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Domavia

(233 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Municipium in the late 2nd cent. AD, possibly under Septimius Severus (CIL III 12732); after AD 230 colonia m( etalli?) D( omaviani) (CIL III 12728f.) in the prov. Dalmatia, now Gradina close to Sas (near Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina); from no later than Marcus Aurelius a centre of administration of both the Pannonian and the Dalmatian mines ( procurator metallorum Pannon[ icorum] et Delmat[ icorum], CIL III 12721), that were developed in the area around Srebrenica; the mining district was called Argentaria

Claustra Alpium Iuliarum

(89 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A system of late Roman fortifications in the frontier and trade zone between the towns of Emona, Forum Iulii, Tergeste and Tarsatica at the northeastern entrance of Italy (Illyro-Italian gate), supported in part by the natural barriers of the mountainous Karst landscape. It was mentioned repeatedly by ancient authors from Herodianus to Prosper Tiro and parts have been archaeologically explored. Literary evidence: Amm. Marc. 31,11,3. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Nauportus (1), RE 16,2, 2011f. J. Šašel, P. Petru (ed.), Claustra A…

Drilon

(225 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Drim, Albanian Drini). River formed in Albania near Kukësi from the union of the Beli Drim (Drini i Bardhë, which rises at the foot of the mountain Rusolije in Kosovo) and the Crni Drim (Drini i Zi), which emerges from Lichnidus lacus, modern Lake Ohrid, Macedonia/Albania. Ptol. 2,16,6 is almost correct in observing that the river flows from the Scardus mons (modern Šar planina in Macedonia) and another (unnamed) mountain through the interior of Moesia superior. Str. 7,5,7 describes its course as navigable eastwards to Dardania. The Romans termed it wrongly Dirin…

Formio

(115 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Rižana, more probably Osapska Reka). A small river east of Aegida (between Capra and Iustinianopolis, modern Koper/Capodistria), 6 miles from Tergeste. The name is perhaps derived from the language of the Veneti. The F. gained significance in 42-41 BC as the border river when Gallia Cisalpina was incorporated into Italy after the battle of Philippi. Between 18 and 12 BC this boundary was relocated to the Arsia (modern Raša). The stream is mentioned in Plin. HN 3,127 ( Formio amnis ... antiquus auctae Italiae terminus, nunc vero Histriae) and Ptol. 3,1,27. Šašel K…

Labeates

(139 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Illyrian people (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; the region in Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) near palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; modern Albanian Liqeni Shkodres, Serbian Skadarsko jezero); main towns Scodra and Meteon. Their territory was the core of the kingdom of Genthius, the last independent Illyrian king and an ally of Perseus, who was defeated by the Romans in 168 BC. The Romans gave them autonomy and the right to issue coinage (bronze c…

Byllis

(252 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Macedonia, Macedones (Βυλλίς; Byllís). Settlement on the right bank of the Aous in the hills of the Mallakastra near the modern Gradista de Hekal. Founded in the 4th cent. BC, B. was independent from 230 BC until its conquest by Rome. The structure of its governmental institutions was modelled on those of Epirus and Apollonia [1]; it is possible that a polis and a koinon of the Bylliones coexisted. In the vicinity of B. was the town of Clos. B. experienced a late bloom in the 6th cent. AD;…

Aenona

(133 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Prehistoric settlement of the  Liburni on a small island (modern Nin, Croatia); attested in the name A., in copious grave finds, and in the native cult of the epigraphically verified  Venus Anzotica. Important town in the early Roman period ( Illyricum, later province  Dalmatia); probably Augustan   municipium of the tribus Sergia (CIL III 3158), 18 km north-west of  Iader, opposite the island of Cissa (modern Pag) at the foot of Mons Albius (modern Velebit) (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,16,3). Sur…

Dassaretia

(203 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Region in southern Illyricum near the western border of Macedonia (Liv. 42,36,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,145; 4,3; Mela 2,55; Str. 7,5,7; 5,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. D.) between the kingdoms of the Illyrians and the Macedonians, from the Lychnidus lacus (today Lake Ohrid; Ptol. 3,13,32; Liv. 43,9,7) to Antipatrea (today Berati, Albania) along the upper (H)apsus (Semani, Albania). Scerdilaedas and Philip V fought in 217 BC for the cities of Antipatrea, Chrysondyon and Gertus (Polyb. 5,108); otherwise, only vici and castella are mentioned. D. was conquered by Philip. In 20…

Baloia

(194 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman municipium (at the time of Emperor Hadrian?) in the upper Pliva valley, province of Dalmatia; today Šipovo (Bosnia-Herzegovina); its city status is confirmed by CIL III 13982, with the formula [l(ocus)] d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum). Widely scattered urban habitats. B. was developed in the mining area of Sinjakovo near Majdan, along the important Roman road Salona -- Servitium (Tab. Peut. 5,2: Baloea), not far from the road Salviae - Sarnade -- Leusaba - Servitium (It. Ant. 268). Flourished in t…

Ardiaei

(205 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A powerful people, said to be Illyrian; attested from the 4th cent. BC; later known as pirates. According to Str. 7,5,5 the A. settled on the  Naro, opposite the island of Pharus, near the Daorsi and the  Pleraei (cf. Ptol. 2,16,8; otherwise Papazoglu, who places the A. in the area of southern Illyria (Montenegro)). Inland (perhaps on the upper Naro, or near Lacus Labeatis) their territory bordered on that of the Autariatae, with whom they disputed the salt springs (Str. 7,5,11; c…

