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HORMOZD IV

(1,618 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Sasanian great king (r. 579-90 CE). He succeeded Ḵosrow I Anōširavān just as the latter was negotiating a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 466-467 HORMOZD IV, Sasanian great king (r. 579-90 C.E.). He succeeded Ḵosrow I Anōširavān just as the latter was negotiating a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire, hoping to leave a stable and prosperous state as his inheritance (Menander Protector, tr., p. 153). Anōširavān had appointed Hormozd as his heir after…
Date: 2017-02-24

HAFT

(3,960 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
(seven), the heptad and its cultural significance in Persian history. The number has been explained as the symbolic expression of a distinct culture. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 511-515 HAFT (seven), the heptad and its cultural significance in Persian history. The number has been explained as the symbolic expression of a distinct culture and “the direct evidence” for its character (Leo Frobenius, apud Kirfel, p. 237). Among the Indo-European people, the number three seems to have been t…
Date: 2013-06-05

JUNGE, PETER JULIUS

(770 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
German ancient historian and Iranologist (1913-1943). A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 3, pp. 247-248 JUNGE, PETER JULIUS, German ancient historian and Iranologist (b. 30 August 1913 in Bonn, killed 1943 in the Battle of Stalingrad). He attended school in Breslau and studied subsequently at the University of Vienna, but later returned to Breslau to study at its university the history of East Indo-European peoples with Franz Miltner. He wrote his doctoral dissertation ( Saka-Studien, Breslau, 1936) under the supervision of the famed German …
Date: 2012-10-15

GOŠTĀSP

(5,454 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 171-176 GOŠTĀSP, Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster. The name and problems of identification. The name is attested in the following forms: Av. Vištāspa ( AirWb, col. 1474); Old Persian Vištāspa, whence Gk. Hystāspēs, El. Mi-is-da-áš-ba and Akkadian Uš-ta-as-pa (Kent, Old Persian, p. 209; note that Ku-uš-ta-aš-pi, mentioned in an inscription of Tiglath-pileser III as a king of Kummuḵ [lat…
Date: 2013-06-04

RUDĀBA

(882 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam. Her story ( Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, I, pp. 186-270) is “one of the most beautiful narratives in Persian poetry” (Khaleghi, p. 39; cf. Nöldeke, p.71). RUDĀBA, princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam. Her story ( Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, I, pp. 186-270) is “one of the most beautiful narratives in Persian poetry” (Khaleghi, p. 39; cf. Nöldeke, p.71). Ṯaʿālebi ( Ḡorar, pp. 73-106) gives so close a parallel account that a common source (undoubtedly the Šāh-nāma of Abu Manṣuri) may be assumed. An eloquent abridged prose ve…
Date: 2013-01-07

HISTORIOGRAPHY

(84,777 words)

Author(s): Elton L. Daniel | A. Shapur Shahbazi | Charles Melville | Maria Szuppe | Sholeh Quinn | Et al.
This entry is concerned with the historiography of the Iranian and Persephone world from the pre-Islamic period through the 20th century in Persian and other Iranian languages. The periods and their subdivisions of this historiography are covered in 14 articles. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 3, pp. 323-411 HISTORIOGRAPHY. This entry is concerned with the historiography of the Iranian and Persephone world from the pre-Islamic period through the 20th century in Persian and other Iranian languages. Broadly speakin…
Date: 2013-06-08

HŌŠANG

(1,406 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 491-492 HŌŠANG (Av. Haošyaŋha, Ar. Ušanj/Ušhanj), called Pēšdād (< Av. Para’āta), an early hero-king, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty in the Iranian traditional history. Information about him come from Avestan, Middle Persian, and Sasanian-based Arabo-Persian sources (Christensen, 1917, pp. 133-64 and passim; 1…
Date: 2015-03-03

HORMOZD V

(383 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Sasanian great king (r. 630-32 CE) in the turbulent years following the murder of Ḵosrow II Parvēz (628). A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 467-468 HORMOZD V, Sasanian great king (r. 630-32 C.E.). In the turbulent years following the murder of Ḵosrow II Parvēz (628), nearly a dozen rulers (including two daughters) of Ḵosrow and one great general Farroḵān Šahrvarāz came to the throne and were slain after a short while (Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, pp. 361-99). One of the last pretenders to the throne was a certain Ḵosrow only known …
Date: 2013-06-11

HAFT KEŠVAR

(2,184 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
(seven regions), the usual geographical division of the world in Iranian tradition; ancient Iranians envisioned the world as vast and round and encircled by a high mountain. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 519-522 HAFT KEŠVAR (seven regions), the usual geographical division of the world in Iranian tradition. Ancient Iranians, who may have believed in a tripartite division of the earth (see IRAJ), developed an orderly picture of the world, envisioned as vast and round and encircled by a high mountain ( harā bərəzaitī, see ALBORZ). According to th…
Date: 2017-05-04

HĀRUT and MĀRUT

(2,629 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon, mentioned once in the Koran. Their names derive from the Zoroastrian Ḵordād and Amurdād, two of the Aməša Spəntas. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 1, pp. 20-22 HĀRUT AND MĀRUT, two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon. They are mentioned once in the Koran (2:96 [2:102]) in a passage admonishing (Jewish) disbelievers who follow the teaching of the Satans (Šayāṭin) at the time of Solomon. “Solomon did not disbelieve, but the satans disbel…
Date: 2017-08-11

HANG-E AFRĀSIĀB

(1,497 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
in the national epic, the cave in which Afrāsiāb, the fugitive king of Turān, spent his last days. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 655-657 HANG-E AFRĀSIĀB, the name of the cave in which Afrāsiāb (q.v.), the fugitive king of Turān, spent his last days. According to the Šāh-nāma (all reference are to the Khaleghi edition, IV, pp. 312-23), Afrāsiāb, having been repeatedly defeated by the armies of Kay Ḵosrow in eastern Iran, wandered wretchedly and fearfully around, and eventually took refuge in a cave ( ḡār) on a mountaintop near Bardaʿa (q.v.) in…
Date: 2013-06-05

