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Economical Ethics

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] I. Definition Economical ethics (EE) deal with those aspects of economical actions that can be judged according to ethical criteria. It is a modern theoretical discipline which analyzes primarily those normative ideas and attitudes that exert considerable influence on the economic activities of individuals or social groups as well as on the  economy at large. These ideas are not necessarily motivated by morals but often serve only to legitimize the economic actions of certain social…

Bruttedius Niger

(102 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[English version] Rhetor und Geschichtsschreiber der frühen Kaiserzeit. Als Rhetor war er Schüler des Apollodoros von Pergamon (Sen. contr. 2,1,35-36). Ädil im Jahre 22 n. Chr., war er ein Denunziant und Mitankläger des Silanus, der wegen maiestas (Tac. ann. 3,66) angeklagt wurde. B.N.s würdeloses Verhalten wurde nach dem Sturz Seians gegeißelt; er wurde als Anhänger Seians verurteilt (Iuv. 10,82ff.). B.N. war ehrgeizig, hatte Talent und betätigte sich als Historiker (Sen. suas. 6,20f.); er schrieb auch über die Ermordung Ciceros (ebd.). Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) Bibl…

Bruttedius Niger

(113 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] Rhetor and historian of the early imperial period. As a rhetor, he was a pupil of Apollodorus of Pergamum (Sen. Controv. 2,1,35-36). During his aedileship in AD 22, he was a denouncer and co-accuser of Silanus, who was indicted on maiestas (Tac. Ann. 3,66). Bruttedius Niger (BN) 's undignified behaviour was castigated after the fall of Sejanus; he was condemned as one of his followers (Juv. 10,82ff.). BN was ambitious, talented, and active as an historian (Sen. Suas. 6,20f.); he also wrote about the murder of Cicero (ibid.). Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) Bibliograph…


(884 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] A. General Piracy is armed robbery using ships on open or coastal waters. The boundaries between naval warfare and piracy hard to set; the same goes for sea trade and piracy. In the eastern Mediterranean piracy was practically aided and abetted by on-going wars - from the  Peloponnesian War to the Wars of the Successors (Diadochi, wars of the) - which prevented Greek cities from ensuring the security of sea routes; pirates also often supported warring powers thereby consolidating their own position. Pirates also played a considerable economic role: in the East …

Historiographical models

(11,254 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) [German version] A. Introduction and Terms (CT) Historical thinking and historiography have roots in Antiquity.  Models were developed at the time that shaped later historiography as well as later historical thinking. The word 'history' first appears in Herodotus (ca. 484 - after ca. 430 BC) (Hdt. pr. 1: histories apodexis, ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις) in the sense of the result of research. According to him, history is the acquisition of knowledge through the questioning of witnes…

Naval warfare

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] I. Greece Naval warfare  (NW) should be distinguished from piracy; naval warfare was conducted by cities, peoples and rulers with one another, whereas piracy was carried on by individual gangs or groups and was principally directed at merchant shipping. In wars of the early period ships primarily had the function of bringing an army to the theatre of war, serving as a means of transport (Hom. Il. 2,494-760); enemy territory could be attacked by surprise with the help of a fleet, but…

Subsistence farming

(718 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] The term SF or subsistence economy (= SE) is used to describe an economy which is oriented to self sufficiency and whose basis is agriculture. SF was of fundamental significance precisely for the farming economy of Antiquity; it is described primarily in Hesiod and Virgil  (Hes. Erg. 383-608; Verg. G. 1,43-350; 2,458-540; cf. also the Moretum). A peasant family produced for itself the food, clothing and implements necessary for living, and was dependent only to a limited extent on…


(314 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] (κιννάβαρι/ kinnábari, Lat. minium) is a mineral of red to brownish-red colour (mercury sulphide, HgS), mostly found in sedimental stone in the vicinity of volcanic activity.  Theophrastus, who provides a detailed description of cinnabar, distinguishes between natural and man-made cinnabar and cites Spain and Colchis as places of origin (Theophr. De lapidibus 58-60 Eichholz). According to  Plinius [1], who refers to Theophrastus, it was Callias [5] who supposedly discovered cinnabar in the  Laurium district towards the end of the 5th…


(10,502 words)