Illyricum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(also Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). The first Roman province on the eastern Adriatic coast, in 167 BC organized as a Roman territory, formerly part of the Illyrian kingdom. [German version] A. State of research Understanding of the term I. varies. The discussion on the ‘Illyrian question’ reached its climax with Panillyrianism, which saw the Illyrians as the bearers of the Urnfield culture (cf. the publications of H. Krahe, but whose conclusions have since been thoroughly revised). From the beginning to the collapse of th…

Argyruntum

(170 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town at the foot of the Alpes Delmaticae (modern Velebit) on the northern Dalmatian coast (modern Starigrad Paklenica, Croatia), in the 3rd cent. BC at times occupied by the  Iapodes, but from the 4th cent. BC attributed to the  Liburni (Ps.-Scyl. 21). As a Liburnian   oppidum (Plin. HN 3,140), A.'s population was made up of both immigrants and natives; probably under  Augustus, it became a   municipium of the   tribus Claudia (hardly under Tiberius, even though the town was fortified with walls and towers during his reign [1. 2894]…

Daorsi

(450 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An ‘Illyrian’ civitas with only 17 decuriae in the conventus of Narona (prov. of Dalmatia, today in Bosnia Herzegovina and partly in Croatia), one of the most Hellenized peoples on the coast of Dalmatia. The D. settled on the left bank of the Naro (Neretva) from Bijelo polje as far as Trebinjska Šuma, i.e. in the hinterland between Narona and  Epidaurum, with access to the sea and a central settlement in Gradina near Ošanići in the region of Stolac (Herzegovina), built according to megalithic t…

Iapodes

(322 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Indo-European people attested since the 9th/8th cents. BC, often erroneously classified as Illyrians, settled in Lika, the Karst plains of Gacko, Ličko, Krbavsko (western Croatia), on the Una near Bihać (western Bosnia) and Notranjska (Inner Carniolia/Slovenia). Administratively, they were part of the conventus Scardonitanus of the province of  Illyricum, later Dalmatia. The Zrmanja and Velebit mountains separated them from the  Liburni in the south. These they fought in the 3rd cent. BC with temporary success for access …

Delminium

(304 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Delminenses, Delminum). Main town of the Dalmatae: Ptol. 2,16,11; App. Ill. 11; Florus 2,25; CIL III 3202; the name D. is possibly derived from the Albanian word delme, ‘sheep’. Strabo ( Délmion, 7,5,5) describes D. as a large city from which the people derived its name. In 156 BC, D. was besieged by C. Marcius Figulus. In 155 BC it was defeated and destroyed by P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (cf. Strabo's pedíon mēlóboton; triumph over the Delmatae; ancient sources in [1. 448]). Up to now the ruins of D. were located…

Daesitiates

(385 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the most important peoples in the interior of the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), originally possibly in the loose confederation of the  Autariatae. They inhabited the valley of the upper Bathinus (Bosna) of the valley from the upper Urbanus (Vrbas) in the west to Rogatica in the east; their position has been confirmed through the discovery of an inscription (ILJug 1582 [1]) of a Valens Varron(is) f(ilius), princeps Desitiati(um) in Breza (22 km north-west of Sarajevo). The D. were perhaps attacked by the future Augustus in 35 BC (see …

Epidaurum

(229 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia (Plin. HN 3,143f. Epidaurum; Ptol. 2,16,5 Epidaurus). Important urban settlement with two harbours on a peninsula in the province of Dalmatia, today Cavtat in Croatia (< civitas; Italian Ragusa vecchia). Originally probably a Hellenistic settlement (there is no clear archaeological evidence), it was romanized in the course of the 1st cent. BC, served as praesidium in the conflict with Pompey Caesar, and was unsuccessfully besieged by Pompey (Bell. Alex. 44,5). Roman colonia (probably…

Andetrium

(144 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Fortress in the province of  Dalmatia, in the hinterland of   Salona, modern Brečeva near Gornji Muć.  Bato, chief of the  Daesitiates, withdrew to A. with parts of his army during the Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9 (Cass. Dio 56,12-14). It was a   mansio on the road from Salona to Servitium, also, because of its strategically advantageous location between Burnum and Tilurium, a garrison for auxiliary troops:   Cohors VIII voluntariorum (1st cent. AD), III Alpinorum (2nd cent. AD), I Belgarum (3rd cent. AD; cf. Plin. HN 3,142; Str. 7,5,5; Ptol. 2,16,11; Tab. Peu…

Flanona

(201 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia (h. Plomin/Kroatien); Ort an der östl. Küste der Halbinsel Histria in Liburnia, Prov. Dalmatia. Eine frühere liburnische Festung über der Bucht von F. gab der gesamten Bucht von Kvarner den Namen: sinus Flanaticus (Plin. nat. 3,139; Artemidoros bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Φλάνων). F. wurde wohl unter Augustus (eher als unter Tiberius) municipium, bezeugt sind tribus Claudia und Sergia (AE 1973, 477); eine der führenden Familien waren die Aquilii. Die Einwohner heißen bei Plinius Flanonienses Vani…

Illyricum

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(auch Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). Die erste röm. Prov. an der O-Küste der Adria, 167 v.Chr. als röm. Herrschaftsgebiet organisiert, ehemals Teil des illyr. Königreichs. [English version] A. Forschungslage Der Begriff I. wird unterschiedlich verstanden. Die Diskussion über die “illyr. Frage” erreichte ihren Höhepunkt mit dem Panillyrismus, der in den Illyrern Träger der Urnenfeld-Kultur sah (vgl. die Publikationen von H. Krahe, dessen Schlußfolgerungen seither aber gründlich revidiert wurden). In der Zeit von den An…
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