Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Baer, Eva" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Baer, Eva" )' returned 10 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Zak̲h̲rafa

(2,102 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
(a.), in Islamic art, “ornament, ornamentation”. The word is connected with the noun zuk̲h̲ruf “gold” > “ornamental work” used in Ḳurʾān, XVII, 95/93, bayt min zuk̲h̲ruf, and there is an adjective muzak̲h̲raf “ornamented”; the origin of zuk̲h̲ruf seems to be in a deformation, via Syriac, of Grk. zōgrapheō “to paint”, see Jeffery, The foreign vocabulary of the Qurʾān , Baroda 1938, 150. ¶ Islamic ornament possesses certain qualities that, even if not exclusive to this art, are sufficiently distinct to be recognisable. One is that it is independent from the underlying structure, be it a building or an object of art. It therefore can easily be transferred from one material to the other, and from one technique to another. As in other civilisations, the ornament can be classified either by the elements of which it is composed or by the method by which it is organised. In addition, it can be interpreted symbolically, can communicate ideas or can have metaphoric qualities. The most common elements are vegetal, geometric, epigraphic and figural. In order to create order and harmony—one of the most characteristic functions of Islamic ornament—it is organised by two principles: geometry and symmetry. To achieve this aim, the Islamic artist used a number of methods,

K̲h̲irbat al-Minya

(449 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
, in mediaeval times known as Minya or ʿAyn Minyat His̲h̲ām, is the name for the ruins of an apparently unfinished Umayyad mansion about 230 m. west of the northern end of Lake Tiberias. The ruins were excavated in 1932 by A. E. Mader and between 1936-9 by A. M. Schneider and O. Puttrich-Reignard. During July-August 1959 the western section of the palace was excavated by O. Grabar in collaboration with the Israel Department of Antiquities.…

K̲h̲irbat al-Mafd̲j̲ar

(4,625 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
, popularly known as Ḳaṣr His̲h̲ām, is the modem name for the ruins of an unfinished Umayyad…

Zak̲h̲rafa

(2,395 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
(a.), en art islamique, «ornement, décor». Le mot est lié au nom zuk̲h̲ruf «or» «ouvrage d’ornement» utilisé dans Ḳurʾān, XVII, 95/93, bayt min zuk̲h̲ruf, et il existe un adjectif muzak̲h̲raf «orné»; l’origine de zuk̲h̲ruf semble provenir d’une variation, ¶ par le syriaque, du grec zōgrapheō «peindre», voir Jeffery, The foreign vocabulary of the Qurʾān, Baroda 1938, 150. Le décor islamique possède certains caractères qui, même s’ils ne lui sont pas exclusivement spécifiques, sont suffisamment originaux pour être reconnaissables. L’un de ceux-ci est qu…

K̲h̲irbat al-Mafd̲j̲ar

(4,753 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
, nom donné aujourd’hui aux ruines d’un château umayyade inachevé, que le peuple appelle Ḳaṣr His̲h̲ām et qui sont situées dans le Wādī l-Nuwayʿima, au Nord de Jéricho. Les ruines compreiment trois édifices distincts: un palais, une mosquée et un bain contigu à une grande salle. A l’Est de ce complexe, il y avait une avant-cour ‘ à colonnades avec un bassin ornemental. Quelques vestiges architecturaux supplémentaires subsistent au Nord de ces bâtiments, mais ils n’ont pas encore été fouillés. Le…

Ibrīḳ

(898 words)

Author(s): Baer, Eva
(in Islamic art), a term used for any kind of ewer, irrespective of function or material, but generally a vessel for pouring water or wine. Together with a basin, it is also used for washing hands and feet. Other terms for specific kinds of ewers are kubra or bulbula (see Abū Nuwās, Diwān , ed. Wagner, i, Beirut 1958, 54, 3). The chronology and geographical origin of early metal ewers up to the 4th/10th century have not yet been definitely established. They can be classified typologically into five groups, representing a slow departure from mainly Sāsānid…

Ṭāwūs

(1,919 words)

Author(s): Viré, F. | Baer, Eva
, Ṭāʾūs (a.), masculine substantive (pls. ṭawāwīs , aṭwās ) drawn from the Greek ταώς and denoting the peacock ( Pavo ) of the family of the Phasianidae, originally from Asia and comprising four species: (a) the blue peacock ( Pavo cristatus); (b) the spiciferous peacock ( Pavo muticus); (c) the Congo peacock ( Afropavo congensis ); and (d) the black peacock ( Pavo nigripennis). 1. In Muslim lore. This attractive and majestic large-tailed bird, an attribute in Greek and Latin Antiquity of the goddess Hera/Juno, was of no interest to the Arabs other than in the ma…

Ṭāwūs

(1,904 words)

Author(s): Viré, F. | Baer, Eva
, Ṭāʾūs (a.) substantif masculin (pi. ṭawāwīs, aṭwās) tiré du grec ταώΣ désignant le paon ( Pavo) de la famille des phasianidés, originaire d’Asie et comptant quatre espèces: a) le paon bleu ( Pavo cristatus), b) le paon spicifère ( Pavo mutkus), c) le paon du Congo ( Afropavo congensis), d) le paon noir ( Pavo nigripennis). 1. Dans le folklore. Ce bel et majestueux oiseau de grande taille, attribut, dans l’antiquité greco-latine, de la déesse Héra/Junon, n’avait, aux yeux des Arabes, d’intérêt que la magnificence de son plumage, car il était regardé comm…

Maʿdin

(33,280 words)

Author(s): Ashtor, E. | Hassan, A.Y. al- | Hill, D.R. | Murphey, R. | Baer, Eva
(a.), "mine, ore, mineral, metal". In modern Arabic, the word mand̲j̲am denotes "mine", while muʿaddin means "miner" and d̲j̲amād is a mineral. In the vast Islamic empire, minerals played an important part. There was a great need for gold, silver and copper for the minting of coins and other uses. Iron ore was indispensable for the manufacture ¶ of iron and steel for arms and implements. Other minerals such as mercury, salt and alum, as well as pearls and precious stones, were necessary for everyday life. The empire was richly endowed with the various…

Maʿdin

(23,592 words)

Author(s): Ashtor, E. | Hassan, A.Y. al- | Hill, D.R. | Murphey, R. | Baer, Eva
(a.), «mine, minerai, métal, minéral»; en arabe moderne, c’est plutôt mand̲j̲iam qui est employé dans le sens de «mine», tandis que d̲j̲amād désigne un minéral et que maʿdin correspond aux deux autres acceptions; muʿaddin désigne un mineur. Dans le vaste empire islamique, les minéraux jouaient un rôle important: on avait besoin d’or, d’argent et de cuivre pour la frappe des monnaies et d’autres usages. Le minerai de fer était indispensable pour produire le fer et l’acier destinés à la fabrication des armes et des instruments divers…