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Türk Od̲j̲ag̲h̲i̊

(818 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çi̊ǧdem
(t., literally “Hearth of the Turks”), a cultural and social organisation in late Ottoman and early Republican Turkey, formally instituted in 1912 and enduring until 1931. It aimed to spread Turkish nationalist ideology through its cultural and social activities in the Ottoman Empire. Its journal Türk Yurdu (“Homeland of the Turks”) was widely read, and at the time it was closed down by the Kemalist state, it had over 30,000 members and 267 branches in Anatolia. In 1932 it was replaced by the Halk Evleri [see k̲h̲alḳevi ] in towns and Halk Odaları in large village…

Ṣafi̇yye Wāli̇de Sulṭān

(432 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Cecilia Baffo), Ottoman queen mother, born in Venice in 1550, died in 1014/1605. ¶ The daughter of the Italian Baffo, governor of Corfu, when she was fourteen years old, while travelling between Venice and Corfu on the Adriatic Sea, she was captured by Ottoman pirates. On account of her beauty, she was taken to the palace of prince Murād, grandson of Süleymān and governor of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Manisa. In the Manisa palace, she became a Muslim, learned Turkish and was trained in palace manners. In 972/1565, she was presented to Murād, She g…

Sāmī

(635 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
, S̲h̲ems ül-Dīn Frās̲h̲erī (Mod. Tkish. Şemseddi̇n Sami̇ Fraşeri̇ ), Ottoman Turkish author and lexicographer. He was born at Frās̲h̲er in Albania on 1 June 1850, of an old Muslim family whose ancestors had been granted this place as a fief by Sultan Meḥemmed II, and was educated in the Greek lycée at Yanina, at the same time receiving private instruction in Turkish, Persian and Arabic. He came to Istanbul in 1871 in order to take up journalism, and in 1874 was sent to Tripoli (North Africa) as the editor of Wilāyet newspaper. He returned to Istanbul 9 months la…

T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn

(652 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çiǧdem
, literally, “Riches of the arts”, a late Ottoman Turkish literary movement named after the journal with the same tide which ran from 1896 until its closure in 1901. (The movement has also been referred to as Edebiyyāt-i̊ d̲j̲edīde ). When Tewfīḳ Fikret [ q.v.] became the editor of T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn in 1896, the journal was transformed from a scientific journal into an artistic and literary one, publishing the works of a group of authors who reflected the belief in “art for art’s sake”. After the journal was closed, the me…

Ork̲h̲an Seyfī

(390 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Orhan Seyfi Orhon), Turkish poet and journalist, born in 1890 in Istanbul, died in 1972. He was the son of Colonel Emīn and Niʿmet. After finishing Mekteb-i Ḥuḳūḳ (Istanbul Darülfünūn Ḥuḳūk Fakültesi, i.e. Faculty of Law) in 1914, the same year he became a secretary at the Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Med̲j̲lis-i Mebʿūt̲h̲āni̊ until its suspension. In 1913 he published a small book of poems Fi̊rṭi̊na ve ḳār in ʿarūḍ metre. His second book, Peri ḳi̊zi̊ ile čoban ḥikāyesi , a poetic tale with a Turkic theme written in syllabic metre, was published in 1919. He taught…

Nāẓi̇m Ḥikmet

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
( Nâzim Hi̇kmet ( Ran ), Nazim Hikmet Borzecki), Turkish poet, born at Salonica on 15 January 1902, died in Moscow on 3 June 1963. He was the grandson of Meḥmed Nāẓi̊m Pas̲h̲a, the last Turkish Mayor of Salonica on one side and of Muṣṭafā D̲j̲elāl el-Dīn Pas̲h̲a (Polish in origin, formerly Constantin Borzecki) on the other, and the son of Ḥikmet Nāẓi̊m and D̲j̲elīle. He started his secondary education at G̲h̲alaṭasarāy Lycée, moved to Nis̲h̲āntas̲h̲i̊ Lycée (1917) and then to the Naval Academy (Heybeli Ada Baḥriyye Mektebi). His first poems were published in Yeñi Med̲j̲mūʿa

