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Domavia

(233 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Municipium in the late 2nd cent. AD, possibly under Septimius Severus (CIL III 12732); after AD 230 colonia m( etalli?) D( omaviani) (CIL III 12728f.) in the prov. Dalmatia, now Gradina close to Sas (near Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina); from no later than Marcus Aurelius a centre of administration of both the Pannonian and the Dalmatian mines ( procurator metallorum Pannon[ icorum] et Delmat[ icorum], CIL III 12721), that were developed in the area around Srebrenica; the mining district was called Argentaria

Claustra Alpium Iuliarum

(89 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A system of late Roman fortifications in the frontier and trade zone between the towns of Emona, Forum Iulii, Tergeste and Tarsatica at the northeastern entrance of Italy (Illyro-Italian gate), supported in part by the natural barriers of the mountainous Karst landscape. It was mentioned repeatedly by ancient authors from Herodianus to Prosper Tiro and parts have been archaeologically explored. Literary evidence: Amm. Marc. 31,11,3. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Nauportus (1), RE 16,2, 2011f. J. Šašel, P. Petru (ed.), Claustra A…

Drilon

(225 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Drim, Albanian Drini). River formed in Albania near Kukësi from the union of the Beli Drim (Drini i Bardhë, which rises at the foot of the mountain Rusolije in Kosovo) and the Crni Drim (Drini i Zi), which emerges from Lichnidus lacus, modern Lake Ohrid, Macedonia/Albania. Ptol. 2,16,6 is almost correct in observing that the river flows from the Scardus mons (modern Šar planina in Macedonia) and another (unnamed) mountain through the interior of Moesia superior. Str. 7,5,7 describes its course as navigable eastwards to Dardania. The Romans termed it wrongly Dirin…

Formio

(115 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Rižana, more probably Osapska Reka). A small river east of Aegida (between Capra and Iustinianopolis, modern Koper/Capodistria), 6 miles from Tergeste. The name is perhaps derived from the language of the Veneti. The F. gained significance in 42-41 BC as the border river when Gallia Cisalpina was incorporated into Italy after the battle of Philippi. Between 18 and 12 BC this boundary was relocated to the Arsia (modern Raša). The stream is mentioned in Plin. HN 3,127 ( Formio amnis ... antiquus auctae Italiae terminus, nunc vero Histriae) and Ptol. 3,1,27. Šašel K…

Labeates

(139 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Illyrian people (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; the region in Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) near palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; modern Albanian Liqeni Shkodres, Serbian Skadarsko jezero); main towns Scodra and Meteon. Their territory was the core of the kingdom of Genthius, the last independent Illyrian king and an ally of Perseus, who was defeated by the Romans in 168 BC. The Romans gave them autonomy and the right to issue coinage (bronze c…

Byllis

(252 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Macedonia, Macedones (Βυλλίς; Byllís). Settlement on the right bank of the Aous in the hills of the Mallakastra near the modern Gradista de Hekal. Founded in the 4th cent. BC, B. was independent from 230 BC until its conquest by Rome. The structure of its governmental institutions was modelled on those of Epirus and Apollonia [1]; it is possible that a polis and a koinon of the Bylliones coexisted. In the vicinity of B. was the town of Clos. B. experienced a late bloom in the 6th cent. AD;…

Aenona

(133 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Prehistoric settlement of the  Liburni on a small island (modern Nin, Croatia); attested in the name A., in copious grave finds, and in the native cult of the epigraphically verified  Venus Anzotica. Important town in the early Roman period ( Illyricum, later province  Dalmatia); probably Augustan   municipium of the tribus Sergia (CIL III 3158), 18 km north-west of  Iader, opposite the island of Cissa (modern Pag) at the foot of Mons Albius (modern Velebit) (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,16,3). Sur…

Dassaretia

(203 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Region in southern Illyricum near the western border of Macedonia (Liv. 42,36,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,145; 4,3; Mela 2,55; Str. 7,5,7; 5,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. D.) between the kingdoms of the Illyrians and the Macedonians, from the Lychnidus lacus (today Lake Ohrid; Ptol. 3,13,32; Liv. 43,9,7) to Antipatrea (today Berati, Albania) along the upper (H)apsus (Semani, Albania). Scerdilaedas and Philip V fought in 217 BC for the cities of Antipatrea, Chrysondyon and Gertus (Polyb. 5,108); otherwise, only vici and castella are mentioned. D. was conquered by Philip. In 20…

Doclea

(196 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Settlement of the Illyrian Docleates (Ptol. 2,16,12; App. Ill. 16,46; Ptol. 2,16,8; Plin. HN 3,143; princeps civitatis Docleatium, ILJug 1853 [1]) in the interior of Crna Gora (Montenegro), now Duklja, at the junction of the Zeta and Morača in the Podgorica (formerly Titograd) region; was later a Flavian municipium Docleatium in the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), confirmed in several inscriptions (collected by Sticotti [2]) as res p(ublica) Docleatium. Ruler cult attested. Excavations have …

Bistua Nova

(199 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Roman municipium of the province of Dalmatia (Tab. Peut. 6,1) in the territory of the  Daesitiates along the Urpanus (Vrabas), in the mineral (gold, iron) district along the rivers Rama, Vrbas, Bistrica, Lašva near today's Bugojno (probably not Zenica, as Patsch believes, nor Vitez as Wilkes suggests) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Founded on the site of an important indigenous Iron Age settlement, possibly by the Flavian emperors (a large n…

