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Istanbul

(26,864 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 20 Ḏj̲umādā I 857/29 May 1453 to 3 Rabīʿ II 1342/13 October 1923. In strict Ottoman usage the name is confined to the area bounded by the Golden Horn, the Marmara coast and the Wall of Theodosius, the districts of G̲h̲alaṭa, Üsküdār and Eyyūb being separate townships, each with its own ḳāḍī ; occasionally however the name is applied to this whole area. NAME. In the period of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Anatolia (see Kamāl al-Dīn Aḳsarāyī, Musāmarat al- ak̲h̲bār , ed. O. Turan, Ankara 1944, index at p. 344) and under the early Ottomans ( Die altosm. anon. Chroni…

Ḳaplan Girāy I

(676 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Crimean Tatar K̲h̲ān, the third son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Selīm Giray [ q.v.], born on Rhodes in S̲h̲aʿbān 1091/July 1680. In 1108/1697 he became temporary commander of the military forces in Bud̲j̲āḳ [ q.v.] and made a successful raid into Poland. During the negotiations at Carlowicz, he remained in defense of Ferah-Kerman, but Örek-Timur the beg of the rebel S̲h̲irins, forced him to take refuge in Kiliya (Rabīʿ al-Āk̲h̲ir 1111/October 1699). He was afterwards appointed military commander of Chrcassi…

Ḳapu Ag̲h̲asi̊

(863 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, ḳapi̊ ag̲h̲asi̊ (or Bāb al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ ), the senior officer in the Ottoman Sultan’s Palace, until the dār al-saʿāde ag̲h̲asi̊ [ q.v.] began to gain ascendancy in the late 10th/16th century. Like the other Palace ag̲h̲as in continuous service, the Sultan himself selected him from the eunuchs. He had the authority to petition the Sultan for the appointment, promotion and transfer of Palace servants, ag̲h̲a s and ič og̲h̲lan s [ qq.v.]. As the sole mediator between the Sultan and the world outside the Palace, he sat at the gate known as the Inner Gate or Bāb al-…

Bulgaria

(2,919 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, a country in the Balkans. It drew its name from the Bulgare, a people of Turkic origin, who first invaded the Dobrud̲j̲a [ q.v.] under Asparuk̲h̲ or Isperik̲h̲ in 679 A.D. and founded an independent state in the Byzantine province of Moesia. Adopting Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium (865) and identifying themselves with the native Slavs who had previously settled Bulgaria, the Bulgare built up a strong empire in the Balka…

G̲h̲urabāʾ

(1,398 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
(in Turkish G̲h̲urebā ), pl. of A. g̲h̲arīb , Ottoman term for the two lowest of the six cavalry regiments ( Alti̊ Bölük ) of the Ḳapi̊-ḳullari̊ . The regiment riding on the Sultan’s right was known as G̲h̲urebāʾ-i yemīn ( Sag̲h̲ g̲h̲arībler , Sag̲h̲ g̲h̲arībyigitler ), that riding on his left as G̲h̲urebāʾ-i yesār ( Sol g̲h̲arībler , Sol gharīb-yigitler ). The oldest terms used for them are g̲h̲arīb-yigitler and g̲h̲arīb-og̲h̲lanlar (see F. Babinger, Die Aufzeichnungen des Genuesen Iacopo de Promontorio . . ., SBBayer . Ak., Jg. 1956, Heft 8, Munich 1957, 30; Ordo Portae , ed. Ş. Baştav, Budapest 1947, 7; Donado da Lezze [G.-M. Angiolello], Historia Turchesca , ed. J. Ursu, Bucharest 1909, 139); here g̲h̲arīb means ‘away from his native land’, and yigit ‘bold, impetuous man’. From the earliest days there were in the Ottoman principality Muslim warriors who had come from other principalities of Anatolia or other Muslim lands to take part in the g̲h̲āzā under the banner of the Ottomans. An official document of 835/1431 (see Sûret-i Defter-i sancak-i Arvanid , ed. H. İnalcık, Ankara 1954, p. 42, tīmār no. 94) mentions a g̲h̲arīb-yigit who had come from Karaman and received a tīmār

Bud̲j̲āḳ

(458 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, southern Bessarabia (the name Bessarabia formerly denoting only Bud̲j̲āḳ). In Turkish bud̲j̲āḳ ( bud̲j̲g̲h̲aḳ in the Turkish of the Kumans who had settled here earlier) means ‘corner’. This area, from 638/1241 on, had formed part of the empire of the Golden Horde [see batuʾids ]. When it was in decline, the area was occupied temporarily by the voyvode of Wallachia (ca. 746/1345), and later by the voyvode of Bog̲h̲dān [ q.v.] around 802/1400. As a result of the joint action of the Ottoman and the Crimean Tatars ¶ first Aḳ-Kirmān and Kili in 889/1484, and then the whole of Bud̲j̲āḳ in 945/1538, came under direct Ottoman rule (see bog̲h̲dān ). Bud̲j̲āḳ formed the Ottoman s…

