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(714 words)

Author(s): Afshar, Iradj
, Sayyid Ḥasan (b. Tabrīz, 27 September 1878, d. Tehran, 28 January 1970), Persian politician and scholar of Iranian studies. 1. Life. The son of Sayyid Taḳī Urdūbādī, he received both a traditional Islamic and a modern education, including natural science and French and, to some extent, the English language. In Tabrīz he founded, with three like-minded friends, an ephemeral journal, Gand̲j̲īna-yi funūn (1903-4), and then travelled for a year in the Caucasus, Istanbul, Beirut and Egypt, returning with Western modernist ideas and sympa…


(12,376 words)

Author(s): Gutas, D. | Eickelman, D.F. | Blois, F.C. de | Sadgrove, P.C. | Afshar, Iradj | Et al.
(a., pl. tarād̲j̲im ), verbal noun of the verb tard̲j̲ama “to interpret, translate, write the biography of someone ( lahu )”. For the function of interpreter, see tard̲j̲umān . ¶ 1. In literature. Here, it may form part of the title of a biography, or, especially in contemporary North Africa, the biography (or autobiography) itself. Hence ʿilm al-tarād̲j̲im is a branch of historical research, sometimes equated by the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa with ʿilm al-rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.]. The term dates to at least the early 5th/11th century, where it appears in the titles of three works by al…