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Devil

(8,622 words)

Author(s): Felber, Annelies | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Names and Terms – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Fundamental Theology – VIII. Dogmatics – IX. Judaism – X. Islam – XI. History of Art and Literature I. Names and Terms 1. Devil The secular Greek noun διάβολος/ diabolos comes from one of the meanings of the verb διαβάλλω/ diaballō, “separate, sever,” which led to meanings such as “accuse, slander, deceive.” From the Greek noun came Latin diabolus, from which the English …

Baptism

(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …

Anchor in Christian Art

(162 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The anchor (Gk ἄγκυρα/ ankyra, “crooked hook”), the classical symbol for safety in navigation, was transformed into a Christian symbol for the soul, and for hope, adherence, and steadfastness. In his Christ the Educator (Paedagogus), Clement of Alexandria identifies the anchor as appropriate for Christian seal rings, pendants, or intaglio. On early Christian sarcophagi and grave decorations as well as jewelry, the anchor combined with a cross or the Greek letter P (rho) connoted hope, while the anchor with a dolphin signif…

Christmas Plays and Pageants

(827 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The liturgical dramas or plays on the theme of Christmas or Christ's Nativity event, the goal of which was the glorification and adoration of God. The initial pedagogical function was to teach the faith through by presenting sacred history and to encourage appropriate moral behavior in a mode accessible to the otherwise illiterate Christian populace. The earliest forms of liturgical dramas were the annual retelling of the scriptural events during the La…

Steinhausen, Wilhelm

(96 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1846, Sorau, Niederlausitz – Feb 5, 1924, Frankfurt am Main), painter and graphic designer. His first commission was bookmarks and illustrations for Geschichte von der Geburt unseres Herrn Jesus Christus (1869). He obtained an honorary doctorate in theology from the Halle faculty. As “Protestant painter” he received civil and church commissions: Christ und die Kinder (1888) and Allegorie der Erziehungsgedanken antiker and christlicher Kunst (1899–1902). Diane Apostolos-Cappadona Bibliography Works include: “Christentum, Religion und Kunst,” GlWis

Anne, Saint

(436 words)

Author(s): Dörfler-Dierken, Angelika | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Art History I. Church History The mother of Mary, mother of Jesus, and spouse of Joachim. Her name (= Heb. “grace”) is given first in the Protevangelium. The text was read throughout the Middle Ages and at Marian feasts. After 1450, this birth legend was linked with the concept of a trinubium of the saints. Characteristically, The Lives of the Saints supplied Anne with her own birth story and described her as a matron who bore each of her three husbands a daughter M…

Human Form in Art

(3,499 words)

Author(s): Schroer, Silvia | Andreae, Bernard | Koch, Guntram | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Ancient Near Eastern Art – II. Greco-Roman Art – III. Christian Art I. Ancient Near Eastern Art The earliest datable representations of animals in ancient Near Eastern art stem from the Mesolithic Period, and the oldest representations of the human form from the Neolithic Period (reworked male skulls or imitations of the same, cf. Kenyon; stylized or three-dimensional figurines of sitting, corpulent women). Anthropomorphic ¶ (Anthropomorphism) deities are usually distinguished from humans through attributes (for the exception of the “naked…

Tabernacle, Christian

(522 words)

Author(s): Ebenbauer, Peter | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. History of the Term A tabernacle (Lat. tabernaculum, “tent, hut”) is a receptacle containing the eucharistic bread and the vessel(s) holding it in Christian sacral buildings. The Vulgate uses the Latin word for the Old Testament tent of meeting and to represent the eschatological dwelling of God among mortals (Rev 21:3). In the Latin church, it became a technical term for the receptacle holding the reserved sacrament. In the Early Church, consecrated bread (Consecration) from the eucha…

Uhde, Fritz von

(293 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (May 22, 1848, Wolkenburg – Feb 25, 1911, Munich), German painter recognized for his depictions of the Christian Scriptures in contemporary, late 19th-century settings. His interest in painting from nature emerged at Mihaly Munkácsy’s painting school in Paris (1879). Returning to Munich in 1880, M. Liebermann encouraged him to paint en plein-air and to reconstruct the works of the Dutch masters with these new cool tones, natural light, and open brushwork. Uhde’s paintings of scenes in the life of Jesus spurred controversy from the very first, Suffer the Little Chil…

Christmas

(7,716 words)

Author(s): Roll, Susan K. | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. Christian Liturgy – III. Practical Theology – IV. Art History – V. Music I. History 1. Origins. “Christmas,” the nativity feast or birthday celebration of Christ on Dec 25, comes from Middle English Christmesse, Christ's Mass; cf. Dutch Kerstmis. The German Weihnachten, “holy nights,” refers to the twelve days between Dec 24 and Jan 6. The Lat. natalis, dies nativitatis, or nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi is reflected in Span. navidad, Ital. natale. Gk ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τὰ γενέθλια, ἡ κατὰ σάρκα γέννησις τοῦ κυρίου/ hēgenéthlios h…