G̲h̲āzī Girāy II

(1,012 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, known as Bora (‘tempest’), twice Ḵh̲ān of the Crimea (996/1588-1005/1596 ¶ and 1005/1596-1016/1607). Born in 961/1554, he first distinguished himself in 986/1578 as general of Crimean forces operating in support of the Ottomans against Persia, and won the regard of Özdemir-og̲h̲lu ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] (ʿĀlī, Kunh al-ak̲h̲bār , MS; idem, Nuṣret-nāme , MS Istanbul, Esad Ef. [Süleymaniye] 2433; Āṣafī, S̲h̲ed̲j̲āʿat-nāme , MS Istanbul Un. Lib. 6043; Iskandar Muns̲h̲ī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i ʿālam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī , Tehrān 1314, 191, 197). Taken prisoner b…

Filori

(736 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman name for the standard gold coins of Europe (see H. Sahillioğlu, Bir mültezim zimem defterine göre XV . yüzyil sonunda Osmanlidarphane mukataalari, in Ist . Ü n. Iktisat Fak . Mecm ., xxiii (1962-3), 145-218); also a tax amounting to one filori , in which sense it is usually referred to as resm-i filori. The tax, paid especially by the 1 Eflāḳ (i.e. the semi-nomadic Vlachs of the Balkans, and especially of Serbia), was, together with other supplementary imposts, also called Eflāḳiyye ʿādeti . According to the oldest surviving Ottoman Ḳānūn for the Eflāḳ (see H. Inalcik, Stefan Duşan…

Resm

(1,407 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
The Arabic word rasm , in Turkish resm , resim , means in Ottoman usage state practices and organisations as distinguished from those based on Islamic principles and traditions. Specifically, the word indicates taxes and dues introduced by the state called rüsūm-i ʿurfiyye [see ʿurf ] as distinguished from the s̲h̲arʿī taxes which are called ḥuḳūḳ-i̊ s̲h̲erʿiyye . In the Ottoman Empire, resm was sometimes called ḥaḳḳ in the sense of legal right, as in the term ḥaḳḳ-i̊ ḳarār , a fee which asipahī or feudal cavalryman took when vacant mīrī [ q.v.] land was assigned to a peasant. The term resm is …

Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, more correctly Ḳara Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, Meḥmed

(789 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, sometimes given the title of “Beg”. His father, Ḳara Ḥaydar, is mentioned in the sources simply as a brigand; according to Ewliyā Čelebi ( Seyāḥatnāme , iv, 472-3, and cf. Naʿīmā, iv, 240) he took to the mountains in about 1050/1640 and began to plunder caravans in the passes between Eskis̲h̲ehir and Izmir (Smyrna). During the Grand Vizierate of Ḳara Muṣṭafā (and hence before 1052/1643, when the vizier was executed), a nefīr-i ʿāmm against Ḳara Ḥaydar was proclaimed in Anatolia, i.e., the civilian population was impressed in the hunt. He was surrounded near Uluborlu and killed. The first …

Eyālet

(2,738 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, from the Arabic iyāla , “management, administration, exercise of power” (cf. Turkish translation of Fīrūzābādī’s Ḳāmūs by ʿĀṣim, Istanbul 1250/1834, iii, 135); in the Ottoman empire the largest administrative division under a beglerbegi [ q.v.], governor-general. In this sense it was officially used after ¶ 1000/1591. The assumption that under Murād III the empire was divided up into eyālets (M. d’Ohsson, Tableau général de l’empire ottoman , vii, 277) must be an error since the term does not occur in the documents of the period. Instead we always find beglerbegilik and wilāyet ( wilāy…

Dār al-ʿAhd

(697 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, “the Land of the Covenant”, was considered as a temporary and often intermediate territory between the Dār al-Islām [ q.v.] and the Dār al-Ḥarb [ q.v.] by some Muslim jurists (see Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Kitāb al-Umm , Cairo 1321, iv, 103-104; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, Kitāb al-K̲h̲arād̲j̲ , trans. A. ben Shemesh, Leiden 1958, 58). Al-Māwardī ( Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyya , trans. E. Fagnan, Algiers 1915, 291) states that of the lands which pass into the hands of the Muslims by agreement, that called Dār al-ʿAhd is the one the proprietorship of whi…

Gelibolu

(4,709 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in English Gallipoli , town on the European coast and at the Marmara end of the Dardanelles (Turkish: Čanaḳ-ḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]), in the Ottoman period a naval base and the seat of the kapudan-pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], now an ilçe belonging to the il of Çanakkale; the name derives from the Greek Kalliopolis, Kallioupolis, also Kallipolis (for the various forms see E. Oberhummer, in Pauly Wissowa, x, 1659-60). ¶ When, towards 700/1300, the Turks of Anatolia first concerned themselves with the town, it was one of the greatest and strongest Byzantine fortresses in Thrace (P. Lemerle, L’émirat d’…

