1262/1846* (pp. 316. marginal notes); Lucknow 1264/1848* (pp. 407); 1861° (ed. Najm al-Dīn and K̲h̲wājah M. As̲h̲raf. Marginal notes. Pp. 288); 1282/1866 (N.K. 288 pp. Karatay p. 86); Cawnpore 1267/1851* (pp. 279), 1269/1853* (pp. 315), 1879° (reprinted from the Bombay edition of 1860. Pp. 439), Bombay 1277/1860° (pp. 410. Marginal notes), and many others.
Incomplete editions: [Calcutta 1809°*] (“Pt. i”, to the end of the story of “The young thief and the king with the jewelled fish”. No title-page. Beg.: Dībāj i pīrāyah-dih. pp. 172. Presumably a part of Lumsden’s ¶ Selections for the use of the students of the Persian Class (see Bodleian col. 434, Berlin p. 999)); Calcutta 1828°* (Classic selections from some of the most esteemed Persian writers. Vol. I. containing … III. Bahari Daunish [the same portion as in the 1809 edition]. Pp. 115).
English translations: (1) Tales (the Baar Danesh) translated from the Persion of Inatulla of Delhi [by A. Dow] London 1768° (2 vols). (2) Bahar-Danush or Garden of Knowledge. An oriental romance translated from the Persic of Einaiut Oollah, by Jonathan Scott. Shrewsbury 1799°* (3 vols.); Báhar-i-Dánish [sic ?] or Garden of Knowledge … translated … by J. Scott … reprinted by Janárdan Rámchandraji, Bombay 1870* (pp. 284).
English translation of extracts; F. Wilken, Auctarium ad Chrestomathiam suam Persicam …, Leipzig 1805 pp. 39–42.
French translation (from Dow’s English): Contes persans, par Inatula de Delhi; traduits de l’anglois, Amsterdam 1769° (2 pts.).
French translation of extracts: Contes indiens, traduits du persan, extraits du Bahar Danush par Mr. le baron Lescallier. Paris 1804 (Zenker i p. 83 no. 704).
German translation: Bāhar Danusch, oder der Garten des Erkentniss. Ein persischer Roman des Inajut-Ullah. aus dem Englischen [of J. Scott apparently] iibersetzt and mit Anmerkungen begleitet von Anton Theodor Hartmann. Leipzig 1802 (Zenker ii p. 48 no. 631)
Urdu translation: Guls̲h̲an i dānis̲h̲, by S̲h̲. Muḥammad-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, Āgrah [1922*].
Turkish translation: Bahār-i dāniş tercemesī. Terceme eden Nāmıḳ Kamāl, Istanbul 1303/1885–6 (Karatay p. 86).
Glossaries: (a) Farhang i B. i d., by M. Masʿūd (beg al-Ḥ. l. kih dar ʿālam i ījād) Ethé 2525 (4),
(b) Rang i Bahār (so Lindesiana), or Farhang i nusk̲h̲ah i B. i d. (so ʿAlīgaṛh), by ʿAbd al-Bāqī: Lindesiana p. 117 no. 477 (a.h. 1236/1820–1), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 49 no. 23
(c) Farhang i lug̲h̲ā̲t i B. i d.: Browne Suppt. 894 (a.h. 1212/1797–8. Corpus 214 (1)).
Abridgment: Muntak̲h̲ab i B. i d. (beg. S̲p̲. u st. mar Aḥadī rā kih nas̲h̲w u namā-yi qudrat), prepared by Dīpak Rāy at the command of S̲h̲āh Yad Allāh al-Ḥusainī: Ivanow 1st. Suppt. 781 (a.h. 1171/1757, autograph).
Simplified adaptation: ʿIṭr i bahār, by Nad̲h̲īr al-Din Ḥasan “S̲h̲āʾiq” [author of a Persian grammar in Urdu entitled Maṣdar i fuyūḍ (a chronogram = 1230/1815). See Garcin de Tassy iii p. 99 and Blumhardt’s catalogues of Urdu printed books]: Lucknow 1303/1886° (pp. 76).
¶ § 729. Malīk M. Jāʾisī.
- Tuḥfat al-qulūb (beg. Jahān jahān sujūd u ʿālam ʿālam niyāyis̲h̲ mar Kirdgār i pāk rā) the love-story of Ratan-Sēn and Padmāwat based on the Hindī version of M. Jāʾisī and dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān in 1062/1652: Blochet i 232 (a.h. 1090/1679), Berlin 1047 (acephalous, beginning ʿiyād̲h̲an bi-llāh agar īn āwāzah dar aṭrāf i diyār s̲h̲āyiʿ buwad ham ism i ʿadālat-gustarī. a.h. 1095/1684).
§ 730. Hās̲h̲im Bēg “Fuzūnī” Astarābādī (cf. pl. i § 1015).
- Buḥairah. Edition: Tihrān (D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 511).
§ 731. M. S̲h̲arīf “Kas̲h̲if” b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M. S̲h̲īrāzī was three years old in 1006/1597–8, when his father, a native of S̲h̲īrāz settled at Karbalāʾ, was driven thence by Sunnī persecution. After spending two years at Iṣfahān and seven months at Mas̲h̲had they returned to Iṣfahān, and there “Kās̲h̲if” lived for twenty-three years, studying and writing. Father and son then went to Rai, where the father died in 1035/1625–6, and where (in point of fact at Ṭurus̲h̲t, a large village near Rai, according to Naṣrābādī) the son was Qāḍī for fifteen years. The K̲h̲azān u bahār was composed at the request of his younger brother, M. Ismāʿīl “Munṣif”, who had written from India. Earlier works of the author, mentioned in the k̲h̲ātimah, were, in verse, Lailā Majnūn, Haft paikar, ʿAbbās-nāmah, g̲h̲azals, qaṣīdahs, rubāʿīs, etc., and in prose Sirāj al-munīr, Durr i maknūn, Ḥawāss i bāṭin and miscellaneous compositions.
[Autobiography in K̲h̲azān u bahār, k̲h̲ātimah (summarised by Rieu and Rosen); Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṭāhir i Naṣrābādī pp. 251–2 (cf. Sprenger p. 91); Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿaraʾ no. 1098; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2194.]
K̲h̲azān u bahār (beg. C̲h̲aman-ārāy i faraj baʿd az s̲h̲iddat), tales and anecdotes for the most part retold in ornate prose and verse from the Faraj baʿd az s̲h̲iddat but in some cases referring to later periods down to the author’s time, completed in 1060/1650 according to a statement at the end or in 1063/1653 according to a chronogram in the last line, and divided into a muqaddimah (in praise of ʿAlī with anecdotes illustrating his fourteen virtues), fourteen chapters called asās, each devoted to one of the same fourteen virtues, and a k̲h̲ā̲timah (on the author’s life and writings): Leningrad Institut (a.h. 1234/1818–19 see Rosen 107), Univ. 1118 (a.h. 1256/1840. See Romaskewicz p. 6), d.m.g. 61 (a.h. 1263/1847), Rieu Suppt. 396 (a.h. 1291/1874)
Editions: Tabrīz 1276/1860° (pp. 8127); [Tabrīz?] 1284/1867° (pp. 131).
Sirāj al-munīr (beg. Sitāyis̲h̲ (or Sp. u st. mar) Karīmī rā kih ḥilyah i k̲h̲ullatas̲h̲), moral anecdotes etc., in ornate prose interspersed with ¶ verses, completed at the end of Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1030/ Feb. 1621 and divided into twenty lamʿahs (for the heading of which see Ethé 2206, Bodleian 1241 (9)): Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (two copies, of which one is said to be dated 1024/1615.49 See Mélanges asiatiques ii (St. Petersburg 1852–6) p. 58 and iv (1863) p. 498), Univ. 1156 (Romaskewicz p. 10), Rieu ii 861 b (a.h. 1079/1669), Suppt. 422 (1) (a.h. 1073–88/1662–78), Suppt. 419 (2) (a.h. 1077–88/1666–77), Blochet iii 1870 (late 17th cent.), Būhār 209 (a.h. 1118/1706–7), Madrās i 197 (a) (a.h. 1169/1756), 429, Vatican Pers. 41 (3) (a.h. 74/1760. Rossi p. 71), Bodleian 1241 (a) (a.h. 1201/1787), Lindesiana p. 216 no. 743 (circ a.d. 1790), Majlis 577 (a.h. 1225/1810), 576 (a.h. 1278/1861–2), 578 (a.h. 1306/1888–9), Browne Suppt. 758 (a.h. 1274/1857), Berlin 291 (begins in Lamʿah i), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. xlii no. 1, Ethé 2206, London s.o.a.s (see bsos. iii/1 (1923) p. 138).
Editions: Bombay 1265/1849* (followed (p. 228) by the Ṣad pand i Luqmān. Pp. 232); 1304/1887 (88 pp. Karatay p. 131); Place? 1306/1888–9 (Āṣafīyah i p. 22).
§ 732. M. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī.
- Majmaʿal-ṭuyūr, “an ethical miscellany in prose and verse after the style of the Gulistān,” composed in the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās ii (a.h. 1052–77/1642–67) and divided into five ās̲h̲yānahs: i.o. 4621 (acephalous a.h. 1054/1644 See jras. 1939 p. 387).
§ 733. M. Falāḥ [b.?] Ṣāliḥ Ḥusainī.
- K̲h̲ayāl i Falāḥ (beg. Sar i nāmah ba-nām i ān Yagānah*), an allegorical romance in prose and verse translated in 1070/1659–60 from a Sanskrit original: Princeton 146 (early 18th cent.).
§ 734. Mīrzā Raḍī Mustaufī is the author of a prose eulogy of Iṣfahān (Bānkīpūr xi 1094 (iv)), which he completed on 12 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1059/26 March 1649.
- Ḥusn u Dil (beg. Ai nām i humāyūnat ṭug̲h̲rāc̲h̲ah i farmānhā* … Anwār i āftāb i jalāl i lā-yazālī), a romantic tale: Bānkīpūr xi 1094 (vi) (a.h. 1091/1680 probably).
¶ § 735. The Sanskrit Vētāla-panchavim gatika, or twenty-five tales of a demon told to king Vikramāditya, best known in the Hindī version Baitāl-pac̲h̲īsī50 repeatedly printed in the 19th century, exists also in
- Tarjamah i Baitāl-pac̲h̲īsī (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲anāy [sic] Muqaddirī rā kih qudratas̲h̲), undertaken by ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Ilyās at the instance of Sulṭān Parwēz, Jahāngīr’ second son [d. 1035/1626]: Madrās i 292 (wrongly described. Bahādur S̲h̲āh’s 5th year), ii 582 (transcribed from the preceding).
- Badāyiʿ al-ʿuqūl, composed in 1082/1671–2 in Aurangzēb’s reign: Browne Suppt. 158 (a.h. 1198/1783–4. King’s 61).
- Baitāl pac̲h̲īsī: Browne Suppt. 207 (a.h. 1262/1846. Corpus 69).
§ 736. Bāl-Kris̲h̲na “Barahman” Ḥiṣārī is the author of a compendium of Ṣūfism written in 1085/1674–5 and entitled Dimas̲h̲q i k̲h̲ayāl (Ethé 1897).
- Tuḥfat al-ḥikāyāt, or Haftgānah, (beg. Dar-īn aiyām ba-ḥasb i āb-k̲h̲wurd), Seven tales: Ethé 827 (foll. 37 a.h. 1123/1712).
§ 737. Mullā Mīr Qārī Jīlānī.
- Anīs al-ʿāqilīn, moral anecdotes completed in 1087/1676: Blochet iv 2164 (a.h. 1087/1676, autograph).