Ork̲h̲an Kemāl

(728 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
, Meḥmed Rās̲h̲id (Orhan Kemâl Öğütçü), Turkish short story writer and novelist, born in Adana, Ceyhan, on 15 September 1914, died in 1970. His father ʿAbd ül-Ḳādir Kemālī was a lawyer who became a first-term MP (1920-3) and Minister of Justice for a while and founded the Ehālī D̲j̲ümhūriyyet party in Adana but was forced to flee to Syria upon the closure of his party. Orhan Kemâl left secondary school and went with his father, and for a year they lived in Syria and Lebanon, where he worked at a printing house (reflected in his later novel Baba evi ). In 1932 his father …

Sāhir, D̲j̲elāl

(460 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
( Celal Sahir Erozan ), Ottoman and early Republican Turkish poet and author, born in 1299/1883, died in 1935. He was the son of Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳi̊ Pas̲h̲a of Yemen and Fehime Nüzhet of the Tatar Ḥād̲j̲ī Dāwūd K̲h̲ān family, herself an author and poet. Sāhir grew up with his mother in Istanbul, attended the Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a Rūs̲h̲diyye and the Wefā Iʿdādī schools and took private French lessons. He began writing poetry at the age of 14, and his poems were first published in T̲h̲erwet-i fünān [ q.v.], the journal of the literary group Edebiyyāt-i̊ d̲j̲edīde . When the group renewed itself under the name F…

Sabahatti̇n Ali̇

(777 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Ottoman orthography, Ṣabāḥ ul-Dīn ʿAlī), Turkish novelist and short story writer, born in Komotini [see gümüld̲j̲ine, in Suppl.], eastern Thrace (now in Greece), on 12 February 1906 or 25 February 1907, died on 2 April 1948. His father was the army Captain Ali Salahaddin and he had his elementary education in Istanbul, Çanakkale, and Edremit. His childhood in Çanakkale during World War I was to leave deep emotional traces on him; later, when the family came to Edremit, the area was under invasion and they fou…

Örik, Nahīd Ṣi̊rrī

(301 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Nahit Sirri Örik), Turkish author, journalist and literary researcher, born on 22 May 1894 in Istanbul, died in 1960. He was the grandson of Aḥmed Nāfid̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a of Olti, who was also a poet and the son of Örik Ag̲h̲asi̊-zāde Ḥasan Ṣi̊rrī, who was a government official and translator. Nahit Sirri attended Galatasaray lycée, graduating in 1913. He lived in Europe until 1928, and after his return to Turkey, worked as a correspondent for the newspaper Cumhuriyet and as a translator for the Ministry of Education. He travelled in Anatolia and wrote a…

Tewfīḳ Fikret

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çiǧdem
(originally named Meḥmed Tewfīḳ, Fikret being the pen-name which he assumed), late Ottoman Turkish poet, b. 1867, d. 1915 in Istanbul. He was the son and the second child of Ḥüseyin Efendi, from a Čerkes family of notables of Çankırı, and the governor of ʿAkkā, and of K̲h̲adīd̲j̲e Refīʿa, from the island of Chios. He started his elementary education in the Aksaray Maḥmūdiyye Wālide Rüs̲h̲diyyesi, and moved to Galatasaray Lycée at nine. His mother died in 1879, after which he and his sister were …

Res̲h̲ād Nūrī

(911 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
( Reşad nuri̇ Günteki̇n ), late Ottoman and modern Turkish author, born in 1889 in Istanbul, died in 1956 in London. He was the son of a military doctor, Nūrī, and Luṭfiyye, the daughter of Yawer Pas̲h̲a, governor of Erzurum. He attended Galatasaray Lycée in Istanbul and, later, the Frères High School in Izmir. After graduating from the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul University in 1912, he worked as a teacher and schoolmaster in Bursa and in several lycées in Istanbul (Vefa, Ça…

Wāṣif Enderūnī

(431 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çiǧdem
, ʿOt̲h̲mān , Ottoman poet, born at an unknown date, d. in 1824. As his name implies, he was educated in the Enderūn or Palace School, his mother being a niece of the commander of the Bostānd̲j̲i̊s [ q.v.], K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a, who became Grand Vizier to Aḥmed III. His life was spent filling various court offices, including for Selīm III, to whom various of his poems are dedicated. At the accession of Muṣṭafā IV in 1807, he was promoted to the service of the Royal Chamber. In 1818 he retired from palace service and became administrator of the waḳf of Süleymān Pas̲h̲a at Bo…

