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Proteus

(270 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Πρωτεύς/ Prōteús). Sea god, Poseidon's herdsman of seals, sometimes also his son. P. possesses the characteristics  typical of sea gods: old age ( hálios gérōn : Hom. Od. 4,349), the gift of prophecy, and the ability to transform (cf. Heracles' wrestling matches with Nereus and Triton, or that of Peleus with Thetis). In Hom. Od. 4,349-570, P. is taking a midday rest among the seals on the Egyptian island of Pharos; with the help of P.' daughter Eidothea, Menelaus [1] overcomes the god…

Hyperborei

(591 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι; Hyperbóre(i)oi). The Hyperboreans, a mythical people imagined as living at the edge of the world (Pind. Isthm. 6,23) ‘beyond the North Wind (Boreas)’ (thus ancient etymology, which is considered uncertain today [1]). The H. share with other marginal peoples (such as the Ethiopians, their southern counterpart), traits of the ideal concept of a paradisical existence in proximity to the gods, in a country favoured by climate [2; 3; 4]. By their relation to  Apollo, the…

Hesperides

(275 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ἑσπερίδες; Hesperídes, Latin: Hesperides). According to Hesiod (Theog. 215f.; 275), clear-voiced daughters of Night ( Nyx), who guard the golden apples on the far side of Oceanus. Genealogy (parents: Nyx and Erebus, Atlas, or Hesperus; Phorcys and Ceto), number (three to seven) and names (Aegle, Erythea, Hesperethusa: Hes. fr. 360 M.-W.; Hespere, Erytheis, Aegle: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1427f.) vary in the ancient sources. The Garden of the H., where the dragon  Ladon guarded the tree with t…

Galene

(156 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλήνη / Galḗne, ‘calmness of the sea’).  Nereid in Hes. Theog. 244; according to the Euhemerist Mnaseas, daughter of Ichthys and Hesychia (FHG 3 155,33). As embodiment of the sea's brighter aspect, G. smoothes the waves in Anth. Pal. 5,156 (Meleager) and 7,668 (Leonidas) as well as in Lucian 5. ‘Conversation of the sea-gods’. An epigram by Adaeus (Anth. Pal. 9,544) describes a cameo of Tryphon with the portrait of G. that, however, cannot be unequivocally identified with extant m…

Theodamas

(290 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θειοδάμας/ Theiodámas; Lat. Theodamas, Thiodamas). King of the Dryopes, who were driven from their homeland by Heracles [1]; father of Hylas. A connexion is made in Hellenistic literature between T. and the resettlement of the brigand Dryopes in the Peloponnese (Bacchyl. Paean 4; Hdt. 8,43; 8,47; Diod. Sic. 4,37) - perhaps following Hesiod's Kḗykos gámos ('the wedding of Ceyx', Hes. fr. 263-269; [1]): in Apollonius Rhodius (1,1211-1219) as a pretext for war Heracles provokes a conflict over the ploughing bull of T., a poor farmer, w…

Glauconome

(61 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γλαυκονόμη; Glaukonómē).  Nereid at Hes. Theog. 256 and Apollod. 1,11. Her name means ‘she who lives/rules in the glossy (γλαυκός; cf.  Glauce) sea’ [1]. For the word formation, cf. the names Amphinome: ‘she who rules widely’ and Eurynome: ‘she who rules for miles around’ (Hom. Il. 18,44; 398f.). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 G. Herzog-Hauser, s.v. Nereiden, RE 17, 15.

Loxo

(53 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Λοξώ; Loxṓ). Hyperborean woman ( Hyperborei); mentioned in Callim. H. 4,292 as the third daughter of Boreas, aside from Upis ( Opis) and Hecaerge [4], who brought gifts to Delos and are buried there (accordingly Nonnus, Dion. 5,489; 48,334). The name connects her with Apollo Loxias. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Thoosa

(88 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Θόωσα, 'who rushes off'). [German version] [1] Sea Nymph Sea nymph, daughter of  Phorcys [1], by Poseidon mother of the Cyclops Polyphemus (Hom. Od. 1,71-73, on which all later mentions depend: Nonn. Dion. 39,293; Apollod. Epit. 7,4; Porph. De antro Nympharum 35; Hesych. s. v. T.; in Theocr. 11,26 not mentioned by name). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of Poseidon Daughter of Poseidon, according to a version of the myth mother by Apollo of the singer Linus (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 46). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Telchines

(585 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Τελχῖνες/ Telchînes). Telchines, the mythical original people of the Aegean, particularly of Rhodes; malicious blacksmiths and magicians. According to ancient etymology the name is derived from thélgein ('bewitch') (EM; Hsch. s.v. T.). According to local historical tradition the T. are the native inhabitants of the islands of Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and Ceos; the name T. is however documented on the Greek mainland (Teumessus, Delphi, Sicyon). The T. raise Poseidon on Rhodes, who fathers children with their …

