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(767 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, adepts of illuminative Wisdom. The question arises whether this term can be applied to the representatives of the spiritual family to which Suhrawardī belonged, who preceded him in time. If that were so, the “Hermetists”, the “Sethists” who, from the 4th century in Egypt, saw in Seth (S̲h̲īth) the first uriya (from the Hebrew ōr = light), the sages of Persia, disciples of Zarathustra, and the Manichaeans would already be is̲h̲rāḳiyyūn . H. Corbin has recorded a text of Ibn Waḥs̲h̲iyya, relating to Hermes-Thoth of ancient Egypt, in which the word figures. The disco…

Ibn Ḥazm

(10,362 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Saʿīd , born at Cordova in 384/994, died at Manta Līs̲h̲am in 456/1064, Andalusian poet, historian, jurist, philosopher and theologian, one of the greatest thinkers of Arabo-Muslim civilization, who codified the Ẓāhirī [see ẓāhiriyya ] doctrine and applied its method to all the Ḳurʾānic sciences. The life of Ibn Ḥazm and the political events of his time. E. García Gómez has pointed out that the period in which Ibn Ḥazm lived corresponds to the “most tragic moments of Muslim Spain” and to “the decisive crisis of Isl…


(1,821 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr b. Farad̲j̲ al-Anṣārī al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Andalusī , Muslim scholar of the Mālik, law school, an expert on ḥadīt̲h̲ and well-known for his commentary on the Ḳurʾān. He is the subject of an article in the Dībād̲j̲ of Ibn Farḥūn, which is devoted to biography of the Mālikī fuḳahāʾ of Spain and the Mag̲h̲rib up till the 8th/14th century. He also features in an article in Nafḥ al-ṭīb of al-Maḳḳarī. Very little information is known concerning his life. Born in Spain, he was one of those who travelled outsi…

Iṣṭifan b. Basīl

(258 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(stephanos), the first translator of the Materia medica of Dioscorides. Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa speaks of him in two passages in his book: in the first he is cited along with Mūsā b. Ḵh̲ālid as one of the experienced scribes ( kuttāb naḥārīr ), skilled in the art of translating, whom the caliph al-Mutawakkil placed at the disposal of Ḥunayn b. Isḥāḳ [ q.v.], who was responsibie for checking ( yataṣaffah ) their work; the second and more important reference to him is derived from information provided by Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul in his lost book on the Explanation of the names of simples according to the t…

Ibn Masarra

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Masarra al-D̲j̲abalī , Andalusian philosopher and mystic, born at Cordova in 269/883 and died in 319/931 in a hermitage on the Sierra near this town, to which he had retired long before. He lived during a period in which Muslim Spain suffered a veritable inquisition conducted by the Mālikī fuḳahāʾ . His father, ʿAbd Allāh, who may have been of Christian descent, was a Muʿtazilī and in order to teach his doctrines had to take many precautions. The young Muḥammad became his pupil and received from him a…

al-Insān al-Kāmil

(3,347 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
the Perfect Man. 1). General observations on this concept. The idea of the Perfect Man, which occurs in Muslim esoteric mysticism, is not derived directly from the Ḳurʾān. It may be compared with gnostic conceptions which have assumed various forms: that of the πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος linked with Hermetism (cf. Poimandres ) and the hellenistic gnoses, might be the purest original source; another origin may be found in the Mazdaean myth of Gayomart, the primordial Man. These two currents come together in Manichaeism with the doctrine of the first Man ( al-insān al-ḳadīm ) …


(3,090 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(A.) “quiddity”. On the construction of this technical term, al-Tahānawī provides interesting information. There are several explanations. One of them derives this word from the interrogative mā huwa? (“what is it?”). In this case, it is to be noted that the yāʾ of the nisba has been added, the wāw suppressed and the tāʾ marbūṭa termination given in order to change the word from the adjectival to the substantive form. Another explanation derives it from , with the addition of the yāʾ of the nisba and of the tāʾ marbūṭa. The original form would then be māʾiyya ; the hamza


