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(438 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Ibrāhīm ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn , modern Turkish İbrahi̇m Alaetti̇n Gövsa , Turkish author, biographer and poet (1889-1949), was born in Istanbul, the son of Musṭafā ʿĀṣim, a civil servant, from a Turkish family of Filibe (Plovdiv in presentday Bulgaria). Educated at the Wefā lycée, Istanbul, and in Trabzon, where his father was chief secretary ( mektūbd̲j̲u ) of the province, he studied in Istanbul University (1907-10), subsequently taught in Trabzon lycée and in 1913 went to Switzerland with a government scholarship, where he studied p…


(1,076 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳ(Ḳ ) S̲h̲ināsī (mod. Turkish Abdülhak Şinasi Hisar), 1888-1963, Turkish writer, born in Rumelihisan, a summer village on the European shores of the Bosphorus. His family were of the upper-class Ottoman Civil Service. His father Maḥmūd Ḏj̲elāl al-Dīn was an enlightened modernist of his day having had two years’ education in Paris and being the editor of various literary magazines, particularly of K̲h̲azīne-i Ewrāḳ , to which leading writers of the Tanẓīmāt School and their followers contributed. An ardent supporter of modernis…

Ḥusayn D̲j̲āhid

(1,396 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(mod. Turkish Hüseyi̇n cahi̇t yalçin , 1874-1957), Turkish writer, journalist and politician. His parents were from Istanbul. He was born at Bahkesir while his father ʿAlī Riḍā was serving as government accountant in the province. He attended the primary school at Serres in Macedonia and the lycée at Istanbul. On completing his studies at the School of Political Science ( Mülkiye ) in 1896 he became a civil servant in the Ministry of Education. In the meantime he had taught himself French. He taught Turkish and French in various schools and became the headmaster of the iʿdādī


(214 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, İbrahi̇m , Turkish folk poet (1186-1261/1772-1845) born in S̲h̲ahnalar, a forest village in the province of Bolu. At the death of his father, he tried his fortune in Istanbul but was soon forced to go back to his native province. He then spent ten years in Egypt and travelled extensively in Anatolia where he became one of the leading poet-singers of the period. Again in Istanbul under Maḥmūd II, he became a popular figure of the coffee-houses frequented by folk poets and wrote his famous ḳaṣīda on the fez, praising this newly introduced headgear, and enjoy…

Fehīm, Süleymān

(107 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(1203-62/1789-1846), a minor Ottoman poet who wrote in the first half of the 19th century, during the declining decades of the classical school. A government official in Istanbul and in the Balkans, he soon retired and devoted his life to study and writing, teaching Persian occasionally. His little dīwān (Istanbul 1262) contains poems inspired by the “Indian style” of Persian poetry. He is also the author of Sefīnet al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Istanbul 1259), an expanded translation of Dawlats̲h̲āh’s Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ . (Fahi̇r İz) Bibliography D̲j̲ewdet, Taʾrīk̲h̲ 2, xii, 184 Faṭīn, Te…


(656 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, called Rūmī also Uzun or Ṭawīl (857/1453- ?). Turkish poet and polymath, author of the voluminous Süleymānnāme (the Book of Solomon). He was probably born in Aydi̊nd̲j̲i̊k, where he spent his childhood, and educated at Bursa, where he had as master the poet Melīḥī, and lived for a while at Bali̊kesir. According to information in the introduction of a Süleymānnāme copy, seen by M. Fuad Köprülü (see Bibl.) but now unavailable, his ancestors were all illustrious men of arms who served the Empire from ʿOt̲h̲mān I onwards, and his father Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Genek B…


(331 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
ʿAbd Allāh , also known as Es̲h̲ref-i Rūmī , Turkish poet and mystic, the founder of the Es̲h̲refiyye branch of the Ḳādiriyya Ṣūfī ṭarīḳa (d. 873/1469). His father Es̲h̲ref left Egypt as a young man and settled in Iznik (Nicea). Es̲h̲refog̲h̲lu himself was educated in Bursa where he was introduced to the famous 9th/15th century saint Emīr Sulṭān [ q.v.], on whose recommendation he went to Ankara where he joined the famous s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and mystical poet Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bayram, who liked him and gave him his daughter in marriage. On Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bayram’…