§ 738. Himmat K̲h̲ān (Mīr ʿĪsā) “Mīran”51 Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī b. Islām K̲h̲ān (Mīr Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusain Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī̲), the son of an old employee of Aurangzēb and from childhood a protégé of the future emperor’s, was appointed Faujdār of the district of Akbarābād when his father became Governor (Ṣāḥib-ṣūbah or Ṣūbah-dār) of the province. After his father’s death early in 1074/1663 within a month of his arrival in the city (Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i p. 219), Himmat K̲h̲ān was summoned to court and given the office of Qūr-bēgī. Thenceforward he received rapid promotion and he held in succession for short periods the office of Dārōg̲h̲ah i Gurz-bardārān (9th year), Dārōg̲h̲ah i Dīwān i K̲h̲āṣṣ (12th Year), Third Bāk̲h̲s̲h̲ī, Second Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (14th year), Ṣūbah-dār of Akbarābād (15th year), Dārōg̲h̲ah of the G̲h̲usl-k̲h̲ānah (17th year), Ṣāḥib-ṣūbah of Ilāhābād (19th year), and First Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī̲ (24th year). He died at Ajmēr, where he was active as Ḥāris, on 5 Muḥarram 1092/25 Jan. 1691.
His biography in the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, (iii pp. 946–9) does not mention the titles of any works composed by him, but says that he was a patron of ¶ scholars and poets (iii p. 946) and that he himself faṣāḥat u balāg̲h̲at az naẓm u nat̲h̲r bar ṣafḥah i yādgār nigās̲h̲tah iii p. 94818). That at one of his literary meetings he read out his own prose version of the tale of Kāmrūp and asked that it should be turned into verse is stated by “Lāʾiq”, the author of the versification entitled Dastūr i Himmat,52 who says that he died soon after and that in 1096/1685 the mat̲h̲nawī was completed as a tribuṭe to his memory. In the oldest of the dated mss. of the prose Qiṣṣah i Kāmrūp (Bodleian 1326) the tale is preceded by a preface in which Himmat K̲h̲ān is named as the author, but in all the other mss. that have been adequately described there is no preface and statements concerning the authorship if made at all, occur in colophons, headings and the like. In one or two of these (Bānkīpūr viii 743, Leyden v p. 174 no. 2568) there is a confusion with a slightly later Himmat K̲h̲ān (M. Ḥasan b. K̲h̲ān i Jahān), who received the title in Aurangzēb’s 27th year (Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii p. 949 penult.) and who died in 1106/1694–5.53 In at least one ms. (Rieu ii 763b) the work is ascribed to s̲h̲ā̲ʿir i māhir Muḥammad Kāẓim,54 but the evidence in favour of Himmat K̲h̲ā̲n̲’s authorship seems sufficient.
Qiṣṣah i Kāmrūp55 (beg. Qiṣṣah-pardāzān i g̲h̲arāʾib i āt̲h̲ār u dastān-ṭirāzān i sawāniḥ i rūzgār56), the love-story of Kām-rūp, son of Rājpatī, King of Awad’h (Oudh), and Kām-latā, Princess of Sarandīp (Ceylon), Bodleian 1326 (a.h. 1109/1698), 1327 (a.h. 1207/1792–3), Bānkīpūr viii 743 (a.h. 1159/1746), Ivanow Curzon 109 (circ. a.d. 1769), 110 (18th cent.), Rieu ii 763b (a.h. 118/1774), 764a (19th cent.), Ethé 2855 (a.h. 1198/1784), 2856–7, 821 (18th cent.), 822, Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 406 (18th cent.), Browne Suppt. 976 (Christ’s Dd. 3.27), Blochet iv 2101 (a.h. 1250/1834–5. pictures described in Revue des bibliothèques 1898 p. 406), Madrās i ¶ 337 (a.h. 1250/1835), Berlin 1042, Edinburgh New Coll. p. 10, Eton 154 (?) (“Ḳiṣṣat Kāmrūp. Dedicated to Aurang [zēb] ʿĀlamgīr ghāzī.57 See Ethé 816” [sic]), 155 (“another copy of the same work”), Leyden v p. 174 no. 2568, Rehatsek p. 228 no. 37 (?) (“the author of the book is (in an English sentence written on the first page) said to have been Bhoput Raee Nagur”).
English translations: (1) The loves of Cámarúpa and Cámalatà an ancient Indian tale, elucidating the customs … of the orientals … translated … by W. Francklin. London 1793°*, The loves of Camrupa and Camlata [W. Francklin’s version edited with notes, and with the spellings of Indian names altered by] Mahabharat Datta. Burdwan 1909*. (2) Kama-rupa and Kama-latha. A most interesting and captivating Indian love-tale [anonymously translated]. Calcutta 1889*.
German translation: Geschichte des Prinzen Kamarupa und der Schönen Kamalata. [Translated from Francklin’s English], Weimar 1800° (Die blaue Bibliothek aller Nationen, Bd. 12, pt. 1).
§ 739. Aḥsan Allāh.
- Anīs i aḥsan (beg. Baʿd az ḥ. u sp. i Dāwarī kih haft waraq), the story of ʿĀqil, the carpenter’s son, Prince Qais and Princess Gītī-afrūz, written in 1092/1681 (if Rieu’s interpretation of the chronogram is correct) at S̲h̲āhjahānānbād (i.e. Delhi) during the reign of Aurangzēb: Rieu ii 856a (foll. 4–60. 18th cent.).
§ 740. M. ʿĀrif b. S̲h̲. Fatḥ-Muḥammad.
- Riyāḍ i dānis̲h̲, composed in 1095/1684: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1276 no. 150.
§ 741. K̲h̲wājah Muḥammad, as he “is called” (by whom ?) on fol. 2b, l. 9, or K̲h̲wājah Muḥammad “Bē-dil”, as he is called in the colophon.
- Ḥusn u Dil (beg. Gauhar i baḥr i ḥamd u t̲h̲anā), an allegorical romance in ornate prose, composed in 1095/1684 and dedicated to ʿĀlamgīr: Ethé 2106 (Bahādur-S̲h̲āh’s reign [1119–24/1707–12]).
§ 742. Mād’hau–Dās Gujrātī.
- Mēnakā58 u Manōhar (beg. Suk̲h̲an ast kih ādamī-zād rā ḥaḍīḍ i ḥaiwānī), the love-story of Mēnakā and Rājah Manōhar, composed in ¶ 1098/1684: Bodleian 478 (foll. 198. a.h. 1116/1704–5), Ethé 824 (foll. 178. a.h. 1118/1706).
§ 743. M. Diyāb al-Itlīdī.
Iʿlām al-nās bi-mā waqaʿa li-l-Barāmikah maʿa Banī ’l-ʿAbbās, completed in 1100/1688 (see Brockelmann ii p. 303, Sptbd. ii p. 414).
Persion translation: Tarjamah i Iʿlām al-nās (beg. St. dark̲h̲wur i K̲h̲udāwandī kih), prepared in 1314/1896–7 by Mīrzā G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain Afḍal al-Mulk Adīb i S̲h̲īrāzī: Majlis 678 (Vol. i. a.h. 1314/1896–7), 679 (Vols. i– ii, autograph).
§ 744. Bahrām b. ʿAlī-Mardān Bahādur Ṭūg̲h̲ Arsalān K̲h̲ān was of Uzbak descent and was doubtless a son of that ʿAlī-Mardān Bahādur who served under Akbar and Jahāngīr and after distinguishing himself in the Deccan wars died in 1021/1611 (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii pp. 773–5, Beveridge’s trans. i pp.185–6, Rieu ii p.767).
- Maḥram i rāz (beg. Ilāhī ān-c̲h̲ih mīzān i ṭabʿ sanjad), a collection of fables and anecdotes (some of them relating to Indian saints, some to ʿAlī-Mardān Bahādur and most of them concluding with Ṣūfī reflections) composed in the reign of Aurangzēb: Rieu ii 767 a (87 foll. Preface imperfect. Late 17th cent.).
Maẓhar al-iʿjāz d̲h̲arīʿat al-najāt60 (beg. Awwal girih i nuqṭah kih bi-gs̲h̲ād qalam* … Nāṣiyah-farsāʾī i k̲h̲āmah i badāyiʿ-nigār), anecdotes and personal reminiscences illustrating the operation of the Divine Will, the efficacity of the intercession of the Imāms, and similar matters, divided into fātiḥah, two maẓhars and a k̲h̲ātimah, and including circumstantial descriptions of life in Persia (Balk̲h̲, Iṣfahān, ect.) and India (chiefly Bījāpūr) about the years 1090–7/1679–86: Ivanow Curzon 708 (perhaps incomplete, since only the Fātiḥah (fol. 8) is properly marked. Early 19th cent.).
Edition: Bombay 1314/1896–7 (Mas̲h̲had v p. 325).
¶ § 746. K̲h̲wājah Rāj-karan Ruhtakī (i.e. of Rohtak in the Panjāb).
Gus̲h̲āyis̲h̲-nāmah (beg. Qurbān i ān Qādir i Bī-c̲h̲ūn), bombastic stories of escape from critical situations in India, existing apparently in two editions, of which one (Rieu ii p. 767) contains six tales with chronograms at the end indicating 1100/1688–9 as the date of composition, while the other (Ethé 825, Ivanow Curzon 113) contains seven tales and in the preface (absent from the B.M. ms.) a chronogram for 1101/1689–90: Ivanow Curzon 113 (a.h. 1175/1761), Ethé 825 (a.h. 1184/1770), Lindesiana p. 172 no. 784(?) (circ. a.d. 1790), Vollers 958 (a.h. 1212/1797–8), Rieu ii 767 b (a.h. 1243/1828), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 44 no. 19 (?), Browne Suppt. 1038 (Corpus 56), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. ix/1 p. 24).
Editions: [Lucknow] 1287/1870–1 * (pp. 86. Marginal notes); 1290/1873°* (with a glossary. pp. 86, 4).
§ 747. Bahādur ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. Allāh-dād K̲h̲ān.
- K̲hulāṣat al- ḥikāyāt, compiled in Aurangzēb’s 34th year, a.h. 1102/1691, when the author was sent by the Emperor to deal with the tax-collection of Jalēsar: Bodleian iii 2527.
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-Naṣāʾiḥ, a similar collection of moral tales: Bodleian iii 2526.
§ 748. S. M. Yūsuf.
- Kār-nāmah, a tale composed in the reign of Aurangzēb (1069–1119/1659–1707):Madrās i 342 (slightly defective at beginning and also apparently at end. 204 pp.).
§ 749. M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī al-Majlisī died in 1110/1698–9 or 1111/1699–1700 (see pl. i § 247). Ascribed to him is
Jawāhir al-ʿuqūd61or Mūs̲h̲ u gurbah (beg. Jawāhir i zawāhir i ḥamd u sipās nit̲h̲ār i bārgāh i Qādirīst kih), fables of the mouse and the cat, or the Ṣūfī and the student written in the reign of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān al-Ḥusainī al-Mūsawī al-Ṣafawī Bahādur K̲h̲ān (1077–1106/1666–94): D̲h̲arīʿah v p. 272, Flügel ii 790 (1) (a.h. 1134/1722. Ḥikāyat i mus̲h̲ i Ṣūfī u gurbah i ṭālib i ʿilm), Berlin 27(4) (a.h. 1238/1822–3).
Edition: Bombay 1324/1906°* (Muẓaffarī Pr. 160 pp. Followed by Ṣad pand i Luqmān (of. pl. iv § 806)).
§ 750. Mīrzā Nūr al-Din M. “ʿĀlī” b. Ḥakīm Fatḥ al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī, entitled Niʿmat K̲h̲ān and Dānis̲h̲mand Khān who died at Delhi on 1 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1122/30 ¶ april 1710, has already been mentioned as the author of the Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥaidarābād (pl. i § 751), the Bahādur-S̲h̲āh-nāmah (pl. i § 758) and other works.