(1,711 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, maṣdar of aḥdat̲h̲a , from the root . t̲h̲ ., which expresses the idea of an innovation in time. Ḥadīt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳadīm , “ancient”, whence “eternal” a parte ante; ḥudūt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳudma . In the Ḳurʾān the fourth form ( yuḥdit̲h̲ , muḥdat̲h̲ ) is used with the direct object d̲h̲ikr . Commenting on XX, 113, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī considers why the Word of God produces a d̲h̲ikr and not a taḳwā ; the reason, he suggests, is that “ taḳwā denotes the act of not doing evil, and it consists in remaining in a fundamental negativeness” ( wa-d̲h̲ālika ‘stimrār ʿala ’l-ʿadam al-aṣlī


(1,287 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), verbal noun from the verb rad̲j̲aʿa , basically, “to return”, and frequent in the Ḳurʾān in various senses, according to context. It is found e.g. in VII, 168, and XXX, 41, in the expression laʿallahum yard̲j̲iʿūna “perhaps they will return”, which, explains al-Ḳurṭubī, has the sense “they will return from their unbelief ( ʿan kufrihim ), or elsewhere given as the equivalent of yatūbūna (“they will repent of themselves”). Rud̲j̲ūʿ would seem to be, in this sense, a synonym of tawba , and just as repentance is considered at the same time man’s turni…


(2,157 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
means, in general, sensory perception and then, more generally, comprehension (synonym of fahm ), in Persian dar-yāftan (Tahānawī). The philosophical usage of the word often derives from any one of the etymological meanings of the root DRK, which connotes the idea of attaining, of a thing reaching its term or arriving at maturity, of re-joining, meeting, catching, grasping. There occurs in a passage of the Futūḥāt of Ibn al-ʿArabī (Cairo ed., ii, 579) the participle mudrak in a context which demonstrates the force of the meaning which the root has…

Ibn Rus̲h̲d

(13,412 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
Abu ’l-Walīd Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Rus̲h̲d, al-Ḥafīd (the grandson), the “Commentator of Aristotle”, famous in the Mediaeval West under the name of Averroes, scholar of the Ḳurʾānic sciences and the natural sciences (physics, medicine, biology, astronomy), theologian and philosopher. I. Life . He was born at Cordova in 520/1126 and died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 595/1198. The Arabic biographical sources are: Ibn al-Abbār, Takmila , BAH, vi, no. 853; Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, ʿUyūn ; al-Anṣāri, supplement to the dictionaries of Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl and of Ib…

Mā Baʿd al-Ṭabīʿa

(3,859 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, or Mā Baʿd al-Ṭabīʿiyyāt , a translation of the Greek τα μετὰ τα φυσικά “the things which come after physical things”, i.e. metaphysics, an expression which can have two meanings, each of which envisages a particular conception of that science ( ʿilm or ṣināʿa ). It can either be a discipline which one embarks upon after physics, utilising the results of the natural sciences, or else it can be one whose goal lies beyond the apprehendable objects which are the concern of physics. ¶ The two meanings are not mutually self-exclusive, but the first tends to put the accent on the r…


(13,716 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), a technical term denoting logic. 1. Etymology. The LA gives manṭiḳ as a synonym of kalām in the sense of “language”; a book is described as being nāṭiḳ bayyin as if it does itself speak; God says in the Ḳurʾān (XXII, 62): “And before Us is a Book which tells the truth ( yanṭiḳu bi ’l-ḥaḳḳ )”. This telling of the truth also has a quality of judgment; thus (XLV, 29): “This is Our Book; it pronounces against you in all truth ( yanṭiḳu ʿalaykum bi ’l-ḥaḳḳ )” Metaphorically, manṭiḳ expresses the language of all things, for example the language of birds (Ḳurʾān, XXVII, 16: manṭiḳ al-ṭayr