(658 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Kalkandelenli̇ , Turkish poet of the mid-10th/16th century. Very little is known about his life. From the scanty information provided by ted̲h̲kire- writers, we learn only that he was from Ḳalḳandelen (Tatova) near Üsküb (Skopje); of a modest family, cheerful and easy-going, he was unambitious and died young, while still a student. Faḳīrī is the author of a s̲h̲ehrengīz , a sāḳī-nāme and a number of g̲h̲azels scattered in med̲j̲mūʿas and naẓīre collections, all of which are of rather mediocre quality. He owes his reputation to his original Risāle-i taʿrīfāt (B…


(874 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, ʿAzmī-zāde Muṣṭafā (977/1570-1040/1631), Ottoman poet and scholar, considered the master of the rubāʿī in Turkish literature. He was born in Istanbul, the son of Pīr Meḥmed ʿAzmī (d. 990/1582), the tutor of the prince Meḥmed (later Meḥmed III), who left, besides poems in Turkish, Eastern Turkish, Arabic and Persian, an expanded translation of the Anīs al-ʿārifīn of Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ and an unfinished translation (later continued by his son) of the mat̲h̲nawī Mihr u Mus̲h̲tarī of the Persian poet Muḥammad ʿAṣṣār (see Rieu, Cat. Persian MSS , ii, 626; Pertsch, Kat ., 843 ff.). …


(264 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Saʿd al-Dīn Nüzhet , modern Turkish Sadetti̇n Nüzhet Ergun , Turkish scholar and literary historian (1901-46). Born in Bursa, he was educated at the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul ¶ University and taught Turkish literature in various secondary schools in Anatolia and later in Istanbul, where he also worked as a librarian. He started his career as a scholar while he was a teacher in the Konya lycée, with a book on the folk-lore of Konya. A hard-working and prolific scholar, his works are based on first-hand research into wh…

Kemal Tahi̇r

(2,055 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
( demi̇r ), modern Turkish novelist (1910-1973). Born on 13 March 1910 ¶ in Istanbul, his father’s family came originally from Alişar village of Şebinkarahisari (in north-eastern Anatolia), where most of their relatives still live. They were known as Demircioğulları, hence the family name Demir, which however Kemal Tahir never used in his writings. His father Ṭāhir Efendi (d. 1957), a naval officer risen from the ranks, was an aide-decamp to the Sultan ( k̲h̲ünkār yāveri ), and also worked in the carpentry shop of the Yıldız Palace (a privileged po…


(456 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, aḥmed (originally aḥmed ag̲h̲ayef , later ag̲h̲aog̲h̲lu aḥmed and after 1934 Ahmet Ağaoğlu), Turkish writer and journalist (1869-1939). Born in S̲h̲us̲h̲a, a town in the Ḳarabāg̲h̲ [ q.v.] region of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. he was educated in his home town and Tiflis (Tbilisi) and later studied political science in Paris. In 1894 he returned home, where he collaborated with progressive and nationalist intellectuals like Ḥusayn-Zāde ʿAlī, Ismāʿīl Gaspi̊rali̊ (Gasprinski) [ q.v.] and ʿAlī Merdān Topči̊bas̲h̲i̊ and contributed to various papers. After the restoration ¶ of the Constit…


(299 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, tahir , Turkish author and literary critic (1916-73). The son of a naval officer, he was born in Istanbul and graduated from the Department of Turkish Studies of Istanbul University (1943). He taught Turkish literature in various high schools until 1956, when he was appointed to Galatasaray Lycée in Istanbul where he taught until his death on 19 June 1973. During the last few years of his life he was also a part-time lecturer at Boğaziçi University in Istanbul. Two leading themes of his many books and large number of articles are firstly, Turkish folk-lore, and secondly, …