Ḥusn u ʿIs̲h̲q, or Kadk̲h̲udāʾī i Ḥusn u ʿIs̲h̲q, or Munākaḥah i Ḥusn i ʿIs̲h̲q, or Izdiwāj i Ḥusn u ʿIs̲h̲q (beg. Ḥadīth i ʿIs̲h̲q s̲h̲ud zīb i bayānam* … ʿarāʾis i abkār i maʿānī rā), an allegorical tale in flowery prose and verse: D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 391 penult. (Ins̲h̲āʾ i Ḥ. u.ʿI.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1978 (a.h. 1125/1713), Suppt. ii 2195 (a.h. 1195/1781), 2316, 2018, Bānkīpūr iii 371, fol. 336 a, ix 878 (5), xi 1098 (68), xvii 1533, Ethé 1659 (4) (collated 1136/1723–4), 1661 (4) (a.h. 1191/1777), 1662 (5), 1669, Ross-Browne 55 fol. 46a (18th cent.), 185, i.o. 4590 (19th cent. See jras. 1939 p. 375), Lindesiana p. 204 no. 622 (circ. a.d. 1750–1800), 606 b (a.h. 1204/1789–90), Rieu ii 703 b (18th cent.), 196 a (18th cent.), 854 b (a.h. 1248/1832), 850 b (a.h. 1250/1835),Bodleian 1159 (3) (a.h. 1209/1795), 1157 (6), Edinburgh 375 (3) (18th cent.), Ivanow 826 (late 18th cent.), 1st Suppt. 816 (22) (late 18th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 944 (19th cent.), Curzon 149, Browne Suppt. 405 (a.h. 1249/1833. Corpus 17(3)), Berlin 672 (1).
Editions: 1248/1832–3 (D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 3922); Lucknow 1842 (Zenker ii no. 671); [Lucknow, 1873 ?°] (with marginal notes from Aulād Aḥmad Sahaswānī’s commentary, etc. Pp. 26); Lucknow 1899° (with notes by A.A. Sahaswānī and others. Pp. 32); [Cawnpore] 1259/1843* (Muḥammadī Pr. 26 pp.); Cawnpore 1278/1862 (98 pp. Karatay p. 15); Shāhjahānābād (i.e. Delhi) 1844° (with Ṣahbāʾī’s commentary. Pp. 277); [Bombay?] 1265/1849* (Rūz-nāmah i waqāʾiʿ i aiyām i muḥāṣarah i … Ḥaidarābād, followed by the Ḥusn u ʿI̲s̲hq. Pp. 172; 40).
Commentary: S̲h̲arh i Ḥusn u ʿIs̲h̲q, by Imām-baḵhs̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” (see pl. iii § 214), etc.): Lahore (defective at end. ocm. v/4 p. 20).
Editions: S̲h̲āhjahānābād (i.e. Delhi) 1844° (with the text. Pp. 277), Lucknow 1880°* (the first work in Vol. iii of the Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī).
- Muḍḥikāt (beg. (without preface) Mardī bā dūgānah zan i k̲h̲wud), “humorous sayings of Niʿmat K̲h̲ān, mostly in the forms of stories and tales” (ʿAbd al-Muqtadir), Blochet iv 2180 foll. 161b–205b (a collection of “anecdotes plaisantes” without preface but called Muḍḥikah [so, not Muḍḥikāt] in the colophon, where they are ascribed to Niʿmat K̲h̲ān “ʿĀlī”. a.h. 1223/1808), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2221 (a.h. 1271/1855).
¶ § 751. Rūp-Narāyan.
S̲h̲as̲h̲ jihat (beg. In nāmah i dil-gus̲h̲ā kih har ṣafḥah i ān*), a tale in ornate prose completed in 1121/1709 and written in such a way that five additional tales are formed by the words at the beginning and end of the lines and in three columns in the middle of the text: Ivanow Curzon 151 (a.h. 1170/1757 ?).
Edition: Delhi 1271/1855°* (pp. 8).
§ 752. Gul Muḥammad b. ʿInāyat Allāh, of C̲h̲ūndah [?] in Patyālah [?], seems to have written in the reign of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam [Bahādur S̲h̲āh, 1119–24/1707–12].
- Muẓaffar-nāmah, or Muḍṭarr-nāmah (beg. St. u niyāyis̲h̲ mar ʿatabah i kibriyā-yi Aḥadīyat), didactic stories followed by some autobiographical information and complaints of the author’s poverty and misfortune and, at the end, a sketch of the troubles which preceded Aurangzēb’s reign and followed his death: Ivanow Curzon 117 (175 foll. 18th cent.).
§ 753. Bahāʾ al-Din M. b. Ḥusain al-ʿĀmilī died at Iṣfahān in 1030/1621 or 1031/1622 (see pl. iii § 256).
- Pand i ahl i dānis̲h̲ u hus̲h̲ bā- zabān i gurbah u mūs̲h̲: Dharīʿah iii p. 199, Cairo 1346/1927–8 (followed by Nān u panīr ascribed to the same author).
§ 754. It was for Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, surnamed Raus̲h̲an-ak̲h̲tar, the Indian Tīmūrid, (a.h. 1131–61/1719–48) that the Riyāḍ al-kamāl was written by an author whose name seems not to be ascertainable from the mss.
- Riyād al- kamāl (a chronogram = 1133/1720–1), a series of romances in seven qisms, “each devoted to an Iqlîm in which the story of some great king is related”: Bānkīpūr viii 745 (begins abruptly after three blank pages—Afzāy i jauhar i farhang durrat al-tāj i salṭanat gauhar i s̲h̲ab-c̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i k̲h̲ilāfat. Jild i only, comprising the story of K̲h̲āwar-S̲h̲āh and K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-liqā and ending with an account of Jābulsā and Jābulqā. 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1276 no.3.
§ 755. S̲h̲. ʿIzzat Allāh64 Bangālī.
Qiṣṣah i gul i Bakāwalī (beg. Zīnat i dībāc̲h̲ah i suk̲h̲an ba-nām i Suk̲h̲an-āfrīnī kih qufl i ganjīnah i dilhā rā, or (in Ethé 828) Gulzār i hamīs̲h̲ah-bahār i ḥamd u t̲h̲anāy Bag̲h̲bān i Ḥaqīqī rā sazad), the story of Prince Tāj ¶ al-Mulūk, Bakāwalī and her rose, translated from a Hindūstānī original at the request of an intimate friend, Muḥammad or Nad̲h̲r-Muḥammad,65 whose sudden death on 1 D̲hū ’l-Ḥijjah 1134/12 September 1722 was a great shock to the translator and caused him for a time to discontinue the work, until other friends urged him to complete it: Browne Pers. Cat. 335 (not later than a.d. 1785), Suppt. 977 (a.h. 1255/1839–40. Corpus 26), Berlin 1046 (a.h.1202/1788), 1045, Blochet iv 2118 (18th cent.), Ivanow 311 (a.h. 1215/1800–1), 1st. Suppt. 779 (a.d. 1816), Vollers 959 (a.h. 1254/1838–9), Bānkīpūr viii 746 (19th cent.), Ethé 828, 829.
Urdu translation by Muns̲h̲ī Nihāl C̲h̲and Lāhaurī from ʿIzzat Allāh’s Persian: Mad̲h̲hab i ʿis̲h̲q, often published in India, e.g. Calcutta 1804°* (Gooli Bukawulee, a tale translated from the Persian by Moonshee Nihal Chund [and revised by S̲h̲ēr ʿAlī Afsōs (for whom cf. pl. i § 622, ‘Free Urdu translation...’] … under the superintendence of J. Gilchrist. Pp. 220); 1815° (Muzhubi Ishq, or the Gooli Bukawalee, written in the Oordoo dialect, by Moonshee Nihal Chund … and afterwards revised by Meer Sher Ulee Ufsos … Second edition. Revised by T. Roebuck. Pp. 354); Bombay 1843° (Muzubai Ask. A translation … of the popular Persian tales, entitled Goolai Bucawley, by Moonsey Neehalchund Lahoree, under the superintendent [sic] of John Gilchrist. Sixth Edition. Pp. 182); Delhi 1873° (Mad̲h̲hab i ʿis̲h̲q. Pp. 104. With illustrations); 1881° (M. i ʿi. Pp. 96. Illustrated); Madrās 1296/1879° (Qiṣṣah i Bakāwalī. Pp. 116).
English translations from the Urdu: (1) by Lieut. R.P. Anderson. Delhi 1851*.66 (2) Gul-i-Bakawuli. Translated from Urdu into English prose and verse, with a vocabulary … By T.P. Manuel. Allahabad 1901° (pp. 136. Doubtless reprinted from the Calculta edition of 1859, mentioned by Garcin de Tassy, ii p. 469). (3) An English translation of Gul-i-Bakaoli by Bawa Chajju Singh. Lahore 1903° (2nd ed. Pp. 130). (4) The Rose of Bakawali [compiled from Garcin de Tassy’s abridgment and T.P. Manuel’s translation] (in A group of Eastern romances and stories from the Persian, Tamil, and Urdu. With introduction, notes, and appendix by W. A. Clouston. Glasgow (privately printed) 1889).
French translation from the Urdu: La doctrine de l’amour ou Taj-ulmuluk et Bakawali, roman de philosopie religieuse, par Nihal Chand de Delhi, traduit de l’Hindoustani, par M. Garcin de Tassy, Paris 1858°* ¶ (pp. 123. Reprinted from the Revue de l’Orient. See Garcin de Tassy ii p. 468, Zenker ii no. 3924).
French abridgrnent: Abrégé du roman hindoustani intitulé La Rose de Bakawali. Par M. Garcin de Tassy, Paris 1835° (extrait du Journal Asiatique 1835 pp. 194–243, 338–68).
Urdu metrical version: Gulzār i Nasīm, by Dayā-S̲h̲ankar “Nasīm”, Lucknow 1847*, Cawnpore 1276/1859°, and at least a dozen other editions.
§ 756. M. Ismāʿīl Sāmī entitled (muk̲h̲āṭab) Nuʿmān Khān accompanied Aurangzēb on his expedition against the Rānā and received the title of k̲h̲ān towards the end of his reign. He died in the time of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh.
[Tad̲h̲kirat al-umarāʾ (cited by Rieu).]
- Dabistān i khirad (beg. Ḥamd i Mubdiʿī kih āsmānhā u zamīnhā), a collection of moral anecdotes, drawn in many cases from contemporary Indian history, written in 85 days at Akbarābād [i.e. Āgrah] in 1135/1722–3 as the outcome of a challenge to match Saʿdī’s Gulistān, dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and divided into eleven bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rieu ii 769 a (18th cent.).
§ 757. Ranjīt Rāy mentions in his preface that he was connected with C̲h̲īn Qilīc̲h̲ K̲h̲ān Bahādur Āṣaf-Jāh [the founder of the ruling dynasty of Ḥaidarābād] and other noblemen.
- Dāstān i gunjis̲h̲k u Laʿl Parī (beg. Gauharīn t̲h̲anāʾī kih ba-intiẓām i ṣifāt i d̲h̲āt), the story of a sparrow and Laʿl Parī, which forms the framework for a number of moral tales, completed in 1144/1731, in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh [ a.h. 1131–61/1719–48]: Ivanow 304 (foll.144. 18th cent.).
§ 758. M. Ḥasan b. ʿUmdat al-Mulk Amīr K̲h̲ān67(1) b. K̲h̲alīl Allāh K̲h̲ān Ni’mat-Allāhī Ḥusainī was in the service of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh, but took offence and retired to Mālwah.
- Guldastah, a collection of historical anecdotes relating mainly to the Indian Tīmūrids and each illustrating some moral quality, compiled in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s fifteenth year (1145/1732–3) on the model of the Faraj baʿd al-s̲h̲iddah (see pl. iii § 672 supra) and the Nigāristān (See pl. i § 132 (1)) and divided into a section on the Prophet, then forty-one ḥikāyāt (the author having been unable to complete the hundred ¶ oginally planned) and a k̲h̲atimah: Oxford Ind. Inst. ms. Whinfield 25 (a.h. 1231/1816) = Bodleian iii 2487.
§ 759. Abū ’l-Fatḥ b. Muẓaffar.
- Nawādir al-nuqūl fī maʾāt̲h̲ir al-ʿuqūl (beg. Laṭāʾif i taḥmīdāt i bī-shumār), a collection of anecdotes compiled at the request of the author’s son, M. Nit̲h̲ār ʿAlī, mainly from a number of historical and other works (enumerated by Rieu), completed in 1151/1738–9 and divided according to subject into twenty-one bābs the headings of which are similar to those of the Laṭāʾif al-ṭawāʾif: Rieu ii p.769 b (a.h. 1154/1741).