Es̲h̲ki̇nd̲j̲i̇

(692 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also es̲h̲künd̲j̲i , means in Turkish ‘one who rushes, goes on an expedition’ ( es̲h̲kin is defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī [ Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Türk , i, 100; = Besim Atalay’s T. tr., i, 109] as ‘long journey’, and es̲h̲kind̲j̲i as ‘galloping courier’; cf. also Taniklariyle tarama sözlüǧü , ed. Türk Dil Kurumu, i-iv, s.v.; the verb es̲h̲mek , to go on an expedition, was later replaced in Ottoman Turkish by mülāzemet , Ar. mulāzama ). As a term in the Ottoman army es̲h̲kind̲j̲i meant in general a soldier who joined the army on an expedition. Thus es̲h̲kind̲j̲i timariots (see tīmār …

Balkan

(2,091 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the Balkan peninsula. The word Balkan means mountain or mountain range and, in the form of Balkanli̊k , rugged zone in Turkish. The etymology of the word is now linked with balk , mud, and the diminutive suffix, -an in Turkish (according to H. Eren). There is a mountain called Balk̲h̲an in Türkmenistan. The word Balkan was used first by the Ottomans in Rumeli in its general meaning of mountain, as in Kod̲j̲a-Balkan, Čatal-Balkan, and Ungurus-Balkani̊ (the Carpathians). But specifically it was applied to the Haemus range of the ancient and mediaeval…

D̲j̲amālī

(623 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Mawlānā ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-D̲j̲amālī , Ottoman S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām from 908/1502 to 932/1526, also called simply ʿAlī Čelebi or Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, was of a family of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s and scholars of Ḳaramān who had settled in Amasya. D̲j̲amālī was born in this city (Ḥ. Ḥusām al-Dīn, Amasya taʾrīk̲h̲i , i, Istanbul 1327, 105, 321). After his studies under such famous scholars as Mollā K̲h̲usraw in Istanbul and Ḥusām-zāde Muṣliḥ al-Dīn in Bursa D̲j̲amālī was appointed a mudarris at the ʿAlī Beg Madrasa in Edirne. His cousin, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad D̲j̲amālī…

Bog̲h̲dān

(1,318 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, originally Bog̲h̲dān-ili or Bog̲h̲dān-wilāyeti (‘the land of Bog̲h̲dān’), Turkish name of Moldavia, so called after Bog̲h̲dān who in 760/1359 founded a principality between the Eastern flanks of the Carpathians and the Dniester (Turla). The name Bog̲h̲dān-ili appears in the ḥükm of Meḥemmed II dated 859/1455 (Kraelitz, Osm. Urk. Table I). The name Ḳara-Bog̲h̲dān is found in the letter of Iminek dated 881/1476 (Belleten, no. 3-4, 644) and in the Ottoman chroniclers generally. The principality suffered its first raid ( aḳi̊n ) by the Ottomans in 823/142…

Bursa

(2,891 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also called burusa by the Ottomans after the ancient city of Prusa (προῦσα) on the northern foothills of Mysian Olympus, became the main capital of the Ottoman state between 726-805/1326-1402. It was mentioned by Pachymeres along with Nicaea and Philadelphia as one of the three principal cities still in the hands of the Byzantines when the Turkish borderers invaded the whole of western Anatolia about 699/1300. According to ʿĀs̲h̲iḳ Pas̲h̲azāde (ed. Fr. Giese, 22-23) the Ottomans were able to lay siege to Bursa for the first time when they invaded the Bursa pl…

Bennāk

(280 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also called benlāk in the 9th/15th century, an Ottoman ʿörfī ( ʿurfī ) tax paid by married peasants ( muzawwad̲j̲ reʿāyā ) possessing a piece of land less than half a čift [ q.v.] or no land, the former being called ekinlü bennāk or simply bennāk and the latter d̲j̲abā bennāk or d̲j̲abā . The word bennāk might possibly be derived from the Arabic verb banaka . Actually the bennāk resmi made part of the čift resmi [ q.v.] system and can be considered originally as consisting of two or three of the seven services ( ḳulluḳ , Ḵh̲idmet ) included in the čift resmi. The rate of bennāk was 6 or 9 akča

Selīm I

(5,008 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in official documents Selīms̲h̲āh, nicknamed Yavuz or the Grim, ninth Ottoman sultan (reigned from 7 Ṣafar 918/24 April 1512 to 8 S̲h̲awwāl 926/21 September 1520), conqueror of eastern Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, and the first Ottoman sultan entitled K̲h̲ādim al-Ḥaramayn al-S̲h̲arīfayn or Servitor of Mecca and Medina. The struggle for the throne, 1509-13. To comprehend the circumstances and nature of the fierce struggle for the throne between Bāyezīd’s three sons Ḳorḳud, Aḥmed and Selīm, we have to keep in mind that Turco-Mongol peoples firmly be…
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