Illyricum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(also Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). The first Roman province on the eastern Adriatic coast, in 167 BC organized as a Roman territory, formerly part of the Illyrian kingdom. [German version] A. State of research Understanding of the term I. varies. The discussion on the ‘Illyrian question’ reached its climax with Panillyrianism, which saw the Illyrians as the bearers of the Urnfield culture (cf. the publications of H. Krahe, but whose conclusions have since been thoroughly revised). From the beginning to the collapse of th…

Argyruntum

(170 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town at the foot of the Alpes Delmaticae (modern Velebit) on the northern Dalmatian coast (modern Starigrad Paklenica, Croatia), in the 3rd cent. BC at times occupied by the  Iapodes, but from the 4th cent. BC attributed to the  Liburni (Ps.-Scyl. 21). As a Liburnian   oppidum (Plin. HN 3,140), A.'s population was made up of both immigrants and natives; probably under  Augustus, it became a   municipium of the   tribus Claudia (hardly under Tiberius, even though the town was fortified with walls and towers during his reign [1. 2894]…

Glinditiones

(166 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the Illyrian tribes in the province Dalmatia, subjugated with the greatest difficulty in 35-33 BC together with the Docleatae, Carni, Interphrurini, Naresii and the Taurisci by the future Augustus and forced to pay overdue taxes (App. Ill. 47: Γλιντιδίωνες; Glintidíōnes); thus they had already been subjugated previously. According to Plin. HN 3,143, the G. belonged with 44 decuriae to the conventus of Narona. It is not known where they settled, not even whether they are in some way to be connected with the Ditiones. Different localizations in the valleys of…

Flanona

(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia (modern Plomin/Croatia); town on the eastern coast of the peninsula of Histria in Liburnia, province of Dalmatia. An earlier Liburnian fortress above the bay of F. gave the entire bay of Kvarner the name: sinus Flanaticus (Plin. HN 3,139; Artemidorus in Steph. Byz. s.v. Φλάνων). F. probably became a municipium under Augustus (rather than under Tiberius), and tribus Claudia and Sergia (AE 1973, 477) are attested; the Aquilii were one of the foremost families. The residents are called Flanonienses Vani…

Iader

(244 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (τὰ Διάδωρα; tà Diádōra). Liburnian foundation of the Iron Age, later the most important city of Liburnia in the province of Dalmatia, modern Zadar (Italian Zara) in Croatia (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 3,140 colonia Iader, cf. 141; 152; It. Ant. 272,1f.; cf. 496,7; 497,2; CIL III 2925). The inhabitants ( Iadertini) fought with Caesar against Pompey (Bell. Alex. 42). I. probably became a Roman colonia ( colonia Iulia; earlier documented as a conventus civium Romanorum) under Caesar. Traces of centuriatio…

Histria, Histri [1]

(726 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Peninsula (4,437 km2) on the northern Adriatic between Tergeste and Tarsatica (Croatia/Slovenia). H. is derived from the Istri/Histri who already settled here in the 11th cent. BC (mentioned for the first time by Hecataeus, FGrH 1 F 91). Their settlements were on hills and on the coast ( gradine or castellieri) and had monumental fortifications; there is evidence of cremations in clay urns. The development of the Histri between the Veneti in the north, the Iapodes in the north-east and the Liburni in the south and south-west ca…

Aequum

(206 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Town in the province  Dalmatia (modern Čitluk near Sinj), on the road from Salona to Servitium (It. Ant. 269,6; Tab. Peut. 5,3, Geogr. Rav. 4,16).   colonia under emperor  Claudius (CIL III 1323; Ptol. 2,16,11). A. was the only town in Dalmatia to be founded on the basis of a veteran settlement, following the departure of the   legio VII from Tilurium. A. had a   conventus civium Romanorum , whose summus curator was Sex. Iulius Silvanus -- following the foundation of the colony one of its first…

Autariatae

(180 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An Illyrian people of the hinterland of the Dalmatian coast on the upper reaches of the  Naro between the rivers Bathinus (today Bosna) and  Drinus, with their central base on Mount Romanija (or possibly [1. 87-129] further east, above the lacus Labeatis). The A. are mentioned in literary sources in the 4th cent. BC (based on earlier authors, cf. Ps.-Scyl. 24), and in archaeological terms can probably be assigned to the Iron Age Glasinac culture. According to Str. 7,5,11, this people constituted the largest and stronges…

Daorsi

(450 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An ‘Illyrian’ civitas with only 17 decuriae in the conventus of Narona (prov. of Dalmatia, today in Bosnia Herzegovina and partly in Croatia), one of the most Hellenized peoples on the coast of Dalmatia. The D. settled on the left bank of the Naro (Neretva) from Bijelo polje as far as Trebinjska Šuma, i.e. in the hinterland between Narona and  Epidaurum, with access to the sea and a central settlement in Gradina near Ošanići in the region of Stolac (Herzegovina), built according to megalithic t…

Iapodes

(322 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Indo-European people attested since the 9th/8th cents. BC, often erroneously classified as Illyrians, settled in Lika, the Karst plains of Gacko, Ličko, Krbavsko (western Croatia), on the Una near Bihać (western Bosnia) and Notranjska (Inner Carniolia/Slovenia). Administratively, they were part of the conventus Scardonitanus of the province of  Illyricum, later Dalmatia. The Zrmanja and Velebit mountains separated them from the  Liburni in the south. These they fought in the 3rd cent. BC with temporary success for access …
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