§ 760. Ānand-Rām “Muk̲h̲liṣ” Lāhaurī died at Delhi in 1164/1751 (see pl. i § 780).
- C̲h̲amanistān: see pl. iii § 534 (1) supra.
- Hangāmah i ʿis̲h̲q (beg. K̲h̲udāwandā qalam i ās̲h̲uftah-raqam rā c̲h̲ih qudrat), the love-story of Kunwar (i.e. Prince) Sundar Sēn of the Karnātak, and Rānī (i.e. Queen) C̲h̲and Parbhā, completed in 1152/1739–40, the year in which the story was related to “Muk̲h̲liṣ” by a Dak’hanī servant:68 Lindesiana p. 201 no. 625 (a.h. 1152/1739–40), Bānkīpūr xi 882 (5) (19th cent.).
- Kār-nāmah i ʿis̲h̲q (beg. Gul gul shiguftagī i c̲h̲aman i bayān), the love-story of Prince Gauhar, of China, and Princess Mamlakat completed in 1144/1731–2: i.o. Johnson Album 38 (beautifully illustrated.), Bānkīpūr ix 882 (6) (19th cent.).
§ 761. K̲h̲wājah M. Nāṣir “ʿAndalīb” Muḥammadī, a Ṣūfī, who claimed to be a descendant of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqs̲h̲band (see pl. i § 1263), died in 1172/1759.69 His elder son, K̲h̲wājah Mir “Dard” Muḥammadī,70 is regarded as one of the greatest of Urdu poets.
[Majmaʿ al-nafāʾis; Gul i raʿnā; Blumhardt i.o. cat. of Hindustani mss. p.72 (in the account of “Dard”); Bānkīpūr cat. viii p. 186; Saksēna History of Urdu literature p. 55.]
- ¶ Nālah i ʿAndalīb, or Afsānah i gul u bulbul (beg. al-Ḥ. l. al-Raḥīm al-Raḥmān allad̲h̲ī k̲h̲alaq al-insān), a long romance, the story of Prince Mihr i Jahāngīr and his friend Māh i Munīr, composed in 1153/1740 to explain points of Ṣūfism, theology, ethics, etc.: Bānkīpūr viii 748 (808 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 762. Rāy Kirpā-dayāl, son of Rāy Mansā-Rām, K’hatrī, of the Mangal tribe, calls himself an inhabitant of Siyālkōt, in the ṣūbah of Lahore.
- Rangīn bahār (beg. Ibtidā-yi nāmah bar nām i K̲h̲udāwand i Karīm*), the love-story of Prince Bahrām and the daughter of King Dārāb retold in ornate prose interspersed with verses and completed in 1155/1742: Rieu ii 770 a (late 18th cent.).
§ 763. “Rāḥat”, who mentions his tak̲h̲alluṣ, but not his proper name,71 in the preface to his Guls̲h̲an i ʿiṣmat (p. 44), says that, while employed under Dīwān Himmat Sing’h at the village of Raḥīmābād in the parganah of Sandīlah [a town 32 miles N.W. of Lucknow], he was present at a gathering of friends and took part in a discussion of female chastity (ʿiṣmat i niswān). Each person having related a story in illustration of this subject, his contribution, the tale of ʿIṣmat al-nisāʾ Bānū, which he had heard orally from his preceptor, Ḥājjī S̲h̲. Bāb Allāh, was considered the best, and at the suggestion of Mīr G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain he undertook to clothe it in ornate language.
Guls̲h̲an i ʿiṣmat72 (beg. Laʾālī i sp. u st. nut̲h̲ār i āstān i Jamīlī), the story of ʿIṣmat al-nisāʾ Bānū, the [doubtless imaginary] foster-child of Aurangzēb’s daughter, Zēb al- nisāʾ Bēgam, and her husband, Najīb, completed in 1157/1744.73
Edition: Qiṣṣah i Najīb maʿrūf bah Guls̲h̲an i ʿiṣmat, Lucknow 1268/1851*(pp. 46).
§ 764. Mansā-Rām Muns̲h̲ī K̲h̲ūs̲h̲ābi.74
- Qiṣṣah i Hīr u Rānjhah (beg. Intik̲h̲āb (sic ?) i kitāb i dānis̲h̲ u ʿunwān i dīwān i bīnis̲h̲ sitāyis̲h̲ (so Ivanow Curzon 118) or Nuk̲h̲ustin kalām rā (so ¶ Rieu ii 770b), a Panjābi love-story75 retold in ornate prose and verse and completed in 1157/1744: Ivanow Curzon 118 (a.h. 1157/1744), Rieu ii 770 b (18th cent. 14 pictures), Lindesiana p. 186 no. 666 (a.d. 1851).
§ 765. Ūdit-c̲h̲and “ʿAzīz” Kāyat’h.
- Qiṣṣah i Naurūz S̲h̲āh (beg. Tāzah ḥikāyatī g̲h̲arīb), the story of Naurūz S̲h̲āh, an Indian king accustomed to take a new partner each night, and Nīk-duk̲h̲t, who retained his favour for seven nights by telling him interesting tales, completed in 1157/1744: Rieu ii 770 a (18th cent.).
§ 766. Kis̲h̲an Sing’h “Nas̲h̲āṭ” b. Rāy Prān Nāt’h K’hatrī Mangal, a resident of Siyālkōt, translated from the Sanskrit of the Panchakroṣa (which is a portion of the Kāśī-māhātmya) a section relating to the atoning efficacy of worship at the shrines of Shiva at Benares (Rieu ii p. 795 b ii). A work of his entitled Bahār i k̲h̲ayāl is included in Ivanow-Curzon 162.
- G̲harīb al-ins̲h̲āʾ (beg. Suk̲h̲an-sāzī i zabān i s̲h̲īrīn-kār), a short narrative in ornate prose composed in 1157/1744 on the model of the S̲h̲as̲h̲ jihat (see § 751 supra) and the Badāʾiʿ al-jamāl of Dīwān Rūp-Narāyan: Rieu ii 795 b iii (late 18th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 162 foll. 154b–155 (extract only).
§ 767. S̲h̲ēō-Nāt’h.
- Dānis̲h̲-ārāy, a collection of stories in prose and verse composed in 1159/1746: Browne Suppt. 469 (King’s 182).
§ 768. Suk’h-Rāj “Niyāz” walad i Bāl-C̲h̲and.
- Nigār i dānis̲h̲ (K̲h̲wus̲h̲tarīn maqālī kih durrah i tījān), the love-story of the Indian prince Sulṭān Jān-i-Jahān (or Jān-i-Jahān Sulṭān ?) and Tāj Bānū written in florid prose intermixed with verses and completed in 1161/1748: Berlin 1041.
§ 769. Allāh-dād K̲h̲ān “Faiyāḍ”.
- Rūḥ al-qiṣaṣ (beg. Sp. i bī-q. u st. i bī-ālāyis̲h̲ ān Ṣāniʿ i Yaktā rā), the love-story of prince Āftāb and Princess Māhtāb, heard by the author from a darwīs̲h̲ named S̲h̲āh Naẓar-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and completed in 1163/1750: Edinburgh 353 (apparently autograph foll. 391. Jaipūr, 1170/1756–7).
¶ § 770. M. Taqī “K̲h̲ayāl” al-Jaʿfarī al-Husainī al-Aḥmadābādī says in his preface (according to Pertsch, Berlin no. 1040) that he was born at Aḥmadābād, in Gujrāt, and that he left his birthplace in the seventh year of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s reign [i.e. 1137–8/1725–6]. His Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl was begun at S̲h̲āhjahānābād (i.e. Delhi) in 1155/1742. According to Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, who describes him as a pupil of “T̲h̲ābit”,76 he went to Bengal in the time of ʿAlī-Wirdī K̲h̲ān [1153–69/1740–56] and died in 1173/1759–60.
[Tad̲h̲kira i Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Sprenger p. 193)]
Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl (beg. Tabāraka ’llad̲h̲ī jaʿala fi ’l-samāʾi burūjan), a vast series of tales relating “at great length, and in familiar language, the endless and rather monotonous adventures” (Rieu) of Sulṭān Muʿizz al-Dīn Abū Tamīm,77 called Ṣāhib-qirān i Akbar, S̲h̲āh-zādah K̲h̲wurshīd Tāj-bak̲h̲s̲h̲, called Ṣāḥib-qirān i Aʿẓam, and S̲h̲āh-zādah Badr i Munīr, called Ṣāḥib-qirān i Aṣg̲h̲ar, as well as of a host of other human and supernatural beings, begun at S̲h̲āhjahānālād (i.e. Delhi) in 1155/1742–3, completed at Murs̲h̲idābād in D̲hū ’l-Ḥijjah 1169/Aug.-Sept.1756, dedicated to Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān, his two brothers Nawwāb M. Isḥāq K̲hān and Nawwāb Mirzā ʿAlī-K̲h̲ān [the sons of Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān, Nāẓim of Bengal] and, in the case of (the last ?) four volumes (see Būhār 459), to Nawwāb Sirāj al-Daulah, and divided into fourteen, fifteen or sixteen volumes,78 concerning which, with their groupings into bahārs and their superabundant ¶ alternative tiles, the indications in the mss. and even the author’s own statements (owing mainly to changes of plan) are sometimes contradictory, but which are roughly as follows:
Bahār i = Mahdi-nāmah79 = Muqaddimat al-kitāb = Jilds i– ii of the whole work, dealing with the story of Sulṭān Abū ’l-Qāsim M. Mahdi, etc.,
Bahār ii = Muʿizz-nāmah = Gulistān i, subdivided into a muqaddimah (apparently=Qāʾim-nāmah80 = jild iii of the whole work, on the reign of Sulṭān al-Qāʾim bi-amri ’llāh, Sulṭān Muʿizz al-Din’s grandfather, and the accession of his father, Sulṭān Ismāʿil al-Manṣūr bi-quwwati ’llah. See Aumer p. 583, Ethé 835, Bodleian col. 440), and two guls̲h̲ans each containing two gulzārs (= Jilds iv– viii of the whole work),
Bahār iii = K̲hwurs̲h̲īd-nāmah = Gulistān ii = Jilds viii– xiv of the whole work, dealing with the adventures of Shāh-zādah Muʿizz al-Dīn K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd Tāj-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ and S̲h̲āh-zādah Badr i Munīr and subdivided into seven Jilds or daftars81 of which the second82 has a large supplement in two s̲h̲aṭrs entitled S̲h̲āh-nāmah i buzurg. while the seventh (the fourteenth of the whole work) also has two s̲h̲aṭrs, and finally Jild xv, which is concerned with the remaining adventures of S̲h̲āh-zādah Muʿizz al-Dīn, his marriage etc., and contains two faṣls and the k̲h̲ātimat al-kitāb. Aumer 185 (Bahār ii, muqaddimah and guls̲h̲an 1. a.h. 1160/1747), 186 (Bahār ii, guls̲h̲an 2. a.h. 1182/1768–9), Lindesiana p. 196 no. 905 (a.h. 1169/1755–6), Rieu ii 770b (Bahār ii, jilds 3–4 [i.e. apparently guls̲h̲an 2]. 18th cent.), 771 a (Bahār iii, S̲h̲āh-nāmah i buzurg, s̲h̲aṭr 2, together with a volume called S̲h̲aṭr al-jild (?). a.h. 1169/1756), 771 b (Bahār iii, jilds 2 (?) and 3. Not later than a.d. 1781), 772 a (Bahār iii, S̲h̲aṭr al-jild. date 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 749–65 (apparently nearly complete, but one or two parts ¶ are not identified with certainty. K̲h̲atimah dated 1200/1786; the rest, dated and undated, of 19th cent.), Ethé 833–45 (Jilds i– xiii the last (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd u t̲h̲anā-yi ḥaḍrat i Karīm i Kārsāz83) being described as the fifth daftar or jild of the third Bahār. Several of the volumes are dated 1202/1787–8, but they are not all in the same hand), Ross- Browne 62–67* (“fair copy,” [complete ?] “in seven volumes, made presumably for Sir William Jones”), Ivanow 305 (Bahār ii, guls̲h̲an 1. 18th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 945 (Bahār iii, jild 1 (beg. Adā-yi ḥamd u sipās), i.e. Jild viii of the whole work (cf. Ethé 839, Bānkīpūr viii 755), a.h. 1271/1856), 946 (Jild xii (so described on fol. 1b and in colophon. Beg.: Zabān i insān. Cf. note on Ethé mss. supra. Mid 19th cent.), 947 (same volume. Mid 19th cent.), 948 (same volume, differing from the preceding two at the end. a.h. 1230/1815), Bodleian 480 (apparently lacking Jilds xi and xiv. a.h. 1185–1201/1772–87), Būhār 448–60 (14 vols. containing most of the work, but one or two of the parts have not been identified. a.h. 1300–3/1883–6), Berlin 1040 (a volume, defective at both ends, in which Princes Muẓaffar b. Iqṭā (?) and Qāʾim al-Mulk [= al-Qāʾim bi-amri ’llāh. See Bodleian col. 440, P. 37] play the Chief parts. Described by Pertsch as Vol. i.).