HOJIR

(431 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 4, pp. 423-424 HOJIR, Iranian hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān. He was a son of Gōdarz and a leading member of his clan (see GŌDARZIĀN). When Sohrāb attacked Iran at the head of a Turanian army guided by Hōmān (q.v.), he first met Hojir in single combat and overpowered him but gave him quarter ( Šāh-nāma [all references are to Khaleghi ed.] II, pp. 130-34, 138). Short…
Date: 2013-06-10

HAFT SIN

(2,148 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
“seven items beginning with the letter sin (S),” a component of the rituals of the New Year’s Day festival (see NOWRUZ) observed by most Iranians. The items are traditionally displayed on the dining cloth ( sofra) that every household spreads out on the floor (or on a table) in a room normally reserved for entertaining guests. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 524-526 HAFT SIN, denoting ‘seven items beginning with the letter sin (S)’, is one of the components of the rituals of the New Year’s Day festival (see NOWRUZ) observed by most…
Date: 2017-10-05

HORMOZD III

(571 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Sasanian great king (r. 457-59 C.E.). He was the eldest son and heir of Yazdegerd II and “was king of Sejestān" (Ṭabari). A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 465-466 HORMOZD III, Sasanian great king (r. 457-59 C.E.). He was the eldest son and heir of Yazdegerd II (Łazar, tr., p. 159; Ełišē, tr., Thomson, p. 242; Movsēs Dasxurancʿi 1.10, tr. p. 9), and “was king of Sejestān” (Ṭabari, I, p. 871). When Yazdegerd “died in Pārs” (Łazar, loc. cit.) in 457 (Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, pp. 425-26), his second son Pērōz, who was evidently in the easte…
Date: 2013-06-11

HORMOZD II

(908 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Sasanian great king (r. 303-09 CE). He assumed a crown very similar to that of Bahrām II, representing the varəγna, the royal falcon. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 464-465 HORMOZD II, Sasanian great king (r. 303-9 C.E.). In his Middle Persian inscription at Ṭāq-e Bostān, Šāpur II (r. 309-79) calls himself “son of the Mazda-worshiping Majesty ( bay), Oḥrmazd, king of kings of Ērān and Anē-rāŋ,” grandson of Narseh (Herzfeld, I, p. 123; Back, pp. 490-91). Agathias (4.25), Ṭabari (I, pp. 835-36), and others confirm this descent (Nöldeke, Geschichte …
Date: 2013-06-11

HORMOZĀN

(971 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
one of the last military leaders of Sasanian Persia, a member of one of the seven great families of Sasanian Persia (d. 644). A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 460-461 HORMOZĀN, one of the last military leaders of Sasanian Persia. The correct form of his name is *Hormazdān, attested as Hormezdān by the 7th-century anonymous Khuzistan Chronicle, also known as Guidi’sChronicle (q.v.; tr. Nöldeke, p. 42), which also calls him “a Mede” and a leading general of Yazdegerd III. He was a member of one of the seven great families…
Date: 2013-06-10

HŌMĀN

(878 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
son of Vēsa, in Iranian traditional history one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 4, pp. 435-436 HŌMĀN, son of Vēsa, and one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān. His name, spelt Ḵomān in Ṭabari (I, p. 610), is explained by Ferdinand Justi ( Namenbuch, p. 132) as “derived from Hom < Haoma" (q.v.), which, despite the attestation of Hōm in Sasanian proper names (Gignoux, pp. 96-99), seems unlikely. According to the Šāh-nāma (IV, p. 33, v. 502 [all references are to Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, unless otherwise stated], h…
Date: 2013-06-10

HAFTVĀD

(2,330 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
(Haftwād), the hero of a legend associated with the rise of the Sasanian Ardašir I (r. 224-39). The Šāh-nāma gives his “strange story” ( dāstān-e šegeft). A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 534-536 HAFTVĀD (Haftwād), the hero of a legend associated with the rise of the Sasanian Ardašir I (r. 224-39). The Šāh-nāma (ed. Moscow, VII, pp. 139-54) gives his “strange story” ( dāstān-e šegeft) as follows. In the city of Kojārān on the coast of the Persian Gulf, there lived a man of meager means who “was called Haftvād because he had seven ( haft) sons” (p. 140 v. …
Date: 2016-01-20

HORMOZD (2)

(686 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
(Ormisdas), a brother of the Sasanian great king Šāpur II (r. 307-79 CE), who participated on the Roman side in the emperor Julian’s Persian expedition of 363 CE. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 461-462 HORMOZD (Ormisdas), a brother of the Sasanian great king Šāpur II (r. 307-79 C.E.), who participated in the emperor Julian’s Persian expedition of 363 C.E. He was one of the eight known sons of Hormozd II (q.v.), and was imprisoned by the nobles who had done away with two of his elder brothers a…
Date: 2013-06-10

HORMOZD KUŠĀNŠĀH

(1,149 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi
Sasanian prince governor of Kušān. He is known from his coins minted in eastern Iran and references in three Latin sources. His coins are gold scyphate (cup-shaped) and light bronze issues; rare heavy copper and silver coins also occur. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 468-468 HORMOZD KUŠĀNŠĀH, Sasanian prince governor of Kušān. There may have been two rulers of this name, but the emphasis here is on the one whom we now follow Herzfeld and Bivar in identifying as a son of Bahrām I (q.v.) thereby retracting our objection in EIr. II, p. 516. He is know…
Date: 2016-07-13
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