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Nabû נבו

(2,064 words)

Author(s): A. R. Millard
I. Name Nabû is the Babylonian god of writing, occurring in Isa. 46.1 with his father Marduk, and as a theophoric element in Babylonian personal names rendered into biblical Hebrew such as Nebuchadrezzar and Nebuzaradan. II. Identity Nabû appears in Akk. sources from early in the second millennium bce as Na-bi-um, a form which suggests his name comes from the base nbʾ, ‘to call’, and may mean ‘herald’ (see AHW 697–698). There is no trace of Nabû in the texts from Ebla, or in Old Akkadian. In the latter part of the Old Babylonian period, Nabû’s name becomes a regu…

Anammelech ענמלך

(465 words)

Author(s): A. R. Millard
I. Name Anammelech is a god whom the people of Sepharvaim, settled in Samaria by the Assyrians, worshipped beside Adrammelech, 2 Kgs. 17.31. On Sepharvaim as a West Semitic settlement in Babylonia, see Adrammelech. II. Identity Many explain the divine name as a combination of Babylonian Anu with West Semitic melek, ‘Anu is king’ (Gray 1977: 596; cf. J. A. Montgomery & H. S. Gehman, Kings [ICC; Edinburgh 1951] 476; M. Cogan & H. Tadmor, II Kings [AB 11; New York 1988] 212). However, the ancient Sumerian sky-god’s name is never written in cuneiform with any hint of an ini…

Nibhaz נבחז

(518 words)

Author(s): A. R. Millard
I. Name Nibhaz is a deity who, like Tartak, was ‘made’ by the men of Awwah (var. Ivvah, 2 Kgs. 19.13) when the Assyrians settled them in Samaria, 2 Kgs. 17.31. II. Identity Identification of Awwah with a place written in cuneiform as Ama or Awa is strengthened by the occurrence beside it of Amatu in texts of Sargon II, probably the Hamath of 2 Kgs. 17.30 (H. Winckler, Die Keilschrifttexte Sargons [Leipzig 1889] 46:273–277; cf. Becking 1992:98–99), a collocation observed by Driver (1958:18) and developed by Zadok (1976:117–123). These towns lay in Babylonia, east of the Tigris, in …

Adrammelech אדרמלך

(630 words)

Author(s): A. R. Millard
I. Name Adrammelech is a god worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim whom the Assyrians settled in Samaria, coupled with Anammelech, 2 Kgs. 17.31. II. Identity No attempt to identify Sepharvaim or its deities has yet commanded general acceptance. An interesting proposal has been produced by Zadok (1976). Building on a study by Driver (1958) he argued that the place was Assyrian Saparrê, Babylonian Sipirani, from a putative Siprayn, situated in Chaldaea, south of Nippur. Its inhabitants could have revered gods with West Semitic names. Yet a location…