(630 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(Modern Turkish orthography, halkevi̇ , pl. halkevleri̇ ), “People’s House”, the educational and social centres founded by Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk) to replace the “Turkish Hearths” (see Türk Od̲j̲ag̲h̲i̊ ) which were active, with some intervals, between 1912 and 1932. The Od̲j̲aḳs represented originally the Pan-Turkist ideology of the Committee of Union and Progress ( Ittiḥād ve Teraḳḳī Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti [ q.v.]). Although the government continued to support them after the foundation of the Republic in 1923, they were gradually looked upon as an obsolete inst…

ʿAlī Emīrī

(419 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
(1858-1924), Turkish bibliophile and scholar. He was born in Diyārbekr, the son of Meḥmed S̲h̲erīf, a wealthy merchant from a locally prominent family. He learnt Arabic, Persian and the Islamic sciences from his great-uncle and private tutors. At the age of 18 he published in the local paper Diyārbekr a d̲j̲ülūsiyye , a poem commemorating the enthronement of Murād V which made his name widely known in educated circles. When ʿĀbidīn Pas̲h̲a (the Mat̲h̲nāwī commentator) came in 1879 to Diyārbekr as president of the committee of reform for the east…

Ismāʿīl Ṣafā

(1,005 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(1867-1901), Turkish poet of the transition period between the Tanẓīmāt and the T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn schools. Born in Mecca where his father, Meḥmed Behd̲j̲et, a native of Trabzon and a minor poet of the old school (see Ibnülemin Mahmud Kemal, Son asır Türk şairleri , Istanbul, 1930, i, 177-178), was chief secretary ( mektūbd̲j̲u ) of the Ḥed̲j̲āz province, he lost his mother Sāmiye ʿĀ’ishe at the age of seven. On his father’s death in 1880, Ismāʿīl Ṣafā and his two brothers moved to Istanbul. His happy life in Arabia and the de…


(560 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, ʿabd al-ḥaḳḳ ʿadnān , modern Turkish abdülhak adnan adivar , Turkish author, scholar and politician (1882-1955). He was born in Gelibolu (Gallipoli), while his father Aḥmed Bahāʾī, who came from a prominent ʿulamāʾ family of Istanbul, was ḳāḍī there. He studied medicine at the University of Istanbul and while a student, contributed to various newspapers and was in trouble with the Ḥamīdian police. Upon graduation he fled to Europe, spent a year in Paris and Zürich and settled in Berlin where he became an assi…


(283 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Turkish poet, b. 875/1471 in Balıkesir. The son of a modest bootmaker, as a boy he practised his father’s craft but soon gave it up, moving to the capital during the reign of Bāyezīd I where, following his natural inclinations, he devoted his life to poetry. An easy and prolific versifier, he made a living from the gifts of the notables of the day, to whom he dedicated ḳaṣīdas (among others, to the sultans Selīm I, Suleymān I, to D̲j̲aʿfer Čelebi and Ibn Kemāl). In his old age he practised geomancy in a shop which soon became a sort of lit…

Ḳul Muṣṭafā, called Ḳayi̊kd̲j̲i̊

(171 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, 11th/17th century Turkish folk poet of Janissary origin. His nickname Ḳayi̊kd̲j̲i̊ (“The Boatman”) seems to have originated from his association in his youth with the corsair, later admiral, Turg̲h̲ud Reʾīs [ q.v.] in Algeria. His narrative or epic poems on contemporary important events became very popular in the army and at court, and his fame lies more in these than in his less attractive lyrics. Among his famous narrative poems, the most notable concern the assasination of ʿOt̲h̲mān II by the Janissaries; S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās’s …

K̲h̲ālide Edīb

(3,895 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
(modern Turkish, Halide Edib Adıvar), prominent Turkish novelist, writer and nationalist, (1884-1964). She was born in Bes̲h̲iktas̲h̲ not far from the Yıldız Palace, where her father Meḥned Edīb Bey was First Secretary to the Sultan’s Privy Purse ( d̲j̲eyb-i hümāyūn serkātibi ). Edīb was the adopted son of a S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Malimūd of Salonica, who brought him up and later sent him to Istanbul for further education (Halide Edib, Memoirs , New York 1926, 200). In later life, he served as director of the Tobacco Régie in Yanya (Janina) and Bursa. K…
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