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Alexander historians

(302 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Collective name for the ancient authors, who wrote about the history and biography of  Alexander [4] (the Great).  Callisthenes was his court historian and fulfilled the duties expected of him until their quarrel. Many of the later histories are based on his, which was published right away (until 330 BC?). Of the eyewitnesses, only  Ptolemaeus and  Aristoboulus [7] seem to have described all campaigns; both praised Alexander. They wrote many years later, used Callisthenes and prob…

Mazarus

(67 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μάζαρος; Mázaros). Hetaîros ( hetaîroi ) of Alexander [4] the Great. According to Arrian (Arr. Anab. 3,16,9), he was appointed fortress commander in Susa in 331/30 BC. Curtius (5,2,16) names Xenophilus instead. Since the name M. is Iranian, Arrian probably confused him with the Persian predecessor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History, vol. 1, 1980, 319.

Bucephalus, Bucephalas

(115 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βουκεφάλας; Boukephálas). Thessalian warhorse, a gift to  Alexander [4] as a boy. He was allegedly the only person capable of breaking him in. He never rode any other and it is illustrated with him in heroic style on the  Alexander Mosaic and the  Alexander Sarcophagus. B. died at a great age after the battle on the Hydaspes and Alexander founded a city,  Bucephala in his honour. The life and death of B. are richly embellished in the ‘Vulgate’ ( Alexander historians) and in the  Alexander Romance. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. R. Anderson, Bucephalas an…

Gorgus

(126 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Γόργος; Górgos). In 324 BC, G. of Iasos ─ in the role of the ‘keeper of weapons’ ( hoplophýlax, ὁπλοφύλαξ) ─ interceded with  Alexander [4] the Great on behalf of the Samians expelled by the Athenians and tried to persuade Alexander to start a campaign against Athens (Ath. 12,538b). After the latter's death, G. had Iasos allow the return of Samians to Athens at the city's expense. The newly created community of Samos honoured him and his brother  Minnion for their merits by granting them citizenship among other things (Syll.3 312). The brothers had succeeded in obtai…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Thersippus

(102 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θέρσιππος; Thérsippos). Participant in Alexander [4] the Great's campaign. Alexander sent him from Marathus to Darius [3] in 333/2 with a reply to his first offer of peace (Arr. An. 2,14,4; Curt. 4,1,14); perhaps identical with the T. who after Alexander's death is honoured in a decree by the Nesiotae [2] (OGIS 4) (see [1. vol. 1,369; vol. 2.2,376]). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography 1 G. A. Droysen, Gesch. des Hellenismus, 3 vols., 21877/8 (reprint of this ed. 1952/3, ed. by E. Bayer, 1980) 2 Berve, No. 368 3 E. Poddighe, Il decreto dell'isola di Nes…

Peithon

(377 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πείθων; Peíthōn). [German version] [1] Indo- Greek satrap In 325 BC, P., son of Agenor, was appointed by Alexander [4] the Great as the satrap for the coast of India and the banks of the Indus as far as the mouth of the Acesines. He took Musicanus prisoner and brought him before the king, manned the new fortresses on the left bank of the Indus and met up with Alexander at Pattala. When Alexander had to give up a large part of India in 323 BC, he transferred P. to Gandhara (Gandaritis), a move which was…

Pythionice

(90 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Πυθιονίκη/ Pythioníkē). Famous hetaera (Hetaerae), probably Athenian, mocked by comedians (Ath. 8,339). Called c. 329 BC by Harpalus to Babylon, where she bore him a daughter (Plut. Phocion 22,1), he showered her with plundered treasures (Diod. Sic. 17, 108,5). After her death, Harpalus had her deified as Aphrodite P. Her grave monuments in Babylon and Athens are often mentioned (mostly with indignation) (as in Ath. 13,594d-595c; Paus. 1,37,5; Plut. Phocion 22, 1-2). They allegedly cost more than 200 talents (Theopomp. apud Ath. ibid.). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Polyperchon

(582 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυπέρχων/ Polypérchōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great P. (not Polysperchon, cf. OGIS 1, p. 12 n. 14), son of Simmias (Arr. Anab. 2,12,2) from Tymphaea (Tzetz. Schol. Lycoph. 802), leader of the Tymphaean táxis of the pez(h)étairoi under Alexander [4] the Great from 333 BC; able, but never outstanding. According to Curt. 8,5,22-24, his derision (but in Arr. Anab. 4,12,12 that of Leonnatus) thwarted the introduction of the proskýnēsis . According to Curt. 8,11,1, he took Ora in the Swat Valley (in Arr. Anab. 4,27,9 i…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Nearchus

(948 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Νέαρχος; Néarchos). [German version] [1] Attic Black-Figure vase painter, c. 560 BC Attic black-figure vase painter and potter of the high Archaic Period, c. 560 BC. His name appears on eight vessels; of these one painter's and four potter's signatures are certainly his. N.'s importance is based primarily on the fragment of the great kantharos from the Acropolis with the painter's signature (Athens, NM Acr. 611 and AP 67), depicting Achilles harnessing his team of horses and the handover of weapons. By choosing the motif of harnessing - here for t…

Barsine

(79 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσίνη; Barsínē). Artabazus' daughter, first married to Mentor of Rhodes, then to his brother Memmon. After the battle of Issus, B. was captured in Damascus. She became Alexander the Great's lover and gave birth to his son  Heracles (probably in 327 BC). She and her son returned to Asia Minor, probably soon after Alexander's marriage to Roxane. In 309 she was murdered in Pergamum following  Polyperchon's order. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 206.

Heracles

(3,370 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἡρακλῆς; Hēraklês). [German version] [1] Greek hero The most prominent Greek hero ( Hero cult) in myth and cult. In his myths, which have not resulted in any outstanding work of poetry that is focussed on him, he is connected especially to Thebes, Argos and the countryside around Trachis; in the cult he is honoured almost panhellenically, without any place being able to display a hero's grave. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) I. Cult and Myth [German version] A. Name His name was connected with  Hera's already in antiquity: it follows the customary formation of Greek anthropo…

Hegelochus

(247 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος; Hēgélochos). [German version] [1] Fleet officer under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC Son of Hippostratus, officer under  Alexander [4]. Initially commander of the vanguard cavalry, he was commissioned to form a Macedonian fleet from ships collected from Greek cities in the summer of 333 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,2,3; inexact Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoterus was his subordinate, not his colleague). After the death of  Memnon his fleet dominated the Hellespont, where he i.a. stopped an Athenian grain fleet (Ps.-…

Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Aboulites

(62 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Satrap of  Susa under  Darius, father of  Oxathres. In 331 BC he handed the city over to  Alexander [4] with 50,000 silver  talents and was confirmed as satrap. The subdued  Uxii were subordinated to him. During the cleansing after Alexander's losses in  Gedrosia (324), A. and his son were executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 5.

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Ada

(124 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Younger daughter of  Hecatomnus, ruled  Caria with her brother and husband  Idrieus, after his death (344/3 BC) alone under Persian suzerainty. Deposed by her brother  Pixodarus, withdrew to the fortress Alinda, where she remained unmolested. When  Alexander [4] reached Caria (324), she handed Alinda over to him and adopted him, which secured for him the sympathies of the Carian cities and put him in view of succession. She was recognized as the Queen of Caria and she commanded Ca…
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