Edition: “It was lithographed in two huge vols. (Lucknow ? - apparently only in part)”. (Ivanow 2nd Suppt. p. 14). An edition of 1309/1891–2 is recorded (without mention of the place of publication) in Āṣafīyah ii p. 1274.
Abridged Urdū translation: Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl, ed. S. Nādir ʿAlī Saifī, Pts. i– v, Lahore 1891–3*.
Urdu translation of particular portions:84 [Bahār i] Mahdī-nāmah Urdū tarjamah i (jild i awwal u duwum i) kitāb i ṣādiq al-aḥwāl Būstān i k̄hayāl, tr. M. ʿAskarī, Lucknow 1882° (pp. 294. fol.). [Bahār ii] Qāʾim-nāmah, tr. Mirzā M. ʿAskarī, Lucknow 1882* (pp. 220 4 to). [Bahār ii] Riyād al-abṣār “a translation of Jilds iii and iv of the Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl by Khwājah Badr al- Dīn K̲h̲ān” (Blumhardt), Delhi 1867* (pp. 528. Fol.), 1883* (pp. 528. Fol.). [Bahār ii] Ḥadāʾiq i anẓār, “a translation by K̲h̲wājah Badr al-Dīn K̲h̲ān of the first part of Bahār ii…. containing the Muʿizz-nāmah or adventures of Shāh-zādah Muʿizz al-Dīn Tamīm” ¶ (Blumhardt), Delhi 1292/1875°* (2nd ed. Pp. 556. Fol.). [Bahār ii] Badr al-āt̲h̲ār, “a translation of Jild iv. of the … Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl … By K̲h̲wājah Badr al-Din K̲h̲ān” (Blumhardt), Delhi 1875* (pp. 640. Fol.). [Bahār ii] Miṣbāh al- nahār, “a transation of Book 6 of the Būstān i K̲h̲ayāl, commenced by K̲h̲wājah Badr al-Dīn K̲h̲ān, and completed, after his death, by Muḥammad Muḳarrab Ḥusain K̲h̲ān” (Blumhardt), Meerut 1298/1881° (pp. 676. Fol.). [Bahār ii] Kāsh̲i̲f al-asrār, “a translation by Muḥammad Muḳarrab Ḥusain K̲h̲ān of Book 7 of the Būstān i K̲h̲ayāl” (Blumhardt), Meerut 1883° (pp. 612. Fol.). [Bahār iii] S̲h̲ams al-anwār, “a translation by K̲h̲wājah Badr al-Dīn K̲h̲ān of a portion of Bahār iii, i.e. Books 8 and 9, of the Būstān i K̲h̲ayāl, containing the K̲h̲urshīd-nāmah, or Adventures of Shāh-zādah K̲h̲urshīd Tājbak̲h̲sh” (Blumhardt) Delhi 1287/1870° (pp. 727. fol.). [Bahār iii] Najm al-asrār, “a translation of Jilds ix and x of the … Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl … By K̲h̲wājah Badr al-Dīn K̲h̲ān” (Blumhardt), Delhi 1879* (pp. 736. fol.). [Bahār iii] K̲h̲azīnat al-asrār tarjamah i K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-nāmah jild i s̲h̲as̲h̲um85 i Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl, tr. Mīrzā Muḥsin ʿAlī K̲h̲ān alias Āg̲h̲ā Ḥajjū “Hindī”, Cawnpore 1906* (pp. 745).
Urdu translation of select stories: Zubdutool Khyal [“Persian tales, being a translation by ʿĀlam ʿĀlī86 of Select stories taken from the Būstān i K̲h̲ayāl …” (Blumhardt)], Calcutta 1844* (pp.414), [Calcutta] 1846° (pp. 414).
§ 771. In the preface to his Guls̲h̲an i ḥusn S. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī gives many autobiographical details and mentions that he had met Rājah Partāb Sing’h, Jaʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān [Nawwāb of Bengal, 1170–4/1757–60 and 1177–8/1763–5], and other persons of distinction.
- Guls̲h̲an i ḥusn (beg. S̲h̲ukr [u] sp. i bī-q. mar ḥaḍrat i Bī-niyāz i Karīm), an extensive series of bombastically written romances and fairy tales begun (and completed ?87) in 1181/1767–8, in S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign, on the basis of “a Hindi story composed by Kabīr (?) Sing’h, a Rajput, of Benares” (so Ivanow), or, as Ethé puts it, “the legendary story of Râi Cátor and Cándar” (Qiṣṣah i C̲h̲atōr u C̲h̲andar), to which the author’s attention had been ¶ drawn by a friend in Benares: Ivanow Curzon 716 (1183 Faṣlī / a.d. 1774–5 (?)), Ethé ii 3026.
§ 772. For the Malāḥat i maqāl, a collection of historical anecdotes completed by Delpat Rāy not earlier than 1181/1767–8 and protably not much later, see pl. i § 684. Another Ms.: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. ix/1 p.23).
§ 773. Muns͟hī ʿAlī Riḍā transcribed in 1192/1778 the b.m. ms. add. 6632 (Rieu ii 803b).
- Qiṣṣah i Kalākām, a version of the Qiṣṣah i Kamrūp (cf. § 738 supra) translated for Captain John Ritchie from the Hindī (zabān i Hinduwī) into the colloquial Persian of India: Rieu ii 803b (68 foll. a.h. 1192/1778).
§ 774. Mīr Qamar al-Dīn. “Minnat”, a disciple of Maulānā M. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn (cf. pl. i § 1372, ‘Manāqib i Fak̲h̲rīyah …’), was in early life associated with Nawwāb ʿImād al-Mulk (cf. pl. i § 1372). In 1191/1777 he migrated from Delhi to Lucknow and was taken later by Richard Johnson88 to Calcutta and introduced to Warren Hastings, who conferred upon him the title of Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ. He died there in 1207/1792–3 or 1208/1793–4. Among his Persian works were a dīwān (Sprenger no. 377, Ethé 1723, Bānkīpūr iii 418) and a mat̲h̲nawī composed in 1195/1781 and dedicated to Richard Johnson on the love-story of Hīr and Rānjhā89 (Sprenger no. 377, Ethé 1724). He wrote also a small amount of Urdu poetry.
[Mak̲h̲zan i nikāt; Gulzār i Ibrāhīm; K̲hulāṣat al-kalām (Bodleian 390 no. 64, Bānkīpūr cat. viii p. 145); K̲hulāṣat al-afkār no. 476; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no.2697; Sprenger p. 258; Garcin de Tassy ii p.303; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 415; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Minnat; Bānkīpūr cat. iii pp. 243–4; Blumhardt Catalogue of the Hindustani MSS in the … India Office p. 93a; etc.]
- S̲h̲akaristān, an imitation of the Gulistān: Ivanow 1st Suppt. 782 (short extract only. Early 19th cent.)
§ 775. M. Yaqīn.
- Tuḥfat al-Yaqīnī (beg. S̲h̲ukr K̲h̲udā rā kih marā qudrat i guftār dād), a collection of tales compiled in 1197/1782 for beginners in Persian and divided ¶ (according to the preface) into six bābs ((1) dar ʿadl u inṣāf, (2) dar bayān i laṭāʾif i bad-gūyān, etc.); Berlin 1024 (a.d. 1792).
§ 776. Muns̲h̲ī Lac̲h̲hman Sing’h “G̲h̲ayūrī” Dihlawī has already been mentioned as the author of an ins̲h̲āʾ (pl. iii § 571 supra).
S̲h̲uʿlah i āh (beg. S̲h̲iguftagī i guls̲h̲an i qiṣṣah-pardāzī), the romance of Prince Malik Muḥammad and S̲h̲ams (variants: S̲h̲amsah, S̲h̲ahr) Bānū, translated from an Urdū original by order of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam [who reigned from 1173/1759 to 1221/1806]: Bodleian 482 (a.h. 1198/1784), Lindesiana p. 181 nos. 668 (circ. a.d. 1800), 298 (a.h. 1230/1814), Ethé 848, Edinburgh New Coll. p. 11, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. ix/ i p. 26).
Edition: [Lucknow ?] 1262/1846* (pp. 112. Cf. Zenker ii no. 669).
§ 777. Bībī (i.e. Mrs.) Brooke was the Indian wife of William Augustus Brooke, who has already been mentioned (pl. i § 882) as the dedicatee of the Ḥas̲h̲mat i Kas̲h̲mīr.
Miftāḥ i qulūb i mubtadiyān, a collection of stories written as an exercise in Persian composition and completed in 1213/1798–9: Bodleian iii 2528 (ms. Whinfield 53).
Translation: The key of the hearts of beginners. A set of tales written down in Persian by Bibi Brooke, and translated …[from Whinfield’s ms.] by A.S. Beveridge. London 1908* (pp. 80).
§ 778. S. Ḥusain S̲h̲āh “Ḥaqīqat” has already been been mentioned as the author of a Persian grammar, Tuḥfat al-ʿAjam, (pl. iii § 206) a collection of riddles, Ṣanam-Kadah i C̲h̲īn, (pl. iii § 393 supra), both completed in 1213/1798–9, and a collection of proverbs (§ 659 supra). His Has̲h̲t gulzār, an Urdu verse translation of K̲h̲usrau’s Has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t, was completed at Madrās in 1225/1810 (see Blumhardt, i.o. mss. cat, p. 42).
- Has̲h̲t gulgas̲h̲t (beg. Baʿd i. ḥ i K̲h̲udāy kih bihis̲h̲t u dūzak̲h̲), the story of Bahrām and Gul-andām, being a prose paraphrase of K̲h̲usrau Dihlawī’s Has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t (cf. pl. i § 665 (2) (e)) completed in 1215/1800–1 at the request of “M. Charles Perron, who served under Daulat Rāō Sindhia”:90 Ivanow 315 (a.h. 1217/1802–3).
- Nak̲h̲listān (beg. Midḥat mar yaktāʾī rā), a collection of tales written in 1218/1803–4: Rehatsek p. 233 no. 56, Ross-Browne p. 153 no. 253 (transcribed from the preceding).
§ 780. Kās͟hī Nāt’h K’hatrī was a native of Lahore but he lived later at Benares.
- Ḥikāyat i Kās̲h̲ī Nāt’h, written at the request of Mrs. Frances Birch and containing (1) Indian rules of etiquette, (2) a muwas̱hs̲h̲aḥ poem in praise of the author’s patroness, (3) fifty-two stories in easy Persian: Bodleian iii 2523 (a.h. 1808, autograph).
§ 781. M. “Nadīm” b. M. Kāẓim, who died in 1241/1825–6, and his work, the Mufarriḥ al-qulūb have already been mentioned (pl. i § 424, where his tak̲h̲alluṣ “Nadīm” is erroneously treated as his name as well as his tak̲h̲alluṣ).
