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Tigris חדקל

(942 words)

Author(s): B. Alster
I. Name The OT refers to the Tigris as Ḥiddeqel. The designation hannāhār haggādôl, “the Great River” was applied to the Tigris in Dan. 10.14, but otherwise refers to the Euphrates. The two rivers appear as a pair in the expression ʾaram naharayim, “the Land of the Two Rivers”, i.e. (Western) Mesopotamia. Hebr Ḥiddeqel derives from an earlier Semitic form of the name which appears as Idiqlat in Akkadian, and Idigna in Sumerian. The female ending, characteristic of the Akkadian form, shows that the Tigris, like the Euphrates, was conceived as a female entity.…

Tiamat תהום

(1,707 words)

Author(s): B. Alster
I. Name Tĕhôm, usually translated “the deep”, occurs in Gen. 1.2 as a designation of the primeval sea, and is frequently used in the OT to denote the cosmic sea (Yam) on which the world rests, and from which all water comes, as well as any large body of water, including rivers, and the depth of the sea and the earth. Heb. Tĕhôm is etymologically related to Akk. Tiāmat, which derives from an older Semitic root, thm, known in Ugaritic and other semitic languages as a designation of the sea. In Arabic Tihāmat denotes the coastal plain along the southwestern and southern shores of th…

Tammuz תמוז

(4,016 words)

Author(s): B. Alster
I. Name Tammûz is a deity of Mesopotamian origin whose cult, according to a vision reported in Ezek. 8.14, was introduced into the temple in Jerusalem, where women are said to wail over the death of the god at the north gate of the temple. Heb. Tammûz derives from Sum. d Dumu-zi. The Sumerian name means “the good son”, or “the right son”. In Akkadian the name is mostly written with the Sumerian ideogram and pronounced Dumuzu, or Duwuzu, Neo-Assyrian Duʾuzu or Dûzu. The month named after him was rendered as Duʾuzu (MSL 5, 25:225). The late Akkadian form is reflected in the Greek Daô…