Olg̲h̲un, Meḥmed Ṭāhir

(201 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Tahir Olgun, Tâhir-ül Mevlevî), Turkish writer and literary critic, born in Istanbul on 13 September 1877, died in 1951. He graduated from the Gülk̲h̲āne Rüshdiyye-i ʿAskeriyyesi (military high school) and Mens̲h̲eʾ-i küttāb-i ʿaskeriyye. While working as a secretary at the War Ministry, he attended the Fātiḥ Mosque medrese and received his id̲j̲āzet-nāme from Met̲h̲newīk̲h̲wān Selānikli Meḥmed Esʿad Dede Efendi, whence his name Tâhir-ül Mevlevî. After 1903 he taught Persian, the history of Islam, history and literature in many schools, including…

Oktay Ri̇fat

(322 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
( horozcu ), Turkish author and poet, born in Trabzon in 1914. He was the son of Samih Rifat, author and poet and Governor of Trabzon. He finished at the Faculty of Law in 1936 and was sent to Paris on a government grant to further his studies. After three years he had to come back to Turkey without completing his doctorate because of the start of World War II (1940). He worked at the Directorate of Press and Information and later practiced law. He died in Istanbul on 18 April 1988. His friendship with Orhan Veli, whom he met at secondary school, continued until his death. He wrote onl…

Ortač, Yūsuf Ḍiyā

(401 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Yusuf Ziyâ Ortaç), Turkish poet and journalist, born on 23 April 1895 in Istanbul, the son of engineer Süleymān Sāmī and Ḥurriyye, died in 1968. He finished Wefā İʿdādi̊si̊ in 1915. By then he had already showed an interest in writing poetry and had won a prize for one of his poems, which was published in Türk yurdu. He taught literature first in İzmit, then at Galatasaray lycée. His poetry followed the tradition of the nationalist poets of the time. His first book of poems, Aḳi̊ndan aḳi̊na was ¶ published in 1916, followed by D̲j̲enk ufuḳlari̊ in 1917, a work which…

Tard̲j̲ama

(12,376 words)

Author(s): Gutas, D. | Eickelman, D.F. | Blois, F.C. de | Sadgrove, P.C. | Afshar, Iradj | Et al.
(a., pl. tarād̲j̲im ), verbal noun of the verb tard̲j̲ama “to interpret, translate, write the biography of someone ( lahu )”. For the function of interpreter, see tard̲j̲umān . ¶ 1. In literature. Here, it may form part of the title of a biography, or, especially in contemporary North Africa, the biography (or autobiography) itself. Hence ʿilm al-tarād̲j̲im is a branch of historical research, sometimes equated by the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa with ʿilm al-rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.]. The term dates to at least the early 5th/11th century, where it appears in the titles of three works by al…

S̲h̲iʿr

(25,803 words)

Author(s): al-Muʿtazz, Ibn | Arazi, A. | Moreh, S. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Balim, Çiğdem | Et al.
(a.), poetry. 1. In Arabic. (a) The pre-modern period. It is the supreme ornament of Arab culture and its most authentically representative form of discourse. The ideas articulated by poetry and the emotional resonances which it conveys earn it, even in the present day, where numerous new literary forms are in competition with it, the approval of scholars and the populace alike. Despite the phonetic resemblance, s̲h̲iʿr is totally unconnected with the Hebrew s̲h̲īr , the ʿayn is a “hard” consonant which persists in the roots common to the two langu…

Turks

(54,970 words)

Author(s): Bazin L. | Golden, P.B. | Golden.P.B | Zürcher E.J | Andrews.P.A | Et al.
¶ I. History. 1. The pre-Islamic period: the first Turks in history and their languages. Towards 540, on the northern fringes of China, the nomadic empire of the Z̲h̲ouan-z̲h̲ouan (proto-Mongols?) dominated the lands of Mongolia and some neighbouring zones. Its Ḳag̲h̲an or ruler had as his vassals notably the chiefs of two important tribal confederations, those of the Türks, in the northern Altai, and the equally Turkish-speaking one of the “High Waggons” (Chinese Kao-kiu) in the Selenga basin (the northern part of central Mongolia). After an abortive revolt by these last, the …