- Mufarriḥ al-qulūb (beg. Mufarriḥ al-qulūbī kih d̲h̲ikr i ṣanāʾiʿ i gūnāgūn), divided into five bābs (each subdivided into two faṣls) treating of various religious and moral qualities with illustrative anecdotes and tales (among which are fairly long stories of (1) S̲h̲āh-zādah Abū ’l-Manṣūr and Humāy i Farruk̲h̲-ruk̲h̲, foll. 27a–49b, (2) Abū ’l-ʿAlāʾ i Mauṣilī, the merchant’s son and Princess Qamar-sīmā, foll. 58a–90a, (3) Malik Kamāl al-Dīn, son of Masīḥā-yi Zāhid, foll. 94b–113b) and a k̲h̲ātimah (for which see pl. i § 424): Rieu Suppt. 397 (19th cent.).
§ 782. Amīn, i.e. apparently K̲h̲wājah M. Amīn K̲h̲ān, whose friend the copyist claims to have been.
- Nigāristān i Amīn (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd u sipās i K̲h̲āliq i Bī-chūn u Bī-s̲h̲abīh u Bī-numūn), bombastically written stories from Indian life, completed in 1232/1817: Ivanow Curzon 123 (a.h. 1233/1818)
§ 783. M. Muḥsin Muṣṭafā-ābādī.
- Guldastah i Muḥsīnī, composed in 1234/1818–19:Āṣafīyah ii p. 1280 no. 151 (a.h. 1270/1853–4).
§ 784. K̲h̲wājah Amīr Qādirī.
Maʿdin al-jawāhir a collection of anecdotes compiled in 1235/1819–20 and divided into thirty jawāhir: Lahore Panjāb univ. (defective at end see ocm. ix/ i p. 26).
Edition: place ? 1301/1883–4 (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 1280).
- Jāmiʿ K̲h̲āqānī (beg. Sp. u st. ān-rā ki ba-sitūdan sazā-st), anecdotes illustrating the kingly virtues (including those of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh) in five ṣaḥīfahs ((1) dar ḥikmat, (2) dar faḍīlat i s̲h̲ajaʿat, (3) …ʿiffat, (4) …ʿadālat, (5) further anecdotes: Maʿārif ii 212 (586 foll. a.h. 1235/1819. Ornate ms.).
§ 786. M. Ṣādiq “Humā” waqāʾiʿ-nigār Marwazī, who was still alive in 1247/1831–2, has already been mentioned as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i jahān-ārā (pl. i. § 427) and the Zīnat al-madāʿiḥ (pl. i § 1188).
- Rāḥat al-arwāḥ (dar ḥikāyāt), written to alleviate the insomnia of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh: Majlis 682.
§ 787. M. ʿAlī b. Iskandar S̲h̲īrwānī, a brother of Zain al-ʿĀbidīn S̲h̲īrwānī for whom see pl. i § 1609), went as a boy to the holy shrines of ʿIrāq and spent nearly twenty years there, studying under his father and others. He then set out on extensive travels, which took him to Persia, India, Afg̲h̲ānistān, Persia again, Mecca and Medina, Syria, Asia Minor, Istanbul, where he stayed three years, the Ḥijāz again, Cairo, where he spent six years, and then back to Persia (S̲h̲īrāz, Ṭihrān, Ṭabaristān and Gīlān).
- Ḥaqīqat al-ḥaqāʾiq i S̲h̲āhīyah fī ’l-talwīḥ ilā tarjīḥ al-masālik al-Niʿmat-Allāhīyah (beg. Ājnās i sipās i k̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-iqtibās), a demonstration of the superiority of man to all other beings, in the form of a floridly written and much expanded Ṣūfī adaption of the contest between man and the animals in the twenty-first risālah of the Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ, composed (begun ?) at Ardabīl in Jumādā ii 1250/1824, completed in 1252/1836–7 and dedicated to Muḥammed S̲h̲āh Qājār: Rieu Suppt. 387 (253 foll. 19th cent.).
§ 788. Mirzā Ḥabīb Allāh “Qāʾānī” S̲h̲īrāzī, “by general consent the most notable poet produced by Persia in the nineteenth century” (Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 326), was born at S͟hīrāz about 1222/1807–8 and died at Ṭihrān in 1270/1853–4.
[Ṭāhir “S̲h̲iʿrī” Iṣfahānī Ganj i s̲h̲āygān pp. 362–410; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 402–22; Rieu Suppt. 367; Bānkīpūr iii 440; Ency. Isl. under Kaʾānī [sic] (Huart); Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp.326–35; etc. See especially Qáání, le poète persan du XIXe siècle, par Veͮra Kubicͮková Prague 1954‡ (Czechoslovak Acadamy of Sciences. Supplements to the Archiv Orientálni iii (1954).]
Parīs̲h̲ān (beg. Tuwānā K̲h̲udāʾī kih bī-k̲h̲wudān i bazm i maḥabbat), an imitation of Saʿdī’s Gulistān completed on 20 Rajab 1252/31 October 1836 and consisting of hundred and thirteen anecdotes followed by ¶ “thirty-three truly Machiavellian counsels to Kings and Princes” (Browne Lit. Hist iv. p. 335): Leningrad Univ. no. 635* (Salemann-Rosen p.12).
Editions: Ṭihrān 1271/1855° (Hād̲h̲ā kitāb i Parīs̲h̲ān … Pp. 181); Ṭihrān 1302/1885° (Dīwān i ḥaqīqat-bayān i Ḥakīm Qāʾānī - Kitāb i Parīs̲h̲ān—G̲h̲azalīyāt i Furūg̲h̲ī - Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr. The dīwān including the Parīs̲h̲ān, followed by g̲h̲azals of “Furūg̲h̲i” and Jalāl al-Dīn Mīrzā and preceded by Waṭwāṭ’s Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr. Pp.23, 373 (1–40 being occupied by the Parīs̲h̲ān), 75); 1322/1904–5 (with the dīwān. Karatay p. 94); Tabrīz 1273/1856–7‡ (Dīwān i … Ḥakīm Qāʾānī Mīrzā Ḥabīb i S̲h̲īrāzī… The dīwān preceded, on foll. 1b–40a, by the Parīs̲h̲ān); Bombay 1277/1860* (Dīwān i …Ḥakīm Qāʾānī Mīrzā Ḥabīb S̲h̲īrāzī. The dīwān preceded by a life of the poet and his Parīs̲h̲ān. Pp. 38, 395, 26); 1881° (Dīwān i …Ḥakīm Qāʾānī. An edition including the Parīs̲h̲ān. Pp. 48, 395, 27); [Persia] 1287/1870°* (Kitāb i Gulist̄an … The introduction and part of the first chapter of Saʿdī’s Gulistān with the first part of the Parīs̲h̲ān on the margin. Foll. 41); Cawnpore 1872° (Gulistān i Ḥakīm Qāʾānī. Pp. 122); 1897° (G. i. Ḥ. Q. Pp. 122).
Selections: Short simple select passages from the Gulistán of Ká-áni … annotated and explained (by Jams̲h̲ēdjī Bējanjī Kāngā in Kanga’s Persian Series. The New Persian Readers …, No.2 (Bombay 1895°), pp. 1–9. 78–81).
§ 789. Muḥammad (properly G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad) Mahdī “Wāṣif” b. M. ʿĀrif al-Dīn K̲h̲ān has already been mentioned as the author of the Persian dictionary Dalīl al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (pl. iii § 61), the Urdu-Persian dictionary Dalīl i sāṭiʿ (pl. iii § 169) and other works (pl. iii § 618 supra).
Ḥikāyāt i dil-pasand, composed in 1263/1847 (according to Āṣafiyah); Āṣafiyah ii p.1276 no.120.
Editions: place ? 1269/1852–3 (see Āṣafīyah ii p.1276 no. 152); [Madrās 186 ?*] (pp. 164); Cawnpore 1291/1874* (pp. 99); 1297/1880°*(pp. 96); [Lucknow] 1880° (pp. 99).
§ 790. Twenty years before the compilation of the Daryā-yi aʿẓam the unknown author had presented another work to Nawwāb G̲h̲ulām-G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, of the Carnatic, (for whom see pl. i § 1209) in the hope, apparently unfulfilled, of obtaining a reward.
- Daryā-yi aʿẓam91 (beg. Dilam dar mauj-k̲h̲īz i baḥr i fikras̲h̲ *), stories of Persian kings and men of letters compiled in 1266/1850 for presentation to Nawwāb G̲h̲ulām-G̲h̲aut̲h̲: Madrās i 261.
¶ § 791. M.Raḍī Tabrīzī.
- Ḥadāʾiq al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq: 1270/1853–4 (Muṣṭafāʾī Pr. See ʿAligaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 51 no. 24, under Nat̲h̲r).
§ 792. Maulawī S. ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Guls̲h̲anābādī, known also as S. As̲h̲raf ʿAlī (which M. Idrīs describes as his laqab), was the son of S. ʿAbd Allāh Ḥusainī, a Naqawī Saiyid of Guls̲h̲anābād (i.e. Nāsik in the Bombay Presidency). Born in 1234/1818–19, he was appointed Muftī of the K̲h̲āndēs District Count in 1271/1854–5, and in 1284/1867–8 he became Professor of Arabic and Persian at Elphinstone College, Bombay. On retiring he returned to Nāsik, where be continued to teach and write. He was a Justice of the Peace and received from the government the title of K̲h̲ān Bahādur. Both in the Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿulamā-yī Hind (published in 1894) and in the Taṭyīb al-ik̲h̲wān (published in 1897) he is spoken of as still alive. A score of works by him, including a Jāmiʿ al-fatāwī in four volumes, are mentioned by Raḥmān ʿAlī, for the most part without indication of the language in which they where written. Several of his Urdu works, which include a number of school-books, are recorded in Blumhardt’s catalogues. A work of his on proverbs has already been mentioned in this survey (§ 670(13) supra).
[Niẓāmī Badāyūnī, Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) ii p. 65.]
Ṣad ḥikāyat an imitation of Saʿdī’s Gulistān: Bombay 1282/1866° (pp.88); 1290/1873* (pp.200); 131/1884* (pp. 184); [1890 ? °] (pp. 160); 1338/1920*(Sad Hekayet, or a Hundred stories … Thoroughly revised and corrected. Pp. 144); Lahore 1310/1892–3* (pp. 104).
Extracts: (1) The first fifty stories of the Kitāb-i-Sad Hikayat, transliterated and translated into English by Ardeshir Sorabji Master … and revised by [the author] Moulvi Saiyad Abdul Fattah alias Saiyad Ashraf Ali and Mirza Ismail. Bombay 1881° (pp. 48, 50). (2) First ten stories of Sad Hakayat … with a complete glossary and copious explanatory notes, with Sindhi equivalents,… &c. &c…. By Vasanmal Kishenchand Malkani. Ḥaidarābād (Sind) 1900° (pp. 16, 12).
Translations: (1) A literal translation of the first thirty stories from Sad Hekayet by E. R. Sahiar. Bombay 1885°* (pp. 24); A literal translation of the first fifty stories … by E. R. Sahiar. Fourth edition. Bombay 1902° (pp. 48); A literal translation … fifth edition. Revised and corrected. Bombay 1919* (pp. 48); (2) A literal translation of the first fifty tales from Sad Hekayat [By Kai khusrau Barjōrjī Lālā]. Bombay [1888°*] (pp. 56).
Commentary: Notes on Sad Hikayat.By F. B. Mistri. Surat 1911* (pp. 18).
Glossaries: see Edwards.
¶ § 793. Mīrzā Aḥmad “Waqār” S̲h̲īrāzī, the eldest son of the Mīrzā S̲h̲afīʿ “Wiṣāl” S̲h̲īrāzī (for whom see Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 316–19), like his father, a skilled calligraphist, was born in 1232/1817 according to Mas̲h̲ad v p. 272. In 1266/1849–50 he and his younger brother Mīrzā Maḥmūd “Ḥakīm” went to India and in the course of a year’s residence at Bombay he wrote the text of the edition of Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī’s Mat̲h̲nawī which was lithographed there in 1266–7/1849–50°. Then at the invitation of Nuṣrat al-Daulah Fīrūz Mīrzā, Governor of Fārs, he returned to S̲h̲īrāz, and in 1274/1857–8 at the age of forty-two he visited Ṭihrān and received from Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh a robe of honour and a stipend. According to Mas̲h̲had v p. 27 he died in 1298/1881 although the date of death is given as 1274/1857–8 in Sipahsālār ii p. 1412. For an autograph ms. of his mat̲h̲nawī, Bahrām u Bihrūz, see Rieu Suppt. 369.
