¶ § 1. The first definite landmark in the history of Persian Qurʾānic literature is the translation of the large Arabic tafsīr of al-Ṭabarī,1 which is likewise one of the oldest surviving works in the Persian language.2 Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī died at Bag̲̲h̲dād in 310/923.3 Abū Ṣāliḥ Manṣūr b. Nūḥ, the Sāmānid ruler of Transoxiana and K̲h̲urāsān, for whom this tafsīr was translated, reigned from 350/961 to 366/976. The precise date of the translation is not recorded, but the Persian preface4 gives information concerning the circumstances which led to the undertaking. The Arabic original, we are told, was brought in forty volumes to Abū Ṣāliḥ Manṣūr b. Nūḥ, who, finding it difficult to read, desired that it should be translated. The ʿulamāʾ of Transoxiana, whom he convoked and asked for a fatwā concerning the permissibility of translating it, expressed the view that for persons ignorant of Arabic it was lawful to read and write Qurʾānic exegesis in Persian. They based their opinion mainly on the Qurʾānic verse “We have not sent any apostle save with the language of his people, that he might explain to them” (Sūrah xiv 4, tr. Palmer), but also on the consideration that from the time of Adam to that of Ishmael all the prophets and kings of the earth had spoken Persian, Ishmael having been the first to speak Arabic.
¶ Accordingly, Manṣūr ibn Nūḥ assembled learned men5 from Buk̲h̲ārā, Samarqand, Balk̲h̲, Farg̲h̲ānah and elsewhere, and they by his order elected from among themselves a company of translators. In the process of their work these scholars abridged the original by omitting the isnāds. They also added some historical information up to the year 345.
At the present day this translation and the oldest Persian commentaries on the Qurʾān are of special interest for the light which they throw on the Persian language at a comparatively early stage in its development.
Tarjamah i Tafsīr i Ṭabarī: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3161 ult., Rāmpūr (Sūrahs i–iv 66. Circ. ah 600. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 11), Blochet i 25 (i–iv 64. Ād̲h̲arbaijān, circ. ah 607–22), Ivanow 955 (ii–xvii. Probably K̲h̲urāsān, 7th or 8th cent, ah), Rieu i 8b (complete. Jaunpūr, ah 883).
A Turkish translation from the Persian exists (see Āyā Ṣūfiyah 87, Dresden 22).
§ 2. Probably not much later than the translation of Ṭabarī’s tafsīr is the commentary of which the third and fourth volumes (Sūrahs xix 2–lxxxix 13 and xcii 5–cxiv) are preserved at Cambridge in a manuscript written in 628/1231. This commentary is as yet unidentified, but it is celebrated in consequence of the discussions of its linguistic and other features published by E.G. Browne in jras. 1894, pp. 417–524, and in the Cambridge Persian Catalogue, pp. 13–37.
Tafsīr al-Sūrābādī: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3195, 3293, i.o. 3840 (Sūrahs xxiii 58–xxxiv 3, xxxvii 147–xxxviii 3, xxxviii 16–58, xlviii 16–29. ah 523/1129), Ahlwardt 938 (ii 35–184, ii 229–vi 152. Circ. ah 700), i.o. 3838 (i–vi. Dabīr, ah 730), 3839 (vii–xiv 40. Same hand), Leyden iv 1658 (vii–xviii. Ḥalab, ah 769), Dresden 11 (i–iii), Leyden iv 1657 (iv 65–vii 52).
Possibly Blochet i 30 (liii–cxiv. ah 780), which is characterised by similar questions and answers, is a volume of this commentary. The Irs̲h̲ād ¶ al-tafsīr fī bis̲h̲ārāt al-tad̲h̲kīr (Cairo p. 407. Sūrahs xix–cxiv. ah 694) described as “mustak̲h̲raj min al-Tafsīr al-ʿAtīq” is probably an abridgment of it.
[Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah 806, Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3195, 3293, vii p. 677 ad ii 36412.]
§ 4. ʿImād al-Dīn Abū ’l-Muzaffar Ṭāhir b. Muḥammad al-Isfarāyinī called S̲h̲āhfūr8 (or S̲h̲ăhfūr) was a protégé of the Niẓām al-Mulk, composed an Arabic work on the sects of Islām entitled al-Tabṣīr fī ’l-dīn wa-tamyīz al-firqat al-nājiyah min firaq al-hālikīn (cf. Ahlwardt 2801, de Slane 1452) and died in 471/1078–9.
- Tāj al-tarājim fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān li-l-aʿājim, sometimes called Tafsīr i Ṭāhirī: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 2043, Blochet i 26 (Sūrahs ix (end), x–xiii, xiv (beginning). 14th cent.), 32 (extracts), Uri mss. Arab. 19 (1st half. ah 948), 20 (2nd half), Ethé 2696 (Sūrahs xix–cxiv), Mehren 1 (i–xviii).
[Subkī iii 175, Brockelmann i 387.]
- Tafsīr i Zāhidī: Ivanow Curzon 332 (Sūrahs i–xvi. Circ. ad 1700), 333 (xix–cxiv. ah 1121), As̲h̲raf ʿAlī Arabic Cat. p. 135 R. 30 (apparently extracts only. Aurangzēb’s reign), Āṣafīyah i p. 564 nos. 25 (2nd half), 133 (1st half), 134 (2nd half), 273 (complete, ah 1070), Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1121–2 (ah 1125 and 1122), Peshawar 49 (?) (Sūrahs i–xviii), Rāmpūr (ah 980. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 8).
§ 6. Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-K̲h̲uzāʿī al-Naisābūrī, usually called Abū ’l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī was a contemporary of al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī (died 538/1144), and one of the teachers of Muntajab al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿUbaid Allāh … Ibn Bābawaih al-Qummī11 (died after 585) and Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn M. b. ʿAlī Ibn S̲h̲ahrās̲h̲ūb al-Māzandarānī (died 588).12
- Rauḍ al-jinān wa-rauḥ al-janān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, a large S̲h̲īʿite commentary said (Rauḍāt 18422) to have been used extensively by Fak̲h̲r ¶ al-Dīn al-Rāzī for his Mafātīḥ al-g̲h̲aib: i.ḥ. 1590, Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1137–9 (Sūrahs i–xviii. ah 734).
[Majālis al-muʾminīn 211, Muntahā ’l-maqāl 113, Rauḍāt al-jannāt 183.]
§ 7. M. b. Maḥmūd al-Naisābūrī13 was sent by Yamīn al-Daulah Bahrām S̲h̲āh (Sulṭān of G̲h̲aznī ah 511/1118–552/1157) to mediate with Sanjar when the latter threatened to invade G̲h̲aznī (ah 529). He was the author of a dīwān (Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 5657), a translation of [al-T̲h̲aʿālibī’s] G̲h̲urar al-siyar entitled Rāy-ārāy (H.K̲h̲. iii 5855), a muʿāraḍah i tīg̲h̲ wa-qalam entitled Ṣaḥīfat al-iqbāl (Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv 7727), which seem to be lost, and of
- Tafsīr i Baṣāʾir i Yamīnī (so Lubāb al-albāb and Haft iqlīm) or al-Baṣāʾir fī ’l-tafsīr,14 Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 1850, Rosen Musée Asiatique 45 (apparently) (Sūrahs xl 45–xlviii. ah 603), Ivanow 956 (apparently) (xviii 8–xxxiv with many lacunae. 7th cent. ah), Bāyazīd 68 (defective at end).
[Lubāb al-albāb i 281, Haft iqlīm no. 735.]
§ 8. M. b. al-Ḥusain b. al-Fuḍail al-Wāʿiẓ known as Jamāl i Sājī was constrained by the misfortunes which had befallen his country to leave G̲h̲aznī with many others in 618/1221.15 After enduring much hardship he reached Samarqand.
- Zād al-mud̲h̲akkirīn, a commentary on 58 selected verses of the Qurʾān: d.m.g. 1.
§ 9. Two thirteenth-century Indian mystics of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order are referred to—the first normally, the second often16—as Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgaurī.
The first, Qāḍī Ḥamīd al-Dīn M. b. ʿAṭāʾ Nāgaurī, a native of Buk̲h̲ārā who came to Delhi with his father in the time of Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām, was for three years Qāḍī of Nāgaur.17 At Bag̲h̲dād he met S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī, whose disciple and k̲h̲alīfah he became, and he afterwards lived for a time in ¶ al-Madīnah and Mecca. He died in 64318/1246 and was buried at Delhi. Works entitled Lawāʾiḥ and Ṭawāliʿ i s̲h̲umūs (the latter a commentary on the 99 Names) were among those written by him.
[Siyar al-ʿārifīn (Ethé 637) fol. 178b, Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār (d.p. 572) fol. 35a, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 113, no. 149, D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyā i Dihlī (d.p. 634) fol. 8b, Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār fol. 116b, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 309–13, Raḥmān ʿAlī 52 etc.]
The second, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥamīd al-Dīn Abū Aḥmad Saʿīdī Nāgaurī Siwālī,19 surnamed Sulṭān al-tārikīn, was a k̲h̲alīfah of K̲h̲wājah Muʿīn al-Dīn Sijzī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī. He died in 673/1274 and was buried at Nāgaur. A book entitled Uṣūl al-ṭarīqah is described as his best-known work.
[Siyar al-auliyāʾ p. 156, Siyar al-ʿārifīn fol. 16b, Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār fol. 28a, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 94 no. 111, Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār fol. 106b, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 308, Raḥmān ʿAlī 52 etc.]
Both of these are said to have written numerous works and to one of them is doubtless to be ascribed
- Tafsīr i Pārah i ʿAmma: Āṣafiyah i p. 562 no. 305.
§ 10. To the celebrated poet Saʿdī (d. 691/1291) is ascribed a translation which has been published in Qurʾāns lithographed at Delhi in 1299° (with Walī Allāh Dihlawī’s Fatḥ al-Raḥmān and the Urdu translations of Rafīʿ al-Dīn and ʿAbd al-Qadir), 1887† (with the same three translations) and 1314–7° (with the same translations as well as an Urdu trans. and comm. by Raḥīm Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Dihlawī), and at Āgrah in 1312–3°* (with ʿAbd al-Qādir’s trans.) and 1313° (with ʿAbd al-Qādir’s trans.).