(2,108 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), man ( homo ). The Ḳurʾān states ¶ that God created man weak (IV, 28). Several verses describe his psychology: in trouble he cries to God, and when the trouble has passed, he forgets (X, 12; XXXIX, 8 and 49); he is very unjust ( ẓalūm , XIV, 34; XXXIII, 72); much inclined to be precipitate ( ʿad̲j̲ūl XVII, 11); versatile ( halūʿ , LXX, 19); rebellious (XLVI, 6); a subtle reasoner and given to argument (XVIII, 54, XXXVI, 77). The LA echoes this Ḳurʾānic teaching: all beings who are endowed with intelligence, angels and d̲j̲inns, are given to argument, but man is more so t…


(2,204 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.) “thing, entity”. The philosophical term s̲h̲ayʾ first of all has a generally accepted meaning: it designates that which is perceived concretely by the senses ( mudrak ) and at which a finger may be pointed ( al-mus̲h̲ār ilayhi ), although it ¶ cannot yet be positively defined. However, in this perception, a thing is only a thing to the extent that, in the perception, it is distinct from another. In the plural, as̲h̲yaʾ are objects given purely and simply as existing externally. They are to be distinguished from aʿyān which signify the same objects, but in …


(349 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, the Greek philosopher Socrates. There is no specific discussion of the teachings of Socrates on the part of the Arabo-Muslim authors who mention his name. This also applies to bibliographers such as Abū Sulaymān al-Sid̲j̲istānī ( Ṣiwān al-ḥikma ), Ibn al-Nadīm ( Fihrist ), Ibn al-Ḳifṭī ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ ) and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa ( ʿUyūn al-anbāʾ ). The small amount of information supplied by these diverse authors is, furthermore, repetitive. According to Abū Sulaymān, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle acquired Egyptian wisdom from Pythagoras. Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī ( Ṭabaḳāt al-umam


(3,341 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, pl. of faylasūf , formed from the Greek φιλόσοφος. By its origin this word primarily denotes the Greek thinkers. Al-S̲h̲ahrastānī gives a list of them: the seven Sages who are “the fount of philosophy ( falsafa ) and the beginning of wisdom ( ḥikma ) , then Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenes, Empedocles, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Plutarch, Xenophanes, Zeno the elder, Democritus, the philosophers of the Academy, Heraclitus, Epicurus, Homer (the poet whose wisdom inspired Greece for, with the Greeks, poetry preceded ph…

Ibn Zuhr

(3,359 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, patronymic of a family of scholars who came originally from Arabia (Iyād) and settled, at the beginning of the 4th/10th century, at D̲j̲afu S̲h̲āṭiba (Játiva) in the east of Spain. Ibn K̲h̲allikān says of the members of this family that they were “all ʿulamāʾ , ruʾasāʾ , ḥukamāʾ and viziers who reached high ranks in the entourages of princes”. I. Zuhr al-Iyādī was the father of Marwān, who was the father of Abū Bakr Muḥammad, who was famous as a jurisconsult; he died at Talabīra (Talavera) in 422/1030-1. II. Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Marwān b. Zuhr al-Iyādī …


(1,205 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥārit̲h̲ (d. 243/857), Muslim mystic. Amongst these, he is the one whose contemplation is the most psychological; it is marked by attachment to moral values, and not by a more or less extreme ¶ theological system. In this sense, L. Massignon has legitimately described his mystical doctrine as “more circumspect” ( Passion 2, i, 120). He proceeds from introspection and confines himself to analysing and developing it in its relations with the circumstances of life. It is no doubt this which explains his cognomen of muḥāsibī , signifying “he who …


(3,857 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.) “Knowledge, cognition”. 1. as a term of epistemology and mysticism I. Lexicographical study. Like ʿirfān , the word maʿrifa is a noun derived from the verb ʿarafa . According to the lexicographers, it is a synonym of ʿilm [ q.v.]. Ibn Manẓūr ( LA) notes that ʿarafa may be used in place of iʿtarafa (“to recognise”), in the sense that maʿrifa is that which enables a person to recogriise, to identify a thing. On the other hand, iʿtarafa signifies “to ask somebody for information ( k̲h̲abar ) regarding something”. It is the reply which makes recognition of t…
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