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Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Ophellas

(399 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Οφέλλας/ Ophéllas). [German version] [1] Official in the Hellenistic period O. of Olynthus, presumably a subordinate of Cleomenes [7] in the administration of Egypt ( epimelētḗs in Athribis; see epimelētaí ). He is said to have blackmailed the nomárchai subordinate to him ([Aristot.] 1353a 5ff.). Agathocles [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 599. [German version] [2] Friend and official of Alexander [4] the Great Son of Silenus, Macedonian from Pella, phílos of Alexander [4] the Great and his (liturgical)…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Thenephmus

(32 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θένεφμος; Thénephmos). Egyptian, recorded as early as 247/6 BC as owner of a dōreá ('estate awarded by the king') of 10,000 árourai. PP IV 10083. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Komomisthotes

(54 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμομισθώτης; kōmomisthṓtēs). Ptolemaic official, first attested in 259/258 BC in Palestine (PLond. VII 1948), who was responsible for leasing of state land to farmers within a village administrative district (cf. also PTebt. 183). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography D. Crawford, Kerkeosiris, 1971, 103 A. 4 Rostovtzeff, Hellenistic World 1, 344f.; 3, 1401f.

Dryton

(71 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Born before 192 BC, died 126/123, from Crete, citizen of Ptolemais, active at various locations as a soldier and hipparch (Archive with documents from 174-99). On 4.3.150 he wed Apollonia, in his second marriage, and thus set an example, promoting Graeco-Egyptian society as the blend of the two cultures. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 88ff. R. Scholl, D.s Tod, in: CE 63, 1988, 141-144.

Melancomas

(65 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μελαγκόμας/ Melancomas). Eponymous priest of Alexander in 166/5 BC. Son of the Aetolian Philodamus, served in 180-145 as garrison commander and priest of the theoí euergétai ( euergétēs ) in Citium, father of the garrison commander M. (PP VI 15119). PP III/IX 5194 (VI 15120?). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. van der Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 24.

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he can be identified with Berve, vol. 2, no. 470. Ameling, Walter (…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole w…

Pamenches

(62 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Pachom; c. 50/30 B.C. syngenḗs and stratēgós (Court titles B. 2.) in various Egyptian nomes. Along with his government offices P. held a series of indigenous priestly offices, which already appear in the titles of his father. PP III 5688; VIII 292 b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 121f. Nr. 0128.

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Lycarion

(99 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυκαρίων; Lykaríōn). Son of Numenius, from an important family; in the middle of the 1st cent. BC known as syngenḗs ( Court titles B. 2.), honorary head of the gerousia of Alexandria [1], dioikētḗs , exēgētḗs ( exēgētaí ), epì tês póleōs of Alexandria, gymnasiarch ( Gymnasiarchy) of Alexandria. L. is an example of the accumulation of offices in the late Ptolemaic period as well as of the link between state and city duties. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP I 37; 156; III 5349a L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1974, 140 no. 0176.

Ptolemies

(408 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (οἱ Πτολεμαϊκοὶ δυναστεῖς/ hoi Ptolemaïkoì dynasteîs, Str. 2,5,12). Hellenistic dynasty which established itself in Egypt after the death of Alexander [4] the Great and ruled there until Egypt was instituted as a Roman province by Augustus; the dynasty is named after its founder, Ptolemaeus [1] I as 'Ptolemies' or after his father Lagus [1] as 'Lagidae' (Λαγίδαι/ Lagídai). The ambitions of the first P. were not limited to Egypt, but extended to the whole of Alexander's empire (cf. Ptolemaeus [6] III; Hellenistic states) and large parts…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Philadelphos

(369 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλάδελφος/ Philádelphos, literally 'One who loves his/her brother/sister'). (Cult-) epithet of Hellenistic kings. It was borne first of all by Arsinoe [II 3] II. (Philadelphos is only documented from 165/4 BC with referenceto her brother and husband Ptolemy II.). The name is very frequently used in the dynasty of the Ptolemies (Cleopatra [II 9] Berenice III, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra [II 10] Tryphaina; Cleopatra [II 12] VII and her brothers became theoì néoi philádelphoi during the lifetime of Ptolemy XII; cf. also Ptolemaeus Philadelphos). Philad…

Simaristus

(44 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Σιμάριστος; Simáristos). Alexandrian from a respected family extending back to the 3rd century BC; in 58 BC he led an Alexandrian hetairía against Ptolemaeus [18] XII (Dion Chrys. Or. 32,70). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F. Zucker, Σιμαριστ<ει>οι, in: Philologus 101, 1957, 164-166.
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