To him also are ascribed notes on the occasion of the revelation of the different sūrahs, etc., which have been published under the title S̲h̲ān i nuzūl in Qurʾāns lithographed at Delhi in 1299°, [1890°] (pp. 1–54 only ?) and [1891°] and at Āgrah in 1313°.
[H. Massé, Essai sur le poète Saadi (Paris 1919), Browne Lit. Hist. ii 525–39, g.i.p. ii 292–6, Ency. Isl. sub Saʿdī, etc.]
§ 11. Jamāl al-Dīn M. b. M. al-Aqsarāʾī, a great-grandson of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī, was lecturer in the Madrasat al-Silsilah20 at Qaramān and wrote in Arabic (i) annotations on the Kas̲h̲s̲h̲āf, (ii) Īḍāḥ al-Īḍāḥ, a commentary on the Īḍāḥ of the K̲h̲aṭīb Dimas̲h̲q (Escurial21 258), and (iii) Ḥall al-Mūjaz, a commentary on Ibn al-Nafīs’s abridgment of Ibn Sīnā’s Qānūn, which is his best-known work ¶ at the present day and which has been published at Delhi in [1870 ?°] and at Lucknow in 1877°* and 1326* (ms. Bodl. i 629). He died between 770/1368–9 and 780/1378–9.
- al-Asʾilah wa-’l-ajwibat al-mutaʿalliqah bi’l-Qurʾān wa-’l-ḥadīt̲h̲:: Flügel 1680 (2) (ah 1039), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 69b, 70, 71, 72, 1033 (probably also 66), Blochet 62, Fātiḥ 99 (also 98 ?), Leyden iv 1688.
[al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah i 20, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 191.]
§ 12. Saʿd al-Dīn Masʿūd ibn ʿUmar al-Taftāzānī [b. 722/1322 at Taftāzān, d. 79222/1390 at Samarqand] was a celebrated scholar, a friend of Tīmūr, and the author of numerous Arabic works, some of which, like the Tahd̲h̲īb al-manṭiq wa-’l-kalām and the S̲h̲arḥ al-ʿAqāʾid al-Nasafīyah, are to this day textbooks in the madrasahs of the East.
- Kas̲h̲f al-asrār wa-ʿuddat al-abrār, a tafsīr: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v 10674, Yeñī p. 80 no. 43.
[Bug̲h̲yat al-wuʿāt 391, Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq 287, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3,87, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 128–30, 134–7, Brockelmann ii 215, Browne Lit. Hist: iii 353.]
§ 13. M. b. M. b. Maḥmūd al-Ḥāfiẓī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, commonly called K̲h̲wājah Muḥammad Pārsā, was an eminent disciple of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqs̲h̲band.23 He left Buk̲h̲ārā in 822 to perform the pilgrimage and died at al-Madīnah on the 24th of D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah in this year24 (ad 1420). He wrote the Faṣl al-k̲h̲iṭāb (see Ethé 1855, Ivanow 1218, Babinger in Der Islam xiii 106, xiv 112, Brockelmann ibid. xiii 282, etc.) and other works including
- Tafsīr i Muḥammad Pārsā: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3264, where it is stated that it dealt with certain sūrahs in the last two sections of the Qurʾān, Murād (Constantinople) 72 (in the handwriting of Jāmī), Asʿad 84 (?).
Probably by M. Pārsā (though by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad the author’s name is given as Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd al-Ḥāfiẓī al-Buk̲h̲ārī) and perhaps a part of the preceding work is
Tafsīr i T̲h̲amāniyah, a commentary on the eight sūrahs xcvii–civ: Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 7—transcribed in 1181/ 1767 from an autograph).
¶ The Muqaddimat al-tafsīr, Tafsīr Sūrat al-Qadr, and Tafsīr Sūrat Lam yakun contained in Lālah-lī 3655 and ascribed to M. b. Maḥmūd al-Buk̲h̲ārī are probably extracts from it.
[Nafaḥāt al-uns p. 448, Ras̲h̲aḥāt 57, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 142, al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah i 286, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 79 no. 83, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 559, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 199, Der Islam loc. cit.]
§ 14. The celebrated saint and poet S̲h̲āh Nūr al-Dīn Niʿmat Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh Kirmānī, usually called S̲h̲āh Niʿmat Allāh Walī, the founder of the Niʿmatallāhī order of dervishes and the friend of S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲, was born in Aleppo, spent most of his youth in ʿIrāq, at the age of 24 visited Mecca, where he became a disciple of the historian and mystic al-Yāfiʿī (d. 768/1366–7, Brock. ii 176); his later life was passed in Samarqand, Harāt, Yazd and Māhān. He died and was buried at Māhān in 83425/1431.
- S̲h̲arḥ Fātiḥat al-Kitāb: Ivanow 1239 xi (cf. ibid. ix. 18th cent.), Rieu ii 829 viii = Cureton-Rieu 886 (2) (ah 1165–74).
- Risālah i Ik̲h̲lāṣ, on Sūrah cxii: Ivanow 1239 xii (18th cent.). [Daulats̲h̲āh 333–40, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 143, Rieu ii 634b, Browne Lit. Hist. iii 463–73, etc.]
§ 15. Yaʿqūb b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maḥmūd b. M. G̲h̲aznawī C̲h̲ark̲h̲ī, a disciple of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqs̲h̲band (d. 791/1389, see p. 6, note 23) and the preceptor of the great saint ʿUbaid Allāh Aḥrār (d. 895/1490), was born at C̲h̲ark̲h̲, a village near G̲h̲aznī. He died in 83826/1434–5 and was buried at a village near Ḥiṣār S̲h̲ādmān.
Tafsīr i Yaʿqūb i C̲h̲ark̲h̲ī, a concise commentary on Sūrahs i and lxvii–cxiv: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3308 (apparently), 3361, 3433, Peshawar 10b (ah 940), i.o. d.p. 8 (lxxviii–cxiv. ah 1038), Ivanow 957 (lxvii–lxxvii. ah 1082), Ethé 2678 (ah 1089), Decourdemanche ii s.p. 1672 (ah 1242), Ivanow Curzon 334, Asʿad 88, Aumer p. 127 no. 328, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 404, Cairo p. 408, Fātiḥ 299, i.o. d.p. 5b Rosen m.a. 47 (3), Yeñī p. 79 no. 22 (Sūrah i).
Editions: Peshawar (before 1868),27 Lahore (before 1868),2 [1870°*], 1880†, 1885†, 1889† (2 editions), 1331*, Bombay 1297°, 1326*, Qādiyān 1893†.
The Lahore edition of 1331 contains a supercommentary entitled Rauḍat al-maʾārib by Maulawī Walī Muḥammad Qandahārī.
¶ Other works by this author will be mentioned hereafter.
[Nafaḥāt al-uns p. 455, Ras̲h̲aḥāt 65–8, cf. 241–2, Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āhjahānī [Ethé 705] fol. 46a, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 80 (no. 86), K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 566.]
§ 16. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. ʿUmar Zāwulī Daulatābādī was born at Daulatābād in the Deccan, studied at Delhi, departed thence at the time of Tīmūr’s invasion and settled at Jaunpūr, where Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arqī (reigned 804–44/1401–40) made him Chief Justice and bestowed on him the title of Malik al-ʿulamāʾ. Annotations on the Kāfiyah, an Arabic syntax entitled al-Irs̲h̲ād, a commentary on al-Bazdawī’s Uṣūl, and a number of other works in Arabic28 and Persian were written by him. He died in or before 849/1445.29
Baḥr i mawwāj, a large commentary dedicated to Ibrāhīm S̲h̲arqī: Ethé ii 3073 (Sūrahs i–vi. ah 932), i 2679 (i–xviii. ah 1187), Ivanow 958 (xix–cxiv. ah 1187), Āṣafīyah i p. 562 nos. 96 (1st half), 135–8 (complete. ah 1253), 298 (7 sections), Bānkipūr Pers. Hand-list 1105–8 (ah 1265), 1109 (vol. iv. ah 1101), 1110–11 (vols. i–ii. 17th cent.), Cairo p. 407, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 234–5 (?), Peshawar 17 (xxxviii–cxiv).
Edition: Lucknow 1297° (Sūrahs i–vi only).
Other Persian works by this author will be mentioned hereafter.
[Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār fol. 160a, Firis̲h̲tah ii 595, Subḥat al-marjān 39, Raḥmān ʿAlī 88, Tajallī i nūr ii 33, Ency. Isl. i 932.]
§ 17. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. M. al-S̲h̲āhrūdī al-Bisṭāmī al-Harawī, known as Muṣannifak,30 a descendant of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī, was born in 803/1400–1 and studied at Harāt. In 848 he migrated to Asia Minor, where he became a professor at Qūniyah. Having become deaf he settled at Constantinople, where the Sulṭān Muḥammad K̲h̲ān ii (855–86) granted him a pension of 80 dirhams per diem. He died in 87531/1470–1. His numerous works were mainly Arabic commentaries on standard textbooks, but he wrote also in Persian works entitled Anwār al-aḥdāq, Ḥadāʾiq al-īmān li-ahl al-yaqīn wa-l-ʿirfān, Tuḥfat al-salāṭīn, al-Tuḥfat al-Maḥmūdīyah, S̲h̲arḥ al-S̲h̲amsīyah, as well as
¶ al-Muḥammadīyah or Tafsīr i Muṣannifak, a large but uncompleted32 commentary undertaken in 863 by order of the Sulṭān Muḥammad K̲h̲ān ii, after whom it was named, Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3403, v 11554.
This is presumably identical with Āyā Ṣūfiyah 285 (Sūrahs lxxvii–cxiv), Bāyazīd 260 (Sūrahs ?) 261 (Sūrahs lxxvii–cxiv), and Fātiḥ 636 (Sūrahs ?), though the title al-Muḥammadīyah is not mentioned in the catalogues and the Bāyazīd and Fātiḥ mss. are given the title al-S̲h̲ifāʾ.
[al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah i 181, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 192, Brockelmann ii 234.]
