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Raselius, Andreas

(113 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] (Rasel, Raesel; 1563, Halmbach, Oberpfalz – Jan 6, 1602, Heidelberg), composer and musical theorist. In 1581 Raselius studied in Heidelberg, where in 1583 he became preceptor at the elector’s Pädagogium; in 1584 he became teacher and cantor in Regensburg; in 1600, court musical director in Heidelberg. He published two anthologies of songs (1591 and 1599), and two collections of German Gospel texts for Sundays and festivals (1594 and 1595). Raselius’s main work on the theory of music, Hexachordum seu quaestiones musicae practicae (1598), was of great importance…

Crüger, Johann

(414 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1598, Groß Breesen near Guben – Feb 23, 1662, Berlin) was the most important Protestant creator of song melodies. The history of the hymnal is also indebted to him for essential impulses. After studying theology and music in Wittenberg, he was cantor at the Nikolai Church in Berlin from 1622 until his death. In addition to writings on music theory ( Synopsis musica 1630, 21654), there are a considerable number of compositions (including settings of the Magnificat for two choirs and soloist parts accompanied by general bass: Meditationum musicarum Paradisus sec…

Straube, Karl

(132 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] ( Jan 6, 1873, Berlin – Apr 27, 1950, Leipzig), the most important organ virtuoso and teacher in the first half of the 20th century. In 1895 he was appointed assistant organist of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kirche in Berlin and in 1897 organist in Wesel. In 1902 he became organist of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig; in 1918 he was appointed musical director of the Thomanerchor and conductor of the Gewandhaus choir, a post he held until 1932. In 1919 he founded the Institute of Church Music in…


(85 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[English Version] (Rasel, Raesel), Andreas (1563 Halmbach, Oberpfalz – 6.1.1602 Heidelberg), Komponist und Musiktheoretiker. 1581 Studium in Heidelberg, dort 1583 Praeceptor am kurfürstlichen Pädagogium; 1584 Lehrer und Kantor in Regensburg; 1600 Hofkapellmeister in Heidelberg. Zwei Sammlungen von Liedsätzen (1591 und 1599) und von dt. Evangeliensprüchen auf die Sonn- und Festtage (1594 und 1595). R.' musiktheoretische Hauptschrift »Hexachordum seu quaestiones musicae practicae« (1598) blieb bis Ende des 17.Jh. von großer musikpäd. Bedeutung. Christoph Albrecht Bib…


(85 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[English Version] Straube, Karl (6.1.1873 Berlin – 27.4.1950 Leipzig), bedeutendster Orgelvirtuose und -pädagoge in der 1. Hälfte des 20.Jh.; 1895 Assistenzorganist Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kirche Berlin, 1897 Organist in Wesel, 1902 Thomasorganist, 1918 Thomaskantor in Leipzig, Gewandhauschorleiter bis 1932; 1919 Gründung des kirchenmusikalischen Instituts in Leipzig. War seine Interpretation J.S. Bachs zunächst noch vom romantischen Orchesterklang bestimmt, so orientierte er sich seit den 20er Jahren am Kl…


(333 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
In ancient tragedy the canticum was a monologue with flute accompaniment. In later Latin, canticum became a general term for a song. In the church the term at first came into use for very different kinds of songs, but later it was limited to OT and NT canticles used for the most part in the hours of prayer. In particular, three NT canticles came into liturgical use: the Magnificat, or Song of Mary (Luke 1:46–55); the Benedictus, or Song of Zacharias (Luke 1:68–79); and the Nunc Dimittis, or Song of Simeon (Luke 2:29–32). From the early days of the monastic hours of prayer in the fourth …


(189 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
The cantata (It. cantata, choral piece with several movements, as distinct from the purely instrumental sonata), which was developed in Italy in the 17th century, involves an alternation of arias and recitatives. It achieved central importance in Protestant church music in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in combination with biblical passages and hymns (also songs), though after 1700 increasingly with free texts as well. As an exposition of texts with musical figures, symbols, impressions, and stimuli, the cantata has a place in worship alongside prea…


(166 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
Bells were forged in the most varied cultural circles once the art of metallurgy had been mastered. Little bells were partly used to decorate garments (also as amulets?) (see Exod. 28:33–35); large bells were poured from prebiblical times. They came in various shapes, but cup-shaped bells became the most popular because they gave out the best sound. The favorite metal was bronze (four parts copper to one part tin). Christian use of bells began in the East (Orthodox Church). In the West their liturgical use began in monasteri…


(487 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
The Greek word choros meant the place where a round dance was danced, the round dance itself, or the group that danced it. For a group of singers Latin adapted the loanword chorus for use in worship, and the group then gave its name to its place in the church. Both in the church and in secular settings, groups from ancient times have come together to make music on a higher level than that of the general public. In the earliest days of Christianity the choir had something of the function of the chorus in ancient drama, taking part in the action as representatives of the pe…