Author(s): Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) RWG
Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) RWG [English version] A. Einführung und Begriffe (RWG) Geschichtliches Denken und Geschichtsschreibung haben Wurzeln im Altertum. Damals sind Modelle entwickelt worden, welche sowohl spätere Geschichtsschreibung als auch späteres Geschichtsdenken geprägt haben. Zum ersten Mal erscheint das Wort “Geschichte” bei Herodot (ca. 484 - ca. nach 430 v. Chr.) (Hdt. pr. 1: histories apodexis, ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις) im Sinne des Ergebnisses einer Forschung. Nach ihm ist die Geschichte E…


(2,434 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In Egypt and southern Mesopotamia navigation played a major role, especially in inland traffic but also in communication across the sea. In both countries, rivers and canals were the major traffic arteries that were even used by the gods on their mutual visits and by rulers on their tours. Beyond their ordinary significance as a means of transportation for people and goods, ships also had a religious connotation. In Egypt the vocabulary of navigation entered daily life. In both countries, boats sailed or were towed, but in southern M…


(805 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[English version] [1] Bf. von Tours, 316/7-397 Bischof von Tours (Caesarodunum (Turonum)), christl. Mönch und Wundertäter, geb. 316/7 in Sabaria/ Pannonien; gest. 8.11.397 in Candes/Loire. Laut Sulpicius Severus' Vita Martini (geschrieben 396/7, ergänzt durch 3 Briefe und 2 (3) Dialoge) war M. Sohn eines röm. Tribuns und leistete seinen Militärdienst unter den Kaisern Constantius [2] II. und Iulianus [11] Apostata; in dieser Zeit Bekehrung zum Christentum (“Mantelteilung” bei Amiens, Vita 3), Abschied vom Militär (356 ?). M…


(7,079 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) | W.BR.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Mesopotamia's economy was based on  agriculture, with animal  husbandry integrated into it. Craft production ( Crafts) was only supplementary in character and catered for internal demand as well as external trade (production of high-quality textiles for  Commerce). Agriculture in southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia) was entirely dependent on artificial  irrigation; in northern Mesopotamia (Assyria) it was generally rainfed. Varying agricultural regimes led to different patterns of land tenure. Large production units are attes…


(909 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Tours, AD 316/7-397 Bishop of Tours (Caesarodunum (Turonum)), Christian monk and miracle worker ( Miracles; Miracle workers , born in 316/7 in Sabaria/ Pannonia; died on 8 November 397 in Candes/Loire. According to Sulpicius Severus' Vita Martini (composed in 396/7, complemented by 3 letters and 2 (3) dialogues), M. was the son of a Roman tribune and performed his military service under the emperors Constantius [2] II and Iulianus [11] Apostata. During this time he converted to Christianity (‘Sharing of t…


(34,920 words)

Author(s): Esch, Arnold | Straumann, Benjamin | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid) | Bauer, Franz Alto | Rocca, Eugenio La | Et al.
Esch, Arnold [German version] I. History and Interpretation (CT) Esch, Arnold [German version] A. Main Features of Rome's Urban History (CT) After the end of the Roman Empire and the dissolution of government structures, it increasingly fell to the Church as the only institution still intact, and also the largest landowner, to take on secular tasks: political negotiations, organization of the grain distribution, repair of the city's fortifications and aqueducts and many more. Since the Byzantine emperor ruled Rome i…


(5,037 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Osk. Praen. (Egnatius [I 3]). Als röm. Gentilname seit dem 2. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. Bedeutendster Angehöriger ist der siebenfache Consul M. [I 1]; der prominente Namensträger der Kaiserzeit aus Spanien M. [II 3] ist wohl Nachkomme von dessen Familienangehörigen. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] M., C. Siebenfacher Consul, Sieger über Iugurtha, die Combern und Teutonen, Gegner Sullas Der siebenfache Consul; Sieger über Iugurtha sowie die Cimbern und Teutonen. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] A. Der politische Aufstieg Geb. ca. 157 v.Chr. bei …


(5,642 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Oscan praenomen ( Egnatius [I 3]). Attested as a Roman nomen gentile from the 2nd cent. BC. The most important holder is the seven-time consul M. [I 1]; the prominent Imperial-period Spanish bearer of the name, M. [II 3], is probably a descendant of family members of that Marius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Seven-time consul, victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni, opponent of Sulla The seven-time consul; victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] A. The rise to political prominence Born c. 157 BC…