§ 18. The well-known poet, scholar and mystic Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Aḥmad Jāmī, who died at Harāt in 898/1492, composed in Persian, if we may believe the compiler of the catalogue of the Salīmīyah Library,
- Tafsīr i Juzʾ al-Nabaʾ, a commentary on Sūrahs lxxviii–cxiv: Salīmīyah 49.
[Daulats̲h̲āh 483, Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq 349, Ras̲h̲aḥāt 133, al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah i 293, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 86, Brockelmann ii 207, Browne Lit. Hist. iii 507–48, Ency. Isl. i 1011, etc., etc.]
§ 19. Muʿīn al-Dīn b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥājjī M. Farāhī Harawī, often called Muʿīn al-Miskīn, was a noted preacher and was for one year Qāḍī of Harāt. A life of Muḥammad entitled Maʿārij al-nubuwwah is his best known work. He died in 907/1501–2.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Fātiḥah: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1128 (ah 1109), i.o. d.p. 1, Āṣafīyah i p. 564 no. 105. An abridgment (?): Peshawar 99b.
Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf (or Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ ?): Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1123–6, Bodleian 453, 1813 (i) (?) (fragment), Ivanow Curzon 335, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 15 (M. Muḥaddit̲h̲, Rāmpūr).
Editions: Ṭihrān 1278° (wrongly ascribed to Muʿīn Juwainī), Lahore 1873*, place? 1307 (Āṣaf. i 564), Lucknow 1902 †(?).
From the preface to no. (2) it would appear that both it and no. (1) together with a commentary on Sūrah ii which he speaks of as completed, were intended to form parts of the Ḥadāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq (Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 4428).33
[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 338, Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib (Bodl. 395) no. 2293, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 358, Rieu i 149.]
§ 20. Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. ʿAlī Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī, a brother-in-law of Jāmī, well known as the author of the Anwār i Suhailī, the Rauḍat al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ and several ¶ other works (see Ethé 2188 and 2680), flourished as a preacher at Harāt in the time of Sulṭān Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī Ḥusain and Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr Nawāʾī. He died in 910/1499–50.34
Jawāhir al-tafsīr li-tuḥfat al-Amīr, a commentary on a large scale dedicated to Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, which never extended beyond the first volume (Sūrahs i–iv 84): Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 4274, Ethé 2680 (ah 967), Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1131 (Sūrahs i-iii. 16th cent.), 1132 (i–iv [84?]. ah 975), Rieu i 11a (most of the introduction and Sūrah i. ah 1021), 11b (Sūrah ii. ah 1076), Cairo p. 408 (ii–iii), Vollers 899 (i–iii 193. Defective at beginning).
The fact that the Jawāhir al-tafsīr is mentioned in the preface to the Mawāhib i ʿalīyah has caused copies of the latter to be described in some catalogues as copies of the former. Consequently, it is unsafe to assume without corroborative evidence that such mss. as Bāyazīd 145, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 279, and Yeñī 19 are really copies of the Jawāhir al-tafsīr.
Mawāhib i ʿalīyah, often called Tafsīr i Ḥusainī, a concise commentary composed between 897 and 899 and dedicated to Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr when circumstances had compelled the author to abandon the idea of completing the Jawāhir al-tafsīr, Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 3259, vi 13373. Copies are too common to deserve complete enumeration. For further information see–
Aberystwyth 18 (ah 989), Aumer 326–7 (ah 928), Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1145–56 (one of these is dated ah 909 and another 941), Blochet i 27 (ah 936), 28, Bodleian 1805–8, Browne Pers. Cat. pp. 37–40, Hand-list 1291, Suppt. 1278–9, Dorn 251, Ethé 2681–90, Leyden iv 1692, v p. 271 (ah 926), Mehren 2–3, Rieu i 9b–11a, etc., etc.
Editions (usually on the margins of Qurʾāns): Calcutta 1837 (Zenker i 1368), Meerut 1284*, 1288–9*, Bombay 1279°, 1290*, 1295–7°*, 1303–7°, Lucknow 1871*, 1874°*, 1888†, Ludhiana 1877†, Delhi 1294*, 1304°, 1889† (2 editions), 1893† (36 pp. only), Agra 1308°, Cawnpore 1895†.
Turkish, Urdu, and Pushtu translations exist.
The Lucknow and Cawnpore editions contain only the text of the Qurʾān and the Mawāhib i ʿalīyah, the Bombay editions contain also Walī Allāh Dihlawī’s Fatḥ al-Raḥmān (except that of 1279, which contains an anonymous Persian translation), the Delhi and Meerut editions contain the Urdu translation of Rafīʿ al-Dīn (one of the 1889 editions contains also the Fatḥ al-Raḥmān and the Fatḥ al-ʿAzīz), the Agra edition contains the Urdu translation of ʿAbd al-Qādir. The Ludhiana edition also contains an Urdu translation (author not stated in the Quarterly Catalogue). ¶ A translation of the Qurʾān ascribed to Ḥusain Kās̲h̲ifī is mentioned in Peshawar 40.
[Majālis al-nafāʾis fol. 70a, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 341, Majālis al-muʾminīn 235, Rauḍāt al-jannāt 256, Schefer Chrest. pers. i 190–7, Browne Lit. Hist. iii 441–3, 503–4, Ency. Isl. ii 789.]
§ 21. Abū ’l-Fatḥ al-Ḥusainī, who prepared for S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp the Ṣafawī (ah 930–984 = ad 1524–76) a revised edition of the Ṣifwat al-ṣafāʾ of Ibn al-Bazzāz (Rieu i 345), composed at the request of the same sovereign
- Tafsīr i S̲h̲āhī, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary on those verses of the Qurʾān which form the basis for prescriptions of Muḥammadan law:35 Būhār 145 (ah 1088), Āṣafīyah i p. 562 no. 251 (Tafsīr āyāt al-aḥkām).
He is doubtless also the author of Tarjamah i risālah i Iʿtiqādīyah, a translation of the Iʿtiqādāt of M. b. ʿAlī Ibn Bābawaih (see Brockelmann i 187. For other translations see p. 16 infra and i.ḥ. 3185): Ivanow Curzon 386.
§ 22. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn36 ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan al-Zawārī37 worked in part at least under the auspices of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp i (ah 930/1524–984/1576). His best-known work and the one which concerns us primarily in this place is–
- Tarjamat al-k̲h̲awāṣṣ, often called Tafsīr i Zawārī, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary on the Qurʾān completed in 946/ 1539–40: i.ḥ. 535, Ethé 2691 (ah 959), Bānkipūr Pers. Hand-list 1112–3 (ah 1078–9), Būhār 143–4 (Sūrahs i–xviii. 17th cent.), Ivanow 1098 (i–xviii. 17th cent.), 1099 (i–xviii. ah 1260), a.s.b. Govt. Coll. 1903–7 no. 217, Bas̲h̲ir Āg̲h̲ā (Stambul) 37–39 (incomplete), Leyden v 2655 (i–vii).
He wrote also—
- Lawāmiʿ al-anwār ilā maʿrifat al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār, an abridgment of the Persian work Aḥsan al-kibār fī manāqib al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār by M. b. Abī Zaid Warāmīnī: Calcutta Imp. Lib. (ah 1244. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 69.),
- Majmaʿ al-hudā, legends of the Prophets, Imāms, and Saints: Ivanow 61 (ah 1083), Ethé 598,
- Rauḍat al-abrār, a Persian commentary on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah (for which see Brockelmann i 405): i.ḥ. 2016, Houtum-Schindler 1,
¶ as well as a number of Persian translations of S̲h̲īʿite theological works, including—
- the Iḥtijāj of Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Ṭabarsī,38
- the Iʿtiqādāt of M. b. ʿAlī Ibn Bābawaih under the title Wasīlat al-najāt,39
- the Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲ummah fī maʿrifat al-aʾimmah of ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-Irbilī40 under the title Tarjamat al-manāqib (written in 938 for the Amīr Qiwām al-Dīn Muḥammad): Bānkīpūr vi 509, Aberystwyth 19 (1) (small fragment only),
- the Makārim al-a̲k̲h̲lāq of Raḍī al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. al-Faḍl al-Ṭabarsī under the title Makārim al-karāʾim:41 i.ḥ. 574 and 3088,
- the tafsīr ascribed to the Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī,42
- the Ṭarāʾif fī maʿrifat mad̲h̲hab al-ṭawāʾif of ʿAlī b. Mūsā … Ibn Ṭāʾūs43 under the title Ṭarāwat al-laṭāʾif fī tarjamat kitāb al-Ṭaraʾif: i.ḥ. 2095,
- the ʿUddat al-dāʿī of Ibn Fahd under the title Miftāḥ al-najāḥ:44 Āṣafīyah i p. 62.
[Rauḍāt al-jannāt 407.]
§ 23. Fatḥ Allāh b. S̲h̲ukr Allāh al-S̲h̲arīf al-Kās̲h̲ānī was a pupil of al-Zawārī (see p. 11) and devoted himself to literary activities of a similar kind. He translated ¶ at least one work at the command of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, and died in 97845/1570–1, 98846/1580–1 or 99747/1588–9. His best-known works are—
Manhaj al-ṣādiqīn fī ilzām al-muk̲h̲ālifīn, a large S̲h̲īʿite commentary on the Qurʾān in 5 volumes: i.ḥ. 3192, Bodleian 1809 (ah 1064–1105), r.a.s. P. 1 (Sūrahs i–iii. Slightly defective at beginning), P. 2 (xlvii–cxiv. ah 1107), Āṣafīyah i p. 568 nos. 287 (vii–xv), 288 (xxix–xxxvii), 289 (xix–xxiii), i.o. d.p. 24 margin (i–ii 75).
Editions:—1290 (?) (Āṣafīyah i p. 568 nos. 373–5), [Ṭihrān] 1296–7°.’
