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2.2 Maʾmūn and ʿAlī al-Riḍā
(2,471 words)

In Volume 3 | Part C, The Unification of Islamic Thought and the Flowering of Theology | Chapter 2, Divided Empire and Civil War

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During all this time Maʾmūn, caliph of the whole empire since 198, remained in M…

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Josef van Ess, “2.2 Maʾmūn and ʿAlī al-Riḍā”, in: Theology and Society Online, Josef van Ess. Consulted online on 08 February 2023 <>
First published online: 2018

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