Mary Magdalene

(1,178 words)

Author(s): Kitzberger, Ingrid Rosa | Hartenstein, Judith | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Early Church – III. History of Art I. New Testament Named after her home town of Magdala on the west bank of the Sea of Gennesareth, she was presumably a prosperous (Luke 8:2f.) businesswoman (for the fishing industry in Magdala=Tarichaeae, see Josephus) who traveled extensively (hence the reference to her place of origin; cf. 15:21, 43). Mary was clearly unmarried (cf. Mark 15:40; Luke 8:3; John 19:25), and her age is unknown. She may have belonged to the same generati…

Rembrandt, Harmenszoon van Rijn

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1606, Leiden – Oct 4, 1669, Amsterdam), painter and graphic artist. Among the leading European masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt was the chief religious artist of the Protestant tradition. His works were profoundly influenced by those of Caravaggio, Adam Elmsheimer, and P.P. Rubens, especially with regard to advancing tenebrism and dramatic theatricality. Renowned as a portrait painter, he was able to transfer his gift of projecting onto canvas his psychological pene…

Bestiary

(139 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (from the Lat. bestiarius, “concerning the beasts”). A bestiary is an Old-French moralizing natural history, which merged the 4th-century Greek Physiologus with local myths, legends, and symbols of animals. Rivaling the Bible in popularity, bestiaries described the training, breeding, and medical care of animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish). Typically, a bestiary recounted the history, legends, natural characteristics, and symbolism of 100 animals, while the Greek and Latin editions of the Physiologus described only 49 (or …

Tagore, Rabīndranāth

(268 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (May 6, 1861, Calcutta – Aug 7, 1941, Shantiniketan, West Bengal), author, philosopher, educator, and social reformer. Tagore was the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (1913). He founded his school, Santiniketan (Abode of Peace), in 1901, and his Visva-Bharati (World University) in 1921; both were premised on the integration of the arts and spirituality into rural reconstruction, social values, and East-West understanding. A polymath, Tagore corresponded extensivel…

Dance

(2,237 words)

Author(s): Gundlach, Helga Barbara | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane | Kane, Thomas A.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Dance, Gesture, Movement and Religion – III. Dance, Gesture, Movement and the Christian Tradition I. History of Religions In contrast to pure movement, dance consists of intentional, differentiated, recurring and rhythmic elements. Initially, natural rhythms such as the beating of the heart, rainfall or animal sounds were imitated and translated into movement. In early forms of culture, da…

Brancusi, Constantin

(165 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Feb 19, 1876, Hobita, Romania – Mar 16, 1957, Paris), modernist sculptor. Brancusi spent his childhood in Romania. He studied at the Bucharest School of Fine Arts and in 1905 entered the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1906 he exhibited his works in the Salon des Beaux-Arts, and he apprenticed at A. Rodin 's studio in 1907. …

Liturgical Art

(614 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The term liturgical art identifies the “tangible expressions of the Christian liturgy – all the objects, vestments, (Vestments, Liturgical) paraments (Vestments/Paraments), liturgical vessels, and instruments fundamental to the celebration and aesthetics of Christian worship. Traditionally liturgical art has distinguished between movable and immovable objects. The principal immovable object is the altar, while the principal movable object is the cross (Cross/Crucifixion). A careful s…

Transfiguration of Christ

(2,102 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Oberdorfer, Bernd | Kunzler, Michael | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament The legend in Mark 9:2–13 proclaims Jesus as Son of God in the presence of his innermost circle of disciples. This is clearly an important compositional element for Mark: the beginning (1:1, 11), middle (9:7), and end (15:39) of the Gospel bear witness to Jesus as God’s Son. The combination with 8:27–33 breaks through Jesus’ incognito and defines his mission – passion (Passion/Passion traditions) and resurrection (II). For a moment, the disciples receive an insight i…

Vézelay Abbey

(283 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] Vézelay Abbey, masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture. Originally founded as a convent for women, this now former Cluniac abbey (Cluny) was, from 1050, a significant stop on pilgrimage routes and the departure point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. The convent founder, Count Gérard de Roussillon, brought the relics of St. Mary Magdalene from Provence to Vézelay. Vézelay’s significance was evidenced when St. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the Second Crus…

Fontana, Lavinia

(197 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1552, Bologna – Aug 11, 1614, Rome), an Italian painter, trained by her father, Prospero Fontana. Her work balances influences of Antonio Allegri Correggio (c. 1489–1534) and Sebastiano Piombo (c. 1485–1547) with Mannerism and emergent Bolognese style. She was renowned as a portrait and history painter. Fontana was the first woman to be named official painter to the papal court under Clement VII and to be elected to the Rome Academy. Not an iconographic innovator, she cre…
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