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-Manhaj, an abridgment of the preceding: i.ḥ. 1066, Rieu i 11b (i–xviii. ah 1071), 12a (xix–cxiii. Same hand), 12b (xix–cxiv. ah 1082), Blochet i 29 (xxxv–cxiv. ah 1074), Būhār 146 (ah 1085), Ethé 2692 (i–xvii. ah 1093), 2693 (xviii–cxiv. Same hand), 2694 (i–xviii. n.d.), 2695 (xxxix 1–cxiv. n.d.), Ivanow 1100 (i–xviii. Collated ah 1099), 1.0.d.p. 24 (i–xviii 98), 17 (i–vi), Āṣafīyah i p. 564 no. 98 (2nd half), Bānkīpūr Arab. Hand-list 2, 8, Pers. Hand-list 1133–4 (ah 1099), 1135 (ah 1078), 1136 (vol. ii. ah 1166), Lincei Rendiconti 1912 p. 112.
Edition: [Ṭihrān] 1281°.
He wrote also—
- Tanbīh al-g̲h̲āfilīn wa-tad̲h̲kirat al-ʿārifīn, a Persian paraphrase of the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah written in 955: i.ḥ. 710, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1608 no. 185 (1st half), Browne Suppt. 1342, Ivanow Curzon 372, Rieu i 18b,
- a translation of the Qawāʿid al-aḥkām of al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf Ibn al-Muṭahhar al-Ḥillī,48
- a translation of the Iḥtijāj of Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Ṭabarsī under the title Kas̲h̲f al-Iḥtijāj,49
- a translation of the Qurʾān, and
- an Arabic tafsīr completed in 977 and entitled Zubdat al-tafāsīr.
[Rauḍāt al-jannāt 508, Rieu iii 1077b.]
§ 24. Mīr Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn M. b. Ḥusain Ḥusainī Sammākī Astarābādī, after being a teacher and S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām at Sabzawār became attached to the court of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp i (as Ṣadr according to the Haft iqlīm, but the ʿĀlam-ārāy i ʿAbbāsī does ¶ not confirm this). He was the author of Arabic annotations on al-Maibud̲h̲ī’s S̲h̲arḥ Hidāyat al-ḥikmah (pub. at [Lucknow] in [1873*], cf. Loth 492, Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 47), on [al-Dawānī’s] commentary on al-Taftāzānī’s Tahd̲h̲īb al-manṭiq (Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 480, i.ḥ. 906) and on al-Qūs̲h̲jī’s commentary on Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s Tajrīd al-‘aqāʿid (Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 203, i.ḥ. 897). He completed in 952/1545 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp
- Tafsīr i Āyat al-Kursī, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary on ii 256: Ivanow 1101.
[Haft iqlīm no. 1167, ʿĀlam-ārāy i ʿAbbāsī fol. 44a.]
§ 25. Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd Thānēsarī, of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order, the principal pupil and k̲h̲alīfah of ʿAbd al-Quddūs b. Ismāʿīl of Gangōh,50 was visited by the Emperor Akbar when on the way to quell the rebellion of his brother M. Ḥakīm. He died at the age of ninety-five and was buried at Thānēsar in 989/1582.
- Risālah i tafsīr i Sūrah i Wa-’l-tīn, a commentary on Sūrah xcv: Ethé 1924 (8).
[Haft iqlīm no. 380, Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 3, Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 101 no. 119, Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé 654) no. 31, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 439, Raḥmān ʿAlī 40.]
§ 26. Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Wāʿiẓ dedicated to Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī ʿAbd Allāh Bahādur K̲h̲ān, presumably one of the two S̲h̲aibānids thus styled, who reigned from 946/1539 to 947/1540 and from 991/1583 to 1006/1598 respectively,
A commentary on the Āyat al-Kursī: i.o. d.a. 77a.
§ 27. Niẓām al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-S̲h̲akūr Fārūqī Thānēsarī Balk̲h̲ī was the nephew, son-in-law and k̲h̲alīfah of Jalāl al-Dīn M. b. Maḥmūd Thānēsarī (see § 25 above). “When towards the end of ah 1014 (ad 1606), the first year of Jahângîr’s reign, this emperor’s rebellious son, Sulṭân Khusrau, fled from Akbarâbâd and passed through Thânîsar, he called upon Shaikh Niżâm aldîn, who incurred thereby the emperor’s displeasure, and had to leave India. Before going to Balkh, where he finally settled and died, the 8th of Rajab, ah 1035 or 103651 (ad 1626, April 5, or 1627, March 25), he performed the pilgrimage, and composed during his stay in the holy cities two commentaries on ‘Irâḳī’s Lama‘ât …” (Ethé col. 337, cf. Tūzuk i Jahāngīrī, tr. Rogers and Beveridge, i p. 60).
Commentary on Sūrahs i and lxxviii–cxiv: i.o. d.p. 7 (with lacunae, ah 1114) 1184b (Sūrah i only).
¶ This is no doubt identical with the Riyāḍ al-quds mentioned in the Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār, where it is described as a commentary on the last two sections of the Qurʾān, and with the Tafsīr i Niẓāmī mentioned by Raḥmān ʿAlī.
- Malfūẓ i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn Thānēsarī: Āṣafīyah i p. 488 no. 843 (ah 1026).
- S̲h̲arḥ i Lamaʿāt [i Makkī or Madanī?], one of his two commentaries on the Lamaʿāt of ʿIrāqī: Bodleian 1254.
[Haft iqlīm no. 381, Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé 654) fol. 393a;, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 401, Raḥmān ʿAlī 241, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 463.]
§ 28. S̲h̲āh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Muḥammad52 b. Sulṭān ʿAlī b. Fatḥ Allāh Arkasāʾī Rustāqī Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī, commonly called Mullā S̲h̲āh and surnamed Lisān Allāh, was a noted saint of the Qādirī order and the spiritual director of S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s eldest son Dārā-S̲h̲ukūh. Born at Arkasā, a village near Rustāq in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, he settled in India in 1023 (ad 1614–15), became a disciple of the celebrated saint Miyān Mīr of Lahore, and died in 1072 (ad 1662–3) according to the Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl, but in 1069 according to the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ. According to Beale’s Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲ (Āgrah 1849), p. 402, the inscription on his tomb gave the date 1070.
- S̲h̲āh i tafāsīr (a chronogram) or Tafsīr i S̲h̲āh, a commentary, partly in Persian and partly in Arabic, on Sūrahs i–iii and xii, composed in 1057 (ad 1647):—
i.o. d.p. 1420 (contemporary with author and corrected by him), Bānkīpūr iii 326 (18th cent.), Ivanow 969 (not quite complete. End of 17th century), Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 9. Only Sūrahs i–iii ?).
His mat̲h̲nawīs and other poetical works will be mentioned hereafter.
[Nusk̲h̲ah i aḥwāl i S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 130), Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl 127, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 172, Rieu ii 690, etc. Portrait in Binyon and Arnold: The Court Painters of the Grand Moguls, pl. xxxiii.]
§ 29. Sulṭān b. Saiyid K̲h̲wājagī Ḥusainī composed in 1083/1672–3 at Jalēsar
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Wāqiʿah (lvi): Ivanow Curzon 336.
§ 30. Muḥammad Ṣafī ibn Walī Qazwīnī, the author of the Tuḥfat al-ak̲h̲yār (Rieu i 125) and the Anīs al-ḥujjāj (Rieu iii 980), dedicated to Zēb al-nisāʾ, Aurangzēb’s daughter—
- ¶ Zēb i tafāsīr, a large commentary of which the fifth volume was completed in 1081/1670–1 and the last probably in 1087 (vid. Rieu iii 980): Bodleian 1810 (Sūrahs viii–xii. Probably an autograph).
§ 31. Muḥammad Amīn al-Ṣiddīqī al-ʿAlawī al-Ḥusainī composed by order of Aurangzēb (who reigned from 1069/1659 to 1119/1707)—
- Tafsīr i Amīnī: Āṣafīyah i p. 562 no. 165.
§ 32. Mīrzā Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad, who received from Aurangzēb the title of Niʿmat K̲h̲ān, who used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “ ʿĀlī”, and who is well known as the author of the Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥaidarābād, the Bahādur-S̲h̲āh-nāmah and other works, died in 1121/1709–10 or 1122/1710.
- Niʿmat i ʿuẓmā, a tafsīr begun in 1112/1700–1, completed in 1115/1703–4 and dedicated to Aurangzēb: i.ḥ. 3280, Ivanow Curzon 337.
The Qurʾānic verses quoted in ʿĀlī’s Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥaidarābād are explained in a work entitled Tuḥfat al-wadāʾiʿ fī ḥall daqāʾiq al-Waqāʾiʿ and completed in 1204 by Kamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Ṣiddīqī: Būhār 480 (1).
[Ethé 1659, etc., etc.]
§ 33. Jamāl al-Dīn M. b. Ḥusain K̲h̲wānsārī was a lecturer at Iṣfahān and the author of several taʿlīqāt and other works (cf. i.ḥ. 877, 884, 916, 1398). According to i.ḥ. 1398 he wrote a Risālah fī ’l-rajʿah for S̲h̲āh Ḥusain the Ṣafawī (who reigned from 1694 to 1722), and according to the Rauḍāt al-jannāt he died on 26 Ramaḍān 1125/1714 and was buried at Iṣfahān in the tomb built by S̲h̲āh Sulaimān for his father. He cannot therefore be the author of the
- Mawāʾid al-Raḥmān fī tarjamat al-Qurʾān,53 a translation made by order of Nādir S̲h̲āh (reigned 1148/1736–1160/1747), which was published at [Bombay] in [1893°] and ascribed in the publisher’s colophon to Jamāl al-Dīn K̲h̲wānsārī.54
[Rauḍāt al-jannāt 155, Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 208.]
§ 34. For a translation made by order of Nādir S̲h̲āh (reigned 1148/1736–1160/1747) see § 33 above.
¶ § 35. Quṭb al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm called Walī Allāh Dihlawī [b. 1114/1703, d. 1176/1762–3] was a traditionist and theologian of great celebrity in India, who wrote numerous works in Arabic and Persian.
Fath al-Raḥmān bi-tarjamat al-Qurʾān, an annotated Persian translation of the Qurʾān completed ah 1151: Āṣafīyah i p. 566 no. 204, Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1140–1, i.o. d.p. 15, Ivanow Curzon 331, Peshawar 43a.