Nereids

(615 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Νηρηΐδες/ Nērēḯdes, Νηρεΐδες/ Nēreḯdes; Latin Nereides, singular Nereis, Nereine, Nerine). Sea nymphs, daughters of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 240-242), traditionally numbering fifty (ibid. 264). The graceful, playful and helpful Nereids usually appear in literature and the visual arts as a group, but some of them have their own specific myths (Thetis, Amphitrite, Galatea [1]). There are many names of Nereids in the catalogues of Nereids that have been handed down (Hes. Theog. 240-264; Hom. Il. 18,37-49; Apollod. 1,11f.; Hyg.…

Hekaerge

(344 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἑκαέργη). [German version] [1] Epithet of Artemis Epithet of  Artemis (Clem. Al. Strom. 5,8,48,4f.; EpGr 460,6). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [2] Maiden active in the cult of Artemis A mythical maiden named Aspalis Ameilete H., from the city of Melite in Thessaly, active in the cult of  Artemis. Because she hanged herself in order to escape being raped by the tyrant Tartarus, the virgins made an annual sacrifice to her by hanging a young goat (Nikander in Antoninus Liberalis 13). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [3] Kore from the island of Ceos A kore from the …

Phorcys

(228 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φόρκυς/ Phórkys, Latin Phorcus, Phorcys, Phorcyn). [German version] [1] Sea god Sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia, brother of Nereus (Hes. Theog. 237; in Orph. Fr. 16 son of Oceanus and Tethys, in Orph. Fr. 114 Titan); with his sister Ceto he fathered monsters (Phorcydes) such as the Graeae, Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), Echidna and the snake Ladon [1] (Hes. Theog. 270-303; 333-336); according to others he was also the father of the Sirens (Soph. fr. 861 TrGF), the Hesperides (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399d), Scylla (Apoll. Rhod. 4,828f. with schol.) and Thoosa (Hom. Od. 1,71f.). In the Odyssey, where a…

Coroebus

(410 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Κόροιβος; Kóroibos). [German version] [1] Hero founder of Tripodiscus in the Megaris Hero founder of Tripodiscus in the Megaris. The legend is told in Callim. Fr. 26-31 in connection with an Argive aition according to the local historians Agias and Dercylus (FGrH 305 F 8 to) [1]:  Linus, the son of Apollo and  Psamathe, is torn apart by dogs, and Psamathe is killed by her father  Crotopus. As a punishment Apollo sends a child-murdering demon, the Poineḗ or   Ker , to Argus. When the brave C. kills the monster, the god sends a further plague, whereupon…

Oceanus

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
(Ὠκεανός/ Ōkeanós, Latin Oceanus). [German version] I. Myth Divine representative of the world river, later world sea, that flows in a ring around the earth. In Homer's Iliad O. lives with his wife Tethys on the boundaries of the earth (Hom. Il. 14,200ff.) and is the only god who does not take part in the meeting on Olympus (ibid. 20,7). He is the origin of the gods and of absolutely everything (ibid. 14,201 = 302; 246); from him flow the seas, the rivers, the springs and the wells (ibid. 21,195ff.). Nevertheless he is subordinate to the power of Zeus (ibid. 14,244-248; 21,198f.). Hera's tale of…

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Opis, Upis

(392 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
(Ὦπις/ Ôpis, Οὖπις/ Oûpis). [German version] [1] Epithet of Artemis In Ephesus an epithet of Artemis, derived in antiquity from her companion O. [2] (Callim. H. 3,204 with scholia; Antimachus fr. 99 Matthews [1]; Macrob. Sat. 5,22; different in Cic. Nat. D. 3,58). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Hyperborean Hyperborean woman (Hyperborei), whose tomb on Delos was worshipped in cult (Hdt. 4,35). She is mostly mentioned along with Hecaerge [4] (Paus. 1,43,4; 5,7,8; Pl. Ax. 371a); in Callim. H. 4,292 Loxo is also added. O. was cl…

Prylis

(186 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] [1] Mythical seer from Lesbos (Πρύλις; Prýlis). Mythical seer from Lesbos, apostrophized in Lycoph. 219-223. P. is son of the nymph Issa and Hermes (called Kádmos/Cadmus, in the Boeotian variant of the name, in line 219) and through Hermes, great-grandson of Atlas [2]. Prompted by presents from Palamedes [1], P. reveals to the Greeks in an early stage how to capture Troy, advising them to build the wooden horse. He is referred to as one who "helped to destroy his own kindred" in line 222 because the Troja…
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