[Majmaʿ al-fuṣahāʾ ii pp. 548–58 (summarised in Rieu suppt. p. 230); al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 215; Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 225, 300, 319.]
- Anjuman i dānis̲h̲ an imitiation of Saʿdī’s Gulistān composed at Ṭihrān in 1281/1864–5: Ṭihrān 1289–90/1872–3° (pp. 228. Cf. Mas̲h̲ad 14, ptd. bks., no. 25).
§ 794. M. Bāqir Dāmād Sabzawārī.
- Rauḍat al-anwār: [Persia] 1285/1868–9 (see ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 51 no. 23, under Nat̲h̲r).
§ 795. M. ʿAlī “Bahār” b. Āqā Abū Ṭālib mud̲h̲ahhib Iṣfahānī has already been mentioned (pl. i § 1214) as the author of the Madāʾiḥ al-Muʿtamadiyah completed apparently in 1259/1843 and enlarged in 1263/1847.
Yak̲h̲c̲h̲ālīyah, facetious tales: i.o. 4620 (see jras. 1939 p. 387).
Editions: [Persia] 1290/1873° (foll. 64. Edited with a preface by M. Ḥusain “Adīb”. Illustrated); 1298/1881° (foll. 56).
§ 796. S. Farzand i ʿAlī Munīrī.92
- Surūd i mastān u ba-ism i tarīk̲h̲ī Jān i ahl i k̲h̲arābāt, a tale in prose and verse93 composed in 1294/1877: [Lucknow] 1877°* (pp. 16).
§ 797. M. ʿAlī94 “Jaiḥūn” Yazdī lived in the reign of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh. His kullīyāt (317 pp.) were lithographed at Bombay in 1316/1899 (see Browne Lit. Hist. iv ¶ p. 326). An uninformative biography is given in the Ātas̲h̲-kadah i Yazdān pp. 282–3.
- Namakdān, modelled on the Gulistān (see Browne loc. cit.): published presumably in the Kullīyāt mentioned above.
§ 798. ʿAbd al-Ḥusain, known as (al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-) Mīrzā Āqā K̲h̲ān Kirmānī, who was the son of Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm of Bardasīr near Kirmān, and who was put to death on 4 Ṣafar 1314/15 July 1896, has already been mentioned as the author of the Āʾīnah i Sikandarī (pl. i § 330 (1)) and the Nāmah i bāstān (ibid.). For his Sạd k̲h̲iṭābāh see pl. iii § 628 supra.
- Riḍwān (beg. Taʿālā D̲h̲āt i Lam-yazal kih waḥdatas̲h̲ mans̲h̲aʾ i kat̲h̲rat ast), an imitation of the Gulistān completed in 1304/1886–7, dedicated to Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd and divided into a muqaddimah, four mausims, and a k̲h̲ātimah: Browne Coll: χ. 11 (a.h. 1331/1913), Majlis 285.
§ 799. Mīrzā S̲h̲ākir Ṭihrānī is describe as maujūd, i.e. still living, in Vol. ii of the Āṣafīyah catalogue, published in 1333/1915.
- Ṭūṭī i s̲h̲akar-guftār. Edition: 1305/1887–8 (Āṣafiyah ii p. 1276 no. 85).
§ 800. Ḥajjī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn Āqā Marāg̲h̲aʾī, a descendant of the Kurdish K̲h̲āns of Sāwj Bulāq and the son of a prosperous merchant at Marāg̲h̲ah, entered his father’s business at the age of seventeen. After his father’s death he traded for some years at Kutais in Transcaucasia and subsequently at Yalta in the Crimea, where he founded a successful store and became a naturalized Russian subject. Having lived for fifteen years at Yalta, he went to Istanbul and from there made the pilgrimage to Mecca. After his return to Istanbul he renounced his Russian citizenship in 1904 and became again a Persian subject. He died at Istanbul in April 1910 at the age of seventy-two.
[Biography prefixed to part iii of the Siyāḥat-nāmah; M. Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī’s biographical preface to the Calcutta edition of 1910, which has a portrait as frontispiece; Rijāl i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 173–5.]
Siyāḥat-nāmah i Ibrāhīm Bēg, fictitious adventures satirising Persian methods of government and social conditions in three volumes, of which only the last appeared originally under the author’s real name: V ol. i: [Istanbul, Ak̲h̲tar Press, 1888]. See M. Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī’s biographical preface to the edition of 1910, where it is stated that in 1887 the manuscript was sent by the author for correction to the editor of the Ḥabl al-matīn, a Persian weekly newspaper published at Calcutta, and that the Istanbul edition contained neither date nor place of publication); [Calcutta, Ḥabl al-matīn Pr., 1890] (See Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī’s preface to the edition of 1910); ¶ Cairo n. d. ‡ (pp. 280. The words Dar Miṣr i Qāhirah ṭabʿ s̲h̲ud appear on the title-page, but no press is mentioned. Not mentioned by Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī); Bombay, Muẓaffarī Pr., 1324/1906°* (Pp.286,. Illustrated); Calcutta 1910°* (Siyāḥat-nama-yi-Ibrāhīm Beg. Recommended for the High Proficiency Examination in Persian…. Edited under the supervision of Lieutenant-Colonel D. C. Phillott … by Muḥammad Kāzim Shīrāzī. Pp. ii, 252. Portrait plate); Ḥaidarābād, Tāj Pr., 1338/1920* (edited, with a glossary, by Maulawī ʿAbd al-Laṭīf. Pp. 82, 17. Presumably selections only, to judge from the number of pages). vol. ii: Calcutta, Ḥabl al-matīn Pr., 1906 (See M. Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī’s preface to the 1910 edition of Vol. i), Calcutta, Paradise Pr., 1907°*95 (Ibrahim Beg Part II. Pp. 333, . Described as 2nd ed. Author’s name given by Edwards and Arberry as Jalāl al-Dīn al-Ḥasanī [sic] apparently on the authority of the Bengal Quarterly Catalogue, where Jalal ud din Husani [sic] is stated to be the author, but this is the name of the editor and publisher of the first edition, Muʾaiyid al-Islām S. Jalāl al-Dīn Ḥusainī Kās̲h̲ānī, Editor & publisher of the Ḥabl al-matīn (see Browne Press and Poetry p. 73)); Lahore [1931*] (Siyāḥat-nāmah … Ḥiṣṣah i duwum. Ed. M. Bāqir. Pp. 248); 1934* (pp. 232); vol. iii: Istanbul 1327/1909 (with author’s name on title-page. See Browne Lit. Hist iv p. 467.); Calcutta, Ḥabl al-matīn Pr. 1909* (Ibrahim Beg Part III Pp. [i], 4, 246. According to the preface of Phillott and Kāẓim S̲h̲īrāzī to the 1910 edition of Vol. i this third volume contained a life of the author).
German translation of Vol. i: Zustände im heutigen Persien wie sie das Reisebuch Ibrahim Begs enthüllt aus dem Persischen übersetzt and bearbeitet von Dr. Walter Schulz. Mit 1 farbigen Karte and 84 meist ganzseitigen Illustrationen in Autotypie. Leipzig 1903°*.
§ 801. M. Fauzī, Muftī of Adrianople, was the author of a religious poem entitled Quds al-mat̲h̲nawī (Istanbul, n.d., 16 pp. see Karatay p. 123).
- Bulbulistān, “ahlâkî hikâyeler”, doubtless in imitation of the Gulistān: Istanbul 1312/1895 (ʿĀmirah Pr. 78 pp. See Karatay p. 123).
§ 802. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān “Badīʿ” b. Mīrzā Riḍā K̲h̲ān was the author of a Tārīk̲h̲ i Baṣrah published at [Calcutta] in [1914°*] (see pl. i § 608 (6)).
- S̲h̲ams al-Dīn u Qamar (cf. Berthels Ocherk p. 147). Edition: place? 1326/1908 (Āṣafiyah iii p. 522).
- Riyād-al-hikāyāt, short tales arranged in twenty-one bābs according to subject ((1) Iblīs, (2) Women, (3) Madmen, etc.): [Tihrān] 1317/1900‡ (243 pp. Printer: Mas̲h̲hadī K̲h̲udā-dād. Writer: ʿAlī Naqī); Tihrān 1322/1904–5 (247 pp. Mus̲h̲ār 866); Tihrān 1352/1933–4(ʿIlmīyah i Islāmīyah Bkshp. Mus̲h̲ār 866); Tihrān, date ? (160 pp. K̲h̲urs̲h̲īd Pr. Mus̲h̲ār 867); place ? 1356/1937–8 (220 pp. Ak̲h̲awān Kitābc̲h̲ī. Mus̲h̲ār 866); place ? a.h.s. 1327/1948–9 (212 pp. C̲h̲āp i Islāmīyah. Mus̲h̲ār 867).
§ 804. Mahmūd Ṭarzī was born in 1285/1870 and was still alive in 1927. For his translations of novels by Victor Hugo and Jules Verne see pl. i § 1629.
§ 805. S̲h̲. Mūsā Nat̲h̲rī Hamadānī was Director of the Nuṣrat Government College at Hamadān.
- ʿIs̲h̲q u salṭanat, a novel relating to the time of Cyrus, of which the first volume was completed in 1334/1916: Hamadān 1337/1919 (Vol. i only. Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 464).
- Sitārah i Līdī,96 the second volume; Karāc̲h̲ī 1344/1926* (S. i. L. yā jild i duwum i ʿI. u s. Pp. 184).
§ 806. Ahmad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān K̲h̲udā-dādah.
Rūz i siyāh i kārgar, the adventures of a Kurdish peasant born in 1300/1882: Kirmānshāh 1927.
Russian translation: Krest’yanskaya dolya, by V. Tardov. Moscow 1931 (230 pp. See a review by V. Minorsky in bsos. viii/3 (1934) p. 699).
§ 807. Ṣanʿatī-zādah Kirmānī.
- Dām-gustarān yā Intiqām-k̲h̲wāhān i Mazdak:Bombay 1339/1920–1 (Vol. i. See Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 466, Berthels Ocherk pp. 146, 156).
§ 808. Ṣādiq Hidāyat [(cf. pl. ii § 584 (50)) died in Paris in 1951. See tls. 5 Aug.1955 p. xlvi. v. s.]
- Sāyah u raus̲h̲an, tales: Ṭihrān a.h.s. 1312/1933* (Raus̲h̲anāʾī Pr. 151 pp).
- Sih qaṭrah i k̲h̲ūn, short stories: Ṭihrān a.h.s.1311/1932* (Raus̲h̲anāʾī Pr. 151 pp.).
Būfah i kur: Bombay 1937(Harrassowitz’s Litterae orientales July 1937 p. 12).
¶ English translation: The Blind Owl, by D. P. Costello, London 1958.
French translation: La chouette avengle, roman traduit du persan par Roger Lescot, 1953 (Adrien-Maisoneuwe’s catalogue no. 49 (Nov. 1953) item 6313).
^ Back to text1. It was in G̲h̲arjistān that the author “completed the present work, which he had previously compiled (Rieu ii p. 757b). The Berlin ms. 1015 with its dedication to Ẓahīr al-Dīn M. Amīr Bēg (see below) may represent the original form of the work.
^ Back to text2. az zabān i Hinduwī (Aumer 143, zdmg. 72 (1918) p. 68). In his article “Die ak̲h̲laq-ĕ hindī and ihre Quellen” Hertel argues (zdmg. 72 (1918) pp. 68–81) that the immediate source of Tāj al-Dīn’s translation was a version in Braj-Bhāk’hā.