The published Qurʾāns accompanied by this translation usually contain also one or more of the following: (i) the Urdu translation of Rafīʿ al-Dīn Dihlawī; (ii) that of ʿAbd al-Qādir Dihlawī; (iii) the Arabic commentary of the Jalālain; (iv) that ascribed to Ibn ʿAbbās; (v) the Arabic Tabṣīr al-Raḥmān of al-Mahāʾimī; (vi) the Mawāhib i ʿalīyah (see p. 10); (vii) the Persian commentary ascribed to Saʿdī (see p. 5); (viii) the Tabjīl al-Tanzīl (see p. 25); (ix) the Fatḥ al-ʿAzīz (see p. 19); (x) the Urdu Tafsīr al-Furqān of Abū M. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq; (xi) the Urdu Aʿẓam al-tafāsīr of Raḥīm Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Dihlawī; (xii) an Urdu translation of the Mawāhib i ʿalīyah. These are indicated in the following list of editions by the same numbers as are prefixed to them above.
Editions: Delhi55 1283° (+ i + iv), 1285°* (+ i + ii), 1286* (+ i + v), 1286* (+ ii), 1293° (+ i + ii), 1294* (+ i + ii), 1299° (+ i + ii + vii), 1889* (+ i + ii ?), 1889† (+ i + vi + ix), [1890° (+ ii + viii). Pp. 1–54 only], 1890† (+ i + ii), [1891° (+ x). Pp. 1–110 only], [1893° (+ i + ix + xii). Pp. 1–36 only ?], 1314–7° (+ i + ii + vii + xi), 1315° (+ i + ii), Meerut 1284°* (+ i + iii), 1285* (+ ii + iv), 1286* (+ i + iii + iv), [1869* (+ i)], 1292* (+ ii + iv), 1296° (+ i + iii), 1299° (+ i + iii + iv), Cawnpore 1289°, Bombay 1290* (+ vi), 1295–7°* (+ vi), 1303–7° (+ vi), Sialkot [1899° (with anonymous English and Urdu translations). Pp. 1–31 only ?], [Lucknow 1899–1902° (+ x)].
The Fatḥ al-Raḥmān has, moreover, been published several times at Lahore as an accompaniment to the Panjābī Mūḍiḥ i Furqān or Tafsīr i Muḥammadī of M. b. Bārak Allāh (Vol. i first published in 1288°* and for the fifth time in 1321*, but all the seven volumes do not seem to have been reprinted with equal frequency). Many of these editions omit Walī Allāh’s preface, but it is contained in the Meerut editions of 1284, 1285, and 1292, and in the Delhi edition of 1294.
Turkish translation: al-Tafsīr al-jamālī ʿalā ’l-tanzīl al-jalālī by M. K̲h̲air al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Ḥaidarābādī. Edition: Būlāq 1294°.
al-Fauz al-kabīr fī uṣūl al-tafsīr: Āṣafīyah i p. 566 no. 259, i.o. d.p. 25, d.a. 279d, Peshawar 43a.
¶ Editions: Chinsurah 1249*, Lahore 1883†, and, in an Arabic version, Delhi 1297° (as an appendix to Muʿīn b. Ṣafī’s Jāmiʿ al-bayān), [Cairo 1880?°] (on the margin of al-Fīrūzābādī’s Sufar al-saʿādat).
The fifth and last chapter of this work is in Arabic and contains explanations of Qurʾānic words and phrases in the order in which they occur. It has the independent title Fatḥ al-K̲h̲abīr bi-mā lā budd min ḥifẓih fī ʿilm al-tafsīr, and has been transcribed (see Cairo Arab. Cat. i 200) and published (Lucknow 1289°) as a separate work.
[His autobiography ed. and tr. Hidāyat Ḥusain in jasb. 1912 pp. 161–75, Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ 428, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 447, Raḥmān ʿAlī 250, Brockelmann ii 418, Ency. Isl. i 971, Bānkīpūr Arabic Cat. v no. 125.]
§ 36. Saiyid Qamar al-Dīn b. Munīb Allāh b. ʿInāyat Allāh Aurangābādī [b. 1123/1711–12 at Bālāpūr near Burhānpūr, d. 119356/1779 at Aurangābād] belonged to a family of K̲h̲ujandī Saiyids who had settled at Bālāpūr. He was a friend of G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī who in his Subḥat al-marjān (pp. 101–13) gives an account of him and a number of extracts from a Ṣūfistic work of his entitled Maẓhar al-nūr.
- Nūr al-karīmatain, a commentary on verses 28–29 and 33 of Sūrah xxxiii: i.o. d.p. 30, Āṣafīyah i p. 496 no. 911 (? Author not named). Editions: 1307 and/ or 1308 (Āṣafīyah ii 1358).
- Risālah i jawāb i suʾālāt i baʿḍ i mulḥidīn az malāḥidah i Hindūstān: Āṣafīyah ii 1342.
- Risālah i Nūr u ẓuhūr: Āṣafīyah ii 1346.
- Risālah i suʾāl u jawāb i arbaʿah: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1344.
[K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah 380, Subḥat al-marjān 101–13, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 452, Raḥmān ʿAlī 170.]
§ 37. Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Muṣṭafā b. M. Akbar Thānēsarī Dihlawī was, according to his own statement in the preface to his tafsīr, the author of a large medical work entitled Ṭibb i Muṣṭafawī, an Arabic work entitled Madāʾiḥ al-Qādirīyah and a Persian commentary thereon, as well as of several theological treatises.
Baḥr al-‘ulūm al-Islāmīyah or [al-] Tafsīr al-Muṣṭafawī, a comprehensive commentary completed in 1191/1778, which takes into account the 11 ʿulūm: (1) rasm al-k̲h̲aṭṭ, (2) wuqūf, (3) tajwīd, (4) qirāʾāt i sabʿ, (5) tafsīr, (6) ʿaqāʾid i ahl al-sunnah wa-’l-jamāʿah, (7) fiqh, (8) taṣawwuf, (9) sulūk, (10) maʿārif wa-ḥaqāʾiq, (11) ḥadīt̲h̲ i Nabawī.—i.o. d.p. 2a (Sūrahs i–xviii), 2b (i–xviii), Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 12. Complete).
¶ Notes on the orthography of the text from this commentary have been printed in Qurʾāns published at Lucknow in 1282*, 1866°* and 1286*, at Delhi in 1283° and 1292*, at Meerut in 1284–5°* and 1296°, and at Lahore in 1284*.
- S̲h̲uk̲h̲ūṣ al-ḥikam, a Persian commentary on the Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam of Ibn ʿArabī (vid. Brockelmann i 442): Āṣafīyah i p. 448.
§ 38. Sulaimān b. Ibrāhīm al-Naḥīfī died in 1199/1784–5 according to the Ḥamīdīyah Catalogue.
Laṭāʾif al-tafsīr: Ḥamīdīyah p. 103 no. 19.
§ 39. M. Riḍā b. M. Amīn Hamadānī, the controversialist and opponent of the English missionary Henry Martyn, was resident at Tabrīz in 1823.
- Durr al-naẓīm, “an exposition of verses in the Kurʾān, preceded by an epitome of the principles of its interpretation”:—Edition: [Persia] 1279°.
- Irs̲h̲ād al-muḍillīn fī it̲h̲bāt nubuwwat K̲h̲ātam al-Nabīyīn, a rejoinder to Henry Martyn’s attacks on Islam: Browne Pers. Cat. 9, 10 v.
[S. Lee: Controversial tracts … by the late Rev. Henry Martyn … (Cambridge 1824), pp. cxviii–cxxi.]
§ 40. ʿAbd al-‘Azīz Dihlawī, the eldest son of Walī Allāh Dihlawī (see p. 17), was noted as an author, teacher, and reformer. He was born in 1159157/1746 and died in 1239/1824. His best-known works are: (1) Bustān al-muḥaddit̲h̲īn, (2) Sirr al-s̲h̲ahādatain (in Arabic), (3) Tuḥfah i It̲h̲nā-ʿAs̲h̲arīyah, (4) ʿUjālah i nāfiʿah, and
Fatḥ al-ʿAzīz, often called Tafsīr i ʿAzīzī, a commentary on Sūrahs i–ii 180 and lxvii–cxiv: Āṣafīyah i p. 566 nos. 290 (i–ii 135), 293 (lxvii–cxiv), Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1142–4, i.o. d.p. 22a (i–ii 180), 22c (lxvii–cxiv), Berlin 52 (5) (a fragment).
Editions: Calcutta 1248* (section 29 only?), 1249* (i–ii 180), Lucknow 1268* (section 30 only ?), Lahore 1294* (section 30 only ?), 1881† (sections ?), 1883† (probably sections 1, 29 and 30), 1890† (section 29), 1894† (section 1), Bombay 1294–5* (sections 1, 29 and 30), 1889° (section 30 only ?), Delhi 1889 † (see p. 17), [Delhi 1893°* (pp. 1–36 only ?)].
Editions of 1259 and 1300 are mentioned without specification of the place of publication in Āṣafīyah i p. 566 nos. 146–8 and p. 564 no. 409.
¶ Urdu translations of the 29th and 30th sections (at least) have been published.
[Āt̲h̲ār al-ṣanādīd iv 69, Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ 296, Kamālāt i ʿAzīzī (an Urdū biog. by Nawwāb Mubārak ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Meerut 1873), Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 470, Raḥmān ʿAlī 122.]
- A discussion of Sūrah li 56 composed in 1203/1788: i.o. d.u. 30, d.p. 1145.
- A discussion of liv 1 (probably by Rafīʿ al-Dīn and probably identical with the Risālah i S̲h̲aqq al-qamar mentioned by his biographers): i.o. d.p. 1145.
[Āt̲h̲ār al-ṣanādīd iv 91, Garcin de Tassy ii 518, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 469, Raḥmān ʿAlī 66.]
§ 42. Saiyid M. Walī Allāh b. Aḥmad ʿAlī Farruk̲h̲ābādī. the author of a Tārīk̲h̲ i Farruk̲h̲ābād, was born at Sāndī in 1165/1751–2, settled permanently at Farruk̲h̲ābād in 1196, and died in 1249/1833–4.
- Naẓm al-jawāhir wa-naqd al-farāʾid, an extensive commentary begun in 1233 and completed in 1242: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 14 (Library not specified. Sūrahs xvi–xxx, i.e. vols. ii and iii).
[Garcin de Tassy iii 288, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah 471, Raḥmān ʿAlī 252, Rieu 959.]
§ 43. Maulawī Saiyid Ṣafdar ʿAlī b. Saiyid Ḥaidar ʿAlī Riḍawī Dihlawī, who was according to K̲h̲udā Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ a mujtahid of independent means resident at Faiḍābād, completed in 1253/1837–8
- Aḥsan al-ḥadāʾiq, a commentary on Sūrah xii: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1101 (cf. Maḥbūb al-albāb p. 12).
§ 44. Maulawī Muḥammad Saʿīd Aslamī Nāʾiṭī S̲h̲āfiʿī Madrāsī died in 1272/1855–6 according to the Āṣafīyah Catalogue ii p. 1336 no. 278. According to Raḥmān ʿAlī he translated ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī’s Tuḥfah i It̲h̲nā-ʿAs̲h̲arīyah into Arabic and wrote also [notes on ?] a work entitled Safīnat al-najāt.
- Mawāhib al-Raḥmān, a commentary of which the last two sections were lithographed at Madras in 1261*.
- [al-] Taʿlīqāt al-razīnah fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Safīnah: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1336 no. 278 (in the section relating to Persian kalām).
[Raḥmān ʿAlī 22.]
¶ § 45. Saiyid Rajab ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur was Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to the Panjāb Board of Administration.
- Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲iṭāʾ, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary on Sūrah lxxvi (al-Insān) composed in 1266: i.ḥ. 2640:—Editions: Lahore 1851*, Bombay [1862°] (together with Sirr i akbar), Ludhiana 1285* (together with Sirr i akbar).
- Sirr i akbar, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary on Sūrah lxxxix (al-Fajr) composed in 1267:—Editions: Lahore [1851 ?*], Bombay [1862°] (together with Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲iṭāʾ), Ludhiana 1285* (together with Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲iṭā’).
- Ifādāt i ʿalīyah, poems:—Edition: Bombay 1279° (2nd edition).
§ 46. Saiyid Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Dihlawī composed in 1293/1876
- Tafsīr i wajīz:—Edition: Delhi 1295*.
§ 47. Ḥakīm Saiyid Muḥammad Ḥasan b. Karāmat ʿAlī Amrōhawī (or Amrōhī) [b. circ. 1250/1834–5] was a pupil of Faḍl i Ḥaqq K̲h̲airābādī and others, and, as a Ṣūfī, a disciple and k̲h̲alīfah of Saiyid Ḥaḍrat S̲h̲āh Ṣāḥib of Rāmpūr. He was a professor in the Ajmēr College, from which he retired on a pension in 1887, and practised also as a physician. M. Idrīs mentions seventeen of his works.
- Maʿālimāt59 al-asrār fī mukās̲h̲afāt al-ak̲h̲yār, or Tafsīr i Haḍrat-S̲h̲āhī:—Edition: Delhi 1295*.
- al-Taʾwīl al-muḥkam fī mutas̲h̲ābih Fuṣuṣ al-ḥikam, a Persian commentary on the Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam of Ibn ʿArabī:—Edition: Lucknow 1893°.
- Taʾwīlāt i Rāsik̲h̲, Ṣūfism:—Edition: Delhi 1886† (cf. Āṣafīyah i p. 406 nos. 307 and 1099).
[M. Idrīs 75.]
§ 48. Saiyid Abū ’l-Ṭaiyib M. Ṣiddīq Ḥasan b. Aulād Ḥasan60 b. Aulād ʿAlī Ḥusainī Buk̲h̲ārī Qanaujī was born on 19 Jumādā i 1248/1832 at Barēlī. He was educated at Delhi and elsewhere. Invited to Bhōpāl by Sikandar Bēgam (d. 1285/1868), he settled there in 1275/1858 and served her first in the Secretariat and afterwards as Superintendent of the work of compiling a history of Bhōpāl.
In the reign of S̲h̲āh-Jahān Bēgam he became Superintendent of Education and subsequently Mīr Muns̲h̲ī with the titles of Mīr Dabīr and K̲h̲ān. In 1871 the Bēgam married him and appointed him Second Minister with the title of ¶ Muʿtamad al-mahāmm. In the following year she abolished this office and conferred on him the titles of Nawwāb Wālā-Jāh Amīr al-Mulk. Thenceforward he usurped more and more of the functions of rulership until in 1885 he was deposed by the Government of India and deprived of his titles. He died at Bhōpāl on 20 February 1890.61
Misgovernment and oppression are given in the contemporary press as the reasons for the Nawwāb-Consort’s deposition, but he incurred criticism on other grounds also, including supposed disloyalty and “Wahhābism”62 He belonged in point of fact to the sect of the Ahl i Ḥadīt̲h̲ (often erroneously called Wahhābīs), who reject the principle of taqlīd and are distinguished by puritanical tendencies.
His literary output, in Arabic, Persian, and Urdu, was very considerable. In the Ency. Isl. the number of his works is given as 222. His most important work in his own opinion (at the time of writing the Iksīr) was his Arabic commentary on the Qurʾān.
- Ifādat al-s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ bi-miqdār al-nāsik̲h̲ wa-’l-mansūk̲h̲ composed in 1286:—Editions: Cawnpore 1288–9*, Lahore 1900°.
Iksīr fī uṣūl al-tafsīr (a chronogram = 1289, but 1290 is mentioned as the current year in the preface) based mainly on Ḥ.K̲h̲.’s Kas̲h̲f al-ẓunūn and Walī Allāh Dihlawī’s Fauz al-kabīr (see p. 17) and intended as an introduction to his Arabic commentary Fatḥ al-bayān fī maqāṣid al-Qurʾān (see Ellis ii 370):—Edition: Cawnpore 1290–1*.
Other works by this author will be mentioned hereafter.
[Autobiographies in several of his works, e.g. Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ pp. 263–71, Iksīr 114 foll., An interpreter of Wahabiism (a translation printed at Calcutta in 1884 of an Urdu work entitled Tarjumān i Wahhābīyah) 45 foll. (see also translator’s preface, and, for biographies prefixed to other works, Ellis ii coll. 370 and 373): S̲h̲āh-Jahān Bēgam, Táj-ul Ikbál (tr. Barstow, Calcutta 1876) 149–59: The Pioneer 29–10–1885 p. 1b: The [Poona] Daily Telegraph 29–10–1885 p. 3a: The Indian Mirror 1–11–1885 p. 2e: The Times of India (weekly ed.) 6–11–1885 pp. 1c, 12b, 18c: Affairs in Bhopal. A defence of the Nawab Consort (a pamphlet originally published by the Lahore Ahl i Ḥadīt̲h̲ newspaper Is̲h̲āʿat al-sunnah and subsequently, as a supplement, by the Advocate of India, Bombay 1887): The Poona Observer 22–2–1890 p. 2g: The Pioneer 25–2–1890 p. 1b, 26–2–1890 p. 6b: The Times 3–3–1890 p. 7: Raḥmān ʿAlī 94: Brockelmann ii 503: Sulṭān-Jahān Bēgam, ¶ An account of my life (tr. Payne, London 1912) pp. 143–5, etc., etc. (portrait facing p. 144): Ency. Isl. under Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, where an Urdu biography, Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī, by his son, ʿAlī Ḥasan K̲h̲ān. Lucknow 1924–5, is mentioned.]
§ 49. Appendix
(Works mainly, but not exclusively, of uncertain date)
1.1 Titled or Quasi-Titled Commentaries
- Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ (on Sūrah xii), ascribed to Muʿīn al-Dīn Juwainī in the Ṭihrān edition of 1278° is really by Muʿīn al-Dīn Farāhī (see p. 9).
- Anīs al-murīdīn wa-rauḍat al-muḥibbīn (on Sūrah xii), by Abū Naṣr A. b. A. b. Naṣr al-Buk̲h̲ārī: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1103 (ah 1001).
- Aṣdaq al-bayān: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1102 (Sūrahs vii–xvii. ah 1038).
- Āt̲h̲ār al-ak̲h̲bār, a translation of the fragmentary Arabic commentary ascribed to the Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī: i.o.d.p. 14 (ah 1078).
- Baḥr al-asrār, a metrical (mat̲h̲nawī) commentary on Sūrah i, by Muẓaffar ʿAlī Niʿmatallāhī: Berlin 8 (12).
- Bahr al-maʿānī, by M. b. K̲h̲wājagī b. ʿAṭāʾ Allāh called K̲h̲āwand Miyān: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1104 (Sūrahs lxxviii–cxiv. ah 1088).
- Ḍiyāʾ al-tafāsīr, by M. Ṣādiq Mūsawī K̲h̲wānsārī:—Editions: Ṭihrān 1285–6°, 1299°.
- Intik̲h̲āb i tafsīr i Surah i Muzzammil (lxxiii), by Ṭā-Hā Quṭb al-Dīn Qādirī Katānawī: i.o. d.p. 1169.
- Istiqṣāʾ al-ifhām wa-’stīfāʾ al-intiqām, S̲h̲īʿite controversial exposition of Qurʾānic passages, by Saiyid Ḥāmid Ḥusain (nineteenth century)63—Edition: Lucknow 1315°.
- Jāmiʿ laṭāʾif al-basātīn, a mystical interpretation of Sūrah xii (Joseph) in 60 fuṣūl, by Tāj al-Dīn Saif al-Naẓar Jamāl al-Dīn Abū Bakr b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Zaid al-Ṭūsī (acc. to Ivanow) or Tāj al-Dīn Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. M. Yazīd al-Ṭūsī (acc. to Bāyazīd Cat.) or T. al-D. A. b. M. b. Z. al-Ṭūsī (acc. to Asʿad Efendī Cat.): Asʿad 94, Bāyazīd 287–8, Ivanow 1241.
- Jawāhir al-tafsīr, by Majd al-Dīn K̲h̲āṣṣah S̲h̲īrāzī: Peshawar 156 (sections 1–10 only).
- Jilāʾ al-ad̲h̲hān wa-jilāʾ al-aḥzān64 fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān or Tafsīr i Kāzarūnī, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary by Abū ’l-Maḥāsin Ḥusain b. Ḥasan al-Jurjānī al-Kāzarūnī: i.ḥ. 771, Bāyazīd 215–6, Būhār 149 (Sūrahs i–xvi. 16th cent.), 150 (Sūrahs xix–cxiv. ah 971).
- ¶ Kalimāt i Yūsufī (on Sūrah xii): Peshawar 100 (3).
- Kas̲h̲f al-asrār,65 by Abū ’l-Faḍl A. b. M. Pazdawī: Asʿad 145, 146 (Sūrahs i–vi and xxvi–cxiv).
- Lawāmiʿ al-tanzīl sawāṭiʿ al-taʾwīl, a S̲h̲īʿite commentary begun by Saiyid Abū ’l-Qāsim b. al-Ḥusain Riḍawī Qummī,66 and continued (after vol. 13 apparently) by his son, Saiyid ʿAlī al-Ḥāʾirī:—Edition: Lahore 1883†—(cf. Āṣafīyah vol. i p. 566, nos. 199–202, 254). The 14th volume (Sūrahs xv 2–xvi) was written in 1324–5 and published in 1326*. Vols. 6, 8, 9, and 13 (1899–1907) are in the British Museum.
- Lumʿat al-tafsīr, concise comm. on whole Qurʾān: Leyden iv 1709.
- Maʿālim al-tanzīl. See Tarjamah i Maʿālim al-tanzīl.
- Majmaʿ al-biḥār, an attempt to show that all the S̲h̲īʿite doctrines are deducible from Sūrah i, by Muẓaffar ʿAlī Niʿmatallāhī (cf. no. 5) Berlin 8 (8).
- Maẓhar al-Ḥaqq: Āṣafīyah i p. 566 no. 286, Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1129 (19th cent.).
- Miṣbāḥ al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn, on Sūrah xciii, compiled by Bahāʾ [al-Dīn] b. (?) Maḥmūd b. Ibrāhīm from other commentaries, traditions, and the writings of Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgaurī (see p. 4): Āṣafīyah i p. 478, Bodleian 1811, Ivanow 1298 (1), Curzon 435.
- al-Muḥīṭ al-aʿẓam fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, by Ḥaidar al-Ḥusainī al-Āmulī: Ivanow 1142 (11) (short extract only).
- al-Mustak̲h̲laṣ fī ’l-tafsīr (a glossary ?), by Ḥāfiẓ al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī:67 Fātiḥ 645.
- Qiṣṣah i Yūsuf (in 40 majālis): Cairo p.523.
- Qiṣṣah i Yūsuf (beg. al-Ḥamd lillāh … al-aʿlā ’llad̲h̲ī tawāḍaʿ, etc.): i.o. d.p. 12 (incomplete).
- Rāḥat al-Muʾminīn (on lxvii), by Nūr Muḥammad:—Edition: Lahore 1886†.
- Risālah i Alif Lām Mīm G̲h̲ulibat al-Rūm, on xxx 1–5, S̲h̲īʿite: de Jong 182 (11) (ah 860).
- Risālah i id̲h̲ qāla Yūsufu li-abīhi, on Joseph’s dream (xii 4–6), S̲h̲īʿite: de Jong 182 (3) (ah 860).
- ¶ Risālah i Rūḥ, on xvii 87, S̲h̲īʿite: de Jong 182 (5) (ah 860).
- Risālah i s̲h̲arḥ i suwar i arbaʿah, by G̲h̲ulām Jīlānī: Āṣafīyah i p. 566.
- Riyāḍ al-abrār, by Muḥammad Ṣādiq b. ʿAbd al-Bāqī b. ‘Izz al-Dīn Farg̲h̲ānī: Āṣafīyah i p. 566.
- S̲h̲ifāʾ al-qulūb, after a faṣl on the faḍāʾil i Qurʾān gives a Ṣūfistic commentary on Sūrah xxxv 29. Date (of composition or copying ?) 833/1429: Berlin 182a.
- Surūr al-arwāḥ [fī tafsīr baʿḍ al-āyāt al-Qurʾānīyah ʿalā ʿtiqādāt al-Rawāfiḍ]: Cairo p. 408.
- Tabjīl al-Tanzīl, by Saiyid Abū Manṣūr M. b. M. ʿAlī:—Editions: Delhi [1890°. Pp. 1–54 only ?], Delhi [1903°. Pt. i (i–ii 253) only ?].
- (Tafsīr i Abū Bakr b. ʿUmar b. Abī ’l-Faḍl), commentary on parts of the Qurʾān: Ellis-Edwards p. 1 (ah 867).
- Tafsīr i ʿAlī ʿAẓīm K̲h̲ān, S̲h̲īʿite: Būhār 152–4 (Sūrahs i–xcix), Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 10 (half of Sūrah ii. Mirzā M. ʿAlī K̲h̲an’s Library, Lucknow).
- Tafsīr i asrār al-Fātiḥah, by Mullā K̲h̲air Muḥammad Pas̲h̲āwarī:—Edition: Lucknow 1890† (cf. Āṣafīyah i p. 562).
- Tafsīr i Āyat al-Kursī, by M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī [al-Majlisī (?), who died in 1010/1601–2 or 1011/1602–3, see Rauḍāt al-jannāt 118, i.ḥ. 360, etc.]: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1114.
- Tafsīr (S̲h̲arḥ acc. to the Cairo Cat.) i Āyat al-Kursī: Cairo p. 524 ult.
- Tafsīr i Āyat al-s̲h̲arīfah i Istik̲h̲lāf, by M. Ḥasan:—Edition: Ludhiana 1891†.
- Tafsīr i ʿazīz (?), by Mullā Ḥusain Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī: Ross and Browne 119 (Sūrahs xxxvi–xxxviii and lxxviii–lxxxix 14).
- Tafsīr i baʿd i suwar i Qurʾānī, by Muʿīn[?] b. Maḥmūd S̲h̲īrāzī: Āṣafīyah i p. 562 no. 302.
- Tafsīr i Dalīl al-Raḥmān, by Dalīl al-Raḥmān b. K̲h̲air al-Dīn: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1115–20 (19th cent.).
- Tafsīr i Mubārak-S̲h̲āh, by Mubārak-S̲h̲āh al-Iṣfahānī: Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 444.
- Tafsīr i qasamhā i Qurʾān i Majīd, by S.M. Ḥasan:—Edition: Delhi 1886†.
- Tafsīr i Ṣafī, metrical, by Ḥājjī Mirzā Ḥasan ʿAlī S̲h̲āh:—Edition: Ṭihrān 1308 (Āṣafīyah i p. 564 no. 241).
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Fātiḥah, by Maulawī ʿĀbid Ḥusain:—Edition: Bulands̲h̲ahr 1894†.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Fātiḥah, by Abū Bakr Ḥusain al-K̲h̲ālidī: Asʿad 89.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Fātiḥah, by al-Saiyid al-Ḥusainī al-Riḍawī ʿUbaid Allāh K̲h̲ān al-Dihlawī surnamed Mīr Jumlah Bahādur Tark̲h̲ān: Ethé 2698 (1).
- ¶ Tafsīr i Sūrah i Innā aʿṭaināka (cviii), by Abū ’l-ʿIṣmat M. Maʿṣūm b. Bābā Samarqandī: Ivanow 970 (2).
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Muddat̲h̲t̲h̲ir (lxxiv): Ethé 1765 (5).
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Mulk (lxvii), S̲h̲īʿite: i.o. d.p. 11b.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Muzzammil (lxxiii), by G̲h̲ulām Jīlānī: Āṣafīyah i p. 564 no. 308.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Muzzammil: Ethé 1765 (5).
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Nabaʾ (lxxviii), by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Samarqandī (d. 1018/1609–10)(?): Ḥamīdīyah p. 110 no. 156.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Nabaʾ, by Ḥammāmī-Zādah: Yaḥyā Efendī 16.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Qadr (xcvii), by Ibrāhīm Darwīs̲h̲ al-Buk̲h̲ārī: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 411.
- Tafsīr i Sūrat al-Tauḥīd (cxii), by al-Saiyid al-Ḥusainī al-Riḍawī ʿUbaid Allāh K̲h̲ān al-Dihlawī (see no. 48 supra): Ethé 2698 (2).
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yā-Sīn, by the same: Ethé 2698 (4).
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yā-Sīn, S̲h̲īʿite: i.o. d.p. 11a.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: Asʿad 101.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1127.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: C̲h̲elebī ʿAbd Allāh 19.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: Glasgow (jras. 1906 p. 595 no. 1).
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: Peshawar 28.
- Tafsīr i Sūrah i Yūsuf: See also Qiṣṣah i Yūsuf supra.
- Tafsīrāt i karīmah, by Faiḍ M. Panjābī:—Edition: Bombay 1899†.
- Tanwīr al-dujā fī tafsīr sūrat Wa-’l-duḥā (xciii), by M. Qamar al-Dīn:—Edition: Lahore 1904†.
- Tarjamah i Āyat al-Kursī (ii 256), S̲h̲īʿite: de Jong 182 (4) (ah 860).
- Tarjamah i Maʿālim al-Tanzīl, a translation of the well-known Arabic tafsīr of al-Bag̲h̲awī: Qarah Muṣṭafā 100.
- Tauḍīḥ: Būhār 151 (Sūrahs 1–22), Ivanow 968 (slightly incomplete. 16th cent. ?).
- Tauḍīḥ (?) (different from the preceding): i.o. d.a. 18.
- Tauḍīḥ (identical with one of the preceding ?): Bānkīpūr Pers. Hand-list 1130 (16th cent.).
- Tuḥfat al-muʾminīn fī tafsīr i Pārah i ʿAmma yatasāʾalūn, metrical, by M. Farhād Qandahārī:—Edition: Lahore 1905°.
- Wasīlat al-qabūl ilā Ḥaḍrat al-Rasūl (on Sūrah i), by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Naṣr Allāh al-ʿAlawī:—i.o. d.p. 31.
1.2 Miscellaneous Unidentified Commentaries
(This section contains only a selection from the unidentified commentaries and fragments of commentaries mentioned in the catalogues)
- ¶ On i–xvii, strongly S̲h̲īʿite: Rieu i 12b.
- On i–xviii, S̲h̲īʿite: Rieu Suppt. 2.
- On ix 41–xvii (not al-Sūrābādī): Blochet 31 (13th cent.).
- On xviii 75–xxv 22: Ellis-Edwards p. 1 (13th–14th cent.).
- On xxix 44–xxxviii 51: Ethé 2697.
- On xxxix–?, probably composed in 11th cent.: Browne Coll. (see Edwards in Browne Volume, p. 138).
- On xlix–cxiv: Leyden iv 1691 (before ah 873).
- On liii–cxiv (possibly al-Sūrābādī): Blochet 30 (ah 780).
1.3 Anonymous Translations
Anonymous translations are not infrequently to be found in Persian, Indian, and other manuscripts of the Qurʾān, and little would be gained by enumerating all those mentioned in the various catalogues. The following will serve as specimens:—
Ahlwardt 1031, 10246–7. Āṣafīyah i pp. 2–3 nos. 6–7. Aumer Arab. Cat. 10, 54. Bānkipūr Arab. Hand-list 1, 2, 8, 12–14 (?), 15–17, 19–20, 27, 29, 30–1, 58, 72, 82. Blochet i 24, 32. Browne Pers. Cat. 16–17. Cairo Arab. Cat. i pp. 4, 29. Christensen-Østrup 1. Dorn 12. Dresden 252. Ethé 2677, 2969. Leyden 1610–11. Lindesiana p. 57 (1). Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad Arabic mss. 3. Rieu i 6a, 7a, 7b, 8a (6 mss., 1 of 14th cent., 1 of 15th, and 2 of 16th). Rosen M.A. no. 33. Upsala 373. Vatican 20 (55).
Browne Pers. Cat. 18 is apparently a Persian version detached from the Qurʾānic text.
A page from a Qurʾān dated ah 607 with an interlinear Persian translation is reproduced in Moritz’s Arabic Palœography, Plate 87 (cf. Plate 85 for a similar Qurʾān of the twelfth century).
Anonymous translations have been lithographed or printed in Qurʾāns published at the following places among others:—
- [Ṭihrān] 1260°, 1272°, Ṭihrān 1283°, [Bombay] 1275°, Bombay 1279°, Delhi 1285°.
^ Back to text1. The Arabic text of this tafsīr was published in 30 volumes at the Maimanīyah Press, Cairo, in 1321/1903. Its formal title (not mentioned in the preface) seems to have been Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān, see Annales quos scripsit … at-Tabari ed. de Goeje, Introductio, p. xii. An account of it by O. Loth was published in the zdmg. 1881, pp. 588–628.
^ Back to text2. Of approximately equal antiquity are the abridged translation of al-Ṭabarī’s history of the world (Taʾrik̲h̲ al-rusul wa-’l-mulūk) undertaken by the Wazīr Abu ʿAlī Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Balʿamī in obedience to an order issued in 352/963–4 by Abū Ṣāliḥ Manṣūr ibn Nūḥ (see Browne Lit. Hist. i 11–12, 369, 477–8), the Materia Medica (kitāb al-abniyah ʿan ḥaqāʾiq al-adwiyah) composed by Abū Manṣūr Muwaffaq ibn ʿAlī Harawī for the same ruler (see Browne, ibid.), the geographical work Ḥūdūd al-ʿālam composed in 372/982–3 and discovered at Buk̲h̲ārā by A. Tumanski in 1892 (see Zapiski x 121 sq., Barthold in bsos. ii 836) and possibly the Cambridge tafsīr mentioned on p. 2.
^ Back to text3. For further information concerning him and his works see Fihrist 234–5, Ibn K̲h̲allikān no. 581, Subkī ii 135, Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv 163, Goldziher in wzkm. ix 358–71, de Goeje’s introduction to the Annales quos scripsit … at-Tabarī, Brockelmann i 142, etc.
^ Back to text5. Including Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Faḍl al-anām [or simply al-Faḍl, al-Faḍlī al-Kamārī, d. 381/991 at Buk̲h̲ārā, see al-Jawāhir al-muḍīʾah ii 107, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 184], Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Faqīh, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Ḥāmid al-Faqīh, [al-]K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad al-Sijistānī [or al-Sijzī, d. 368/979 at Samarqand, see al-Jawāhir al-muḍīʾah i 234, Ibn Quṭlūbug̲h̲ā 73, Samʿānī 291b. Doubtless Jhd al-ʿulamāʾ should be emended to Jahbad̲h̲ al-ʿulamāʾ], Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī and Abū’l-Jahm K̲h̲ālid b. Hāniʾ al-Mufaqqih.
^ Back to text6. On the title-page of Leyden 1658 he is called “Abu-Becr Atík ibn-Mohammed an-Naisáburí vulgo vocatus Surábádhí.” Sūrābād does not seem to be mentioned by the geographers and lexicographers.
^ Back to text10. The date 658 (ad 1259), which is inconsistently given by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad (probably on the authority of the Maḥbūb al-albāb) as that of the author’s death, is in reality the date of the death of a different Zāhidī, Muk̲h̲tār b. Maḥmūd, see Brock. i 382, I. Quṭlūbug̲h̲ā 223.
^ Back to text13. His laqab according to the Lubāb al-albāb was Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn. Ḥ.K̲h̲. calls him Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū Jaʿfar. The Haft iqlīm and Ḥ.K̲h̲. (except vol. ii 1850) call him Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd.
^ Back to text14. Completed in 577/1181–2 according to Ḥ.K̲h̲., but if it was dedicated to Yamīn al-Daulah Bahrām S̲h̲āh (as is suggested by the form of the title given in the Lubāb al-albāb and the Haft iqlīm) an earlier date would seem to be required.
^ Back to text15. In this year G̲h̲aznī was captured by Ogotāy, the son of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān, who “massacred the greater part of its inhabitants and carried the remainder away as prisoners … from this calamity G̲h̲azna never recovered … Ibn Baṭūṭa who visited G̲h̲azna more than a hundred years after found it still a heap of ruins, 733 (1332).” Ency. Isl. sub G̲h̲azna.
^ Back to text23. The founder of the Naqs̲h̲bandī order, see Nafaḥāt al-uns no. 442, Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq no. 37 (p. 268), Ras̲h̲aḥāt 53, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 87. K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i 548, Brock, ii 205, Babinger in Der Islam xiv 114 etc.
^ Back to text24. At the age of 73, according to the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ. This is inconsistent with the statement (al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 199) that he was bom in 756. His son, Abū Naṣr Pārsā (Maḥmūd b. M. al-Ḥāfiẓī al-Buk̲h̲ārī), who was likewise a distinguished mystic, died in 865/1460–1 and was buried at Balk̲h̲ (Nafaḥāt al-uns 445, Ḥabīb al-siyar iii 3, 142, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 199).
^ Back to text37. Of the several places called Zawārah (so spelt out in the Rauḍāt al-jannāt) the best known is a village N.W. of Ardistān, see le Strange l.e.c. 208, where the name is spelt Zuvārah, and Yāqūt i 234, where it is spelt Uzwārah.
^ Back to text38. For other translations see below, p. 13, and i.ḥ. 512. For the Arabic original see Loth 166. The author is to be distinguished from his more celebrated contemporary al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭabarsī (d. 548/1154), whose best-known work is the Arabic tafsīr entitled Majmaʿ al-bayān.
^ Back to text39. For other translations see p. 11 and i.ḥ. 3185. The Arabic original was lithographed in Persia in 1282 (see Ellis i 629). For the author, who died in 381/991–2, see Brockelmann i 187, Ency. Isl. ii 365, etc.
^ Back to text40. For the author, who completed the Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲ummah in Ramaḍān 687/1288 and who died in 692/1293, see Amal al-āmil 54, Rauḍāt al-jannāt 396. For an edition of the Arabic text (Ṭihrān ? 1294°) see Ellis i 243.
^ Back to text41. For other translations see Rieu i 15b (by M. b. ʿAbd al-Karīm Anṣārī Astarābādī), Maḥbūb al-albāb 105 (by ʿAlī b. Ṭaifūr Bisṭāmī), and i.h. 575. The Arabic original was published at Būlāq in 1300 and at Cairo in 1303 and 1311 (see Ellis ii 499). The author was a son of the author of the Majmaʿ al-bayān.
^ Back to text42. For other translations see below, p. 23(4), and Āṣafīyah i p. 562, no. 238. The Arabic original was published at Ṭihrān in 1268 (see Ellis i 630) and at Lucknow in . For the alleged author see Ency. Isl. i 489.
^ Back to text43. For the author, who died in 664/1266, see Rauḍāt al-jannāt 392. For a nineteenth-century translation lithographed in Persia ah 1301 see Edwards 111, where, however, the title is erroneously given as Kas̲h̲f ul-ḥujjat.
^ Back to text44. For another translation (by M. b. ʿAbd al-Karīm Anṣārī, cf. note 40) see i.ḥ. 557. For a copy of the Arabic original see Maḥbūb al-albāb p. 484. Aḥmad b. M. b. Fahd al-Ḥillī died in 841/1437–8, see Muntahā ’l-maqāl p. 39, Rauḍāt al-jannāt 20, Brockelmann i 498.
^ Back to text54. A translation of the Qurʾān is mentioned among the works of his father, Ḥusain b. Jamāl al-Dīn M., who died in 1099/1688 (see Amal al-āmil 42, Rauḍāt al-jannāt 196–8, Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ 207, i.ḥ. 564).
^ Back to text60. S. Aulād Ḥasan Qanaujī was a scholar of some note, a pupil of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī and a disciple of Saiyid Aḥmad Barēlawī (see Ency. Isl. i 190), with whose jihād he was associated (Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ 235, cf. Raḥmān ʿAlī 24, where he is called S. Āl i Ḥasan).
^ Back to text67. The person usually so called, Abū ’l-Faḍl M. b. M. b. Naṣr, died in 693/1294 (see al-Jawāhir al-muḍīʾah ii 121–2, al-Fawāʾid al-bahīyah 199). Perhaps, as Horn suggested (zdmg. 1900, p. 286), M. Pārsā al-Ḥāfiẓī al-Buk̲h̲ārī (see above, p. 6) is the person really intended. If so, this work may be identical with the Tafsīr i M. Pārsā mentioned on p. 6 supra.