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Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia or Hispania Baetica (ILS 269). The borders of HB are the Anas (Guadiana) in the west, the Sierra Morena in the north, and the Atlantic and the Mediterranean in the south. The capital of this senatorial province was  Corduba.  Lusitania Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C. Castillo Garcia, Städ…

Baetulo

(37 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River (modern Besos) and municipium (modern Badalona) of the  Lacetani on the eastern coast of Spain (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6,19; CIL II 4606-4608; 4611). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Schulten 1, 1974, 305.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Carteia

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Located close to the mouth of the Guadarranque near Algeciras in Spain (near Cieza, province of Murcia), C. played an important role because of its Phoenician acculturation. During the Second Punic War, the Romans defeated the fleet of the Carthaginian  Adherbal [3] near C. in 206 BC. From the base of C., the Roman general  Laelius began the negotiations which were to lead to the surrender of  Gades (Liv. 28,30,3). In 171 BC, C. became a colonia Latina libertorum, the first outside Italy. The town remained loyal to Rome throughout, e.g. in the war against V…

Contrebia

(204 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘communal dwelling’ [1. 1109]). Fortress retreat of the Celtiberian  Lusones [1. 136]. Its location cannot be accurately established; probably not identical with today's Daroca, C. was nevertheless nearby, in the Hiloca valley south-west of Zaragoza ([1. 136; 2. 212]; see also the conjectures in [4. 247]). Epigraphical evidence is almost entirely lacking (only CIL II 4935?), but, on the other hand, coins have been found with Iberian legends [5. 93]. C. is mentioned fairly often in the context of the Celtiberian wars (181 BC: Liv. 40,33; App. Ib. 42 [ Co…

Baetis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern river Guadalquivir. Its ancient course was the same as today, but originally, its delta had four branches (Avien. 288ff.), and two in the Augustan period (Str. 3,1,9; 2,11); nowadays, it discharges into the Atlantic from a single course; the silted branches of the delta can still be detected. Its high water levels seem to have remained unchanged: large seagoing vessels sailed upriver to Hispalis, small ones to Ilipa, and river barges to Corduba (Str. 3,2,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Casal, El Guadalquivir, 1975 A. Ruiz Rodriguez, M. Molinos…

Osca

(214 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the Ilergetes (Itin. Anton. 391,5; 451,5; Ptol. 2,6,68: in the lands of the Ilergetes, Plin. HN 3,24: of the Suessetani; [1]) on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, today's Huesca. First mentioned in the ovatio celebrated by Helvius [I 2] in 195 BC after the victory over the Celtiberi near Illiturgis on the Baetis; on that occasion, he brought 119439 coins made of argentum Oscense ('silver from O.') to Aerarium (Liv. 34,10,4). In 180 BC, Fulvius [I 12], too, triumphed over the Celtiberi and brought home 173200 coins from O. in his triu…

Cessetani

(97 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe [2. 1032]. Within its territory was the town of Cissa, which is mentioned for 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,5; Liv. 21,60,7 [1. 57, 60]; appearing as Ces(s)e on many Iberian coins [3. 83f. cf. 65-78]). Its most likely site was north of the Iberus near Tarraco. Undoubtedly, the C. gave their name to the regio Cessetania (Plin. HN 3,21; for comment on the variation of Kossetanio: Ptol. 2,6,17); [4. 1995]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935 2 Holder 1 3 A. Vives, La Moneda Hispánica 2, 1924 4 E. Hübner, s.v. C., R…

Contestani(a)

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Area and tribe between Cartagena and Júcar in the province of Murcia and Valencia; the name appears to be Celtic [1. 1107]. C. is mentioned in the context of the Sertorius war (Liv. fr. bk. 91), also in Plin. HN 3,19f.; Ptol. 2,6,14,61; see also [2. 131; 3. 222]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955 3 Id.., Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 6, 1952. L. Conesa, Contestania ibérica, 1972 Tovar 3, 31.

Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …

Celtiberi

(325 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] It used to be the accepted view that C. were ‘Iberian Celts’, i.e. Celts who had migrated into Iberian lands (first in Str. 3,4,5). A. Schulten, by contrast, postulated that they were ‘Celtic Iberians’, i.e. Iberians who had advanced from the east coast into Celtic areas. The C. inhabited a large part of the central Spanish