^ Back to text4. For this word cf. Siyāsat-nāmah, faṣl 38; K̲h̲usrau Tug̲h̲luq-nāmah 1200 (Dar-ān aiyām kaz dargāh i sulṭān* S̲h̲ud īn G̲h̲ā̲zī Malik muqṭaʿ ba-Multān); Baranī Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī p. 528 (Malik Ibrāhīm … muqṭaʿ i mulk i Multān s̲h̲ud).
^ Back to text8. Hindī Sing’h-āsan=ʿlion-seat’, a throne (said to be so called as supported by golden lions), battīsī = an aggregate of thirty-two things (from battīs=thirty-two). See Platts’s Urdu dictionary.
^ Back to text9. Pūtlī, a Hindī word = puppet, doll, marionette, image, in the versions of Bihārī Mal and Bisba-rāy, luʿbah in that of Kis̲h̲an Dās, and ṣūrat apparently in that of C̲h̲aturbhūj (see Hamburg 202).
^ Back to text14. This name, written in various forms and usually without points in the mss, appears as Rāj-Mal in Bisba-Rāy’s preface (see Ethé 1990) and also in the account of previous translators given by Kis̲h̲an Dās at the end of his version.
^ Back to text19. Born 1821, Home Secretary to the Government of India 1862–72, Member of the Supreme Council 1873–8, died 1884. a work of his relating to the history of Gujrāt has already been mentioned (pl. i § 983). see d.n.b. and Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography.
^ Back to text20. [Storey affixed to this page of his ms. a cutting from The Times of 9 November 1954 mentioning a ms. of the Razm-nāmah dated 1007 a.h. [/1598–9], with one illuminated heading and 24 full-page miniatures by artists of the Imperial atelier of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. This had been sold the previous day at Sotheby’s to Mr. A. Garabed. v.s.]
^ Back to text22. [Professor Storey intended to include these in the section of his work devoted to Poetry. Since, however he did not complete that section, it has been deemed suitable to fill out his card entries and to include them here. v.s.]
^ Back to text27. According to the preface of the Urdu Qiṣṣah i Amīr Ḥamzah of M. K̲h̲alīl ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “As̲h̲k” the tale was written in fourteen volumes for Sulṭān Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī (Garcin de Tassy i p. 236).
^ Back to text36. A Work of this title (anecdotes of saints?) was composed by S̲h̲. Nūr al-Dīn Dihlawī, a contemporary of Sulṭān Nāṣir al-Dīn [Maḥmūd, a.h.644–64/ 1246–65], son of Sulṭān S̲h̲ams al- Dīn Īltutmis̲h̲, according to the Kalimāt al- ṣādiqīn (Bānkīpūr viii p.36).
^ Back to text39. Rieu cites the Zīnat al-tawārīk̲h̲ as authority for his statement that Aṣlān K̲h̲ān and Ṣafī-Qulī K̲h̲ān (who is mentioned as an employer of the author’s in the introduction to the Ḥikāyat i Malik Sarafrāz, a part of the second bāb of the Maḥbūb al-qulūb) lived in the reign of S̲h̲āh Sulṭān-Husain (a.h. 1105–35/ 1694–1722). Bark̲h̲wardār’s connection with them, however, was at any earlier period apparently, since Minuc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān, a later employer of his (see below) succeeded his father Qarc̲h̲ag̲h̲āy K̲h̲ān as Governor of Mas̲h̲had after the latter’s death in 1034/1624–5 (Rieu iii p. 1093 b) and held that office until deposed by ʿAbbās ii in 1074/1663–4 (Qiṣaṣ al-K̲h̲āqānī fol. 145, cited in Rieu iii 1093 b).
^ Back to text52. mss.: Rieu ii 679a (cf. iii 1034b), Edinburgh 323, Blochet iii 1913, Ivanow Curzon 275, Sprenger no. 336. “Lāʾiq” was the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Mīr M. Murād Jaunpūrī, who travelled from India to Iṣfahān on foot to see “Ṣāʾib”, was for a time Sawāniḥ-nigār at Lahore, and who at the suggestion of Mīr ʿAbd al-Jalīl Bilgrāmī wrote a k̲h̲amsah. See K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ fol. 132 b; Shamʿ i anjuman p. 411.
^ Back to text55. The story of Kāmrūp is the subject of an Urdu poem, Qiṣṣah i Kāmrūp o Kalākām, by Taḥsīn al-Dīn (see Blumhardt Catalogue of the Hindustani MSS. in the … India office, nos. 126–7). A French translation, Les aventures de Kamrup, was published at Paris in 1834 by Garcin de Tassy, who printed the Urdu text in 1835. “Lāʾiq’s” Dastūr i Himmat is not the only Persian mat̲h̲nawī dealing with this subject. For one entitled Guldastah i ʿis̲h̲q by “C̲h̲and” see Sprenger no. 188.
^ Back to text56. In Bodleian 1326, alone of the mss. hitherto described in detail, these words are preceded by an introduction beginning Sitāyis̲h̲ u niyāyis̲h̲ naqs̲h̲bandīst kih ba-yak Kun fa-yakūn.
^ Back to text58. This, or the Hindī (Braj) form Mainakā, seems to be the correct spelling of “Mîkâ (in many places called Mînkâ)” (Bodleian cat.). According to Platts’s Urdū dictionary Mēnakā was the “ Name of an Apsaras (wife of Hima-vat, and mother of Pārvatī …”).
^ Back to text59. The period to which this author’s reminiscences mainly refer (1090–7/1679–86) shows that he is to be distinguished from M. Mahdī “Wāṣif” b. M. ʿĀrif al-Din K̲h̲ān, a poet of the Carnatic (see pl. iii §§ 61, 169, 618 supra and § 789 infra).
^ Back to text63. The title-page bears the words Ḥasb al-ḥukm i muhr i d̲h̲ail i maṭbaʿ i kat̲h̲īr al-manāfiʿ al-musammā bi- Sulṭān al-Maṭābiʿ Ruqaʿāt [u] Muḍḥikāt i Niʿmat-K̲h̲ān i ʿ Ālī ba-ihtimām i Kabtān [so] Maqbūl al-Daulah Mīrzā M. Mahdī ʿAlī-K̲h̲ān Bahādur Qabūl dar Kalān Kōt’hī ba-Kārk̲h̲ānah i Ḥājjī Walī Muḥammad ṭabʿ s̲h̲ud.
^ Back to text66. An earlier translation is referred to by Garcin de Tassy (ii p. 468 n. 4) in the following words: Il paraît qu’on en a publié dans le “Calcutta Literary Gazette”, 1832, p. 75 et suiv., une traduction que je ne connais pas.
^ Back to text68. According to the Bānkīpūr catalogue “Muk̲h̲liṣ” says in the preface that the story had been rendered into Hindī by M. Jāʾisī. The latter composed in 947/1540–1 a well- known Hindī poem on the story of Padmāwat and Ratan Sēn (see Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 67–9, pl. iii § 729 supra, Ethé 1582, etc.).
^ Back to text72. u har-gāh murattab gardīd ba-nām i Guls̲h̲an i ʿiṣmat mausūmas̲h̲ sāk̲h̲tam (p. 511). The description Qiṣṣah i Najīb, which appears on the title-page of the Lucknow editon, was doubtless invented by the publisher.
^ Back to text75. For this story see Panjāb kē dō mas̲h̲hūr qiṣṣē. I. Qiṣṣah i Hir u Rānjhā, by M. S̲h̲afīʿ (in ocm. iii/4 (Aug.1927) pp. 91–114); C. Swynnerton Romantic tales from the Punjab, Oxford 1928, pp. 1–37; Rieu ii 710; etc.
^ Back to text77. It will be observed that this potentate, whose father and grandfather were Sulṭān Ismāʿīl al-Manṣūr bi-quwwati ’llāh and Sultān al-Qāʾim bi-amri ’llāh (see below), is the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Muʿizz li-Dīni ’llāh.
^ Back to text78. Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Sprenger p.1941) describes the work as consisting of fourteen volumes. The extract quoted by Pertsch (Berlin p. 994 n.1) from (one version of) the author’s preface shows that Gulistān i [i.e.Bahār ii] consisted originally of a muqaddimah and three jilds and that the author’s intention was to make Gulistān ii [i.e.Bahār iii] consist likewise of three jilds. According to the extract quoted in the Būhār catalogue (no. 458) from the preface to Jild xiv the author (at one time) regarded Jild xiii as the seventh jild of Bahār iii, while Jild xiv (in two s̲h̲aṭrs) was to conclude the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲id-nāmah and Jild xv was to be the Khātimat al-kitāb. On completing Jild xiv he evidently changed his mind and at the beginning of Jild xv he describes this latter volume as consisting of two faṣls and the K̲h̲ātimat al-kitāb (see Būhār 460: u īnak shurūʿ dar taḥrīr i jild i pānzdahum kih mushtamil-bar dū faṣl u k̲h̲ātimat al-kitāb ast numūd). In the colophon of Bānkīpūr viii 765 the K̲h̲ātimat al-kitāb is called Jild xvi. Rieu, whose information came (partly, if not entirely) from the conclusion of a ms. containing two detached portions of Bahār iii, says “the entire work comprises no less than fifteen Jilds, some of which are again subdivided into two sections called Saṭar” [sic]. “The first two parts (Bahār) consist together of six Jilds, while the third alone comprises nine.” The details of the final arrangement cannot be ascertained with precision from the descriptions given in the catalogues.
^ Back to text79. The “incorrect” designation, jild i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲ i Mahdi-nāmah, given to the muqadimah of Bahār ii in the colophon of Ethé 835, may indicate that the author at one time regarded the muqaddimah as belonging to the Mahdī-namah. Cf. the words quoted in Bodleian, col. 440, from the end of Bahār i.
^ Back to text80. Ethé regards Qāʾim-nāmah as an alternative tittle for Muʿizz-nāmah, but this view is not supported by the words quoted in his catalogue (no. 835) from the conclusion to the muqaddimah of Bahār ii (Munāsib c̲h̲unān numūd kih muqaddimah i Bahār i dūyum rā kih ʿibārat az daftar i Qāʾim-nāmah bās̲h̲ad dar-īn maqām ba-ik̲h̲titām rasānīdah s̲h̲urūʿ dar gulistan i awwal … numāyad). Aumer’s erroneous identification of Muʿizz al-Dīn with the Caliph al-Qāʾim bi-amri ’llāh has been accepted by Ethé and all his imitators.
^ Back to text82. Ethé 842, which begins with the words Āghāz i daftar i duwum az kitāb i S̲h̲āh-nāmah i buzurg, has a colophon in which the author says that the s̲h̲aṭr i duwum az jild i dūyum az bahār i sīwum ends at that point and that the jild i sīwum will follow. cf. Rieu ii 771b.
^ Back to text83. In the Bodleian copy also the volume beginning thus is described in the heading as the fifth jild of Bahār iii and in the colophon as Jild xiii of the Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl. In the colophon of Bānkīpūr viii 761 (cf. Būhār 456) the designation jild i panjum i K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-nāmah is given to the volume beginning Zabān i insān, which in Ethé 844 and Bodleian 480 is called the fourth jild of the third Bahār.
^ Back to text86. For whom see Garcin de Tassy i p. 186. Bānkīpūr viii 764 foll. 1–141 is a portion of the Būstān i k̲h̲ayāl of which the transcription was completed in Muḥarram 1255 at the house of Maulawī ʿĀlam ʿAlī, at Mahdī Bāg̲h̲, Calcutta.
^ Back to text89. For this tale see Romantic tales from the Panjāb, by C.Swynnerton, Oxford 1928, pp. 1–37 and Panjāb kē dō mas͟hhūr qiṣṣē, by M. S̲h̲afīʿ (in ocm. iii/4 (Lahore, Aug.1927) pp. 91–114). A prose version of “Minnat’s” mat̲h̲nawī was composed in 1252/1836–7 under the title Sirāj al-maḥabbat by “ʿIbratī” ʿAẓīmābādī (see pl. i § 1210, Ivanow Curzon 314).
^ Back to text90. So Beale, referring perhaps to a son of General Perron (1755–1834), the Frenchman who commanded Daulat Rāō Sīnd’hiyah’s army (see Beale and Buchland under Perron). Ivanow describes the work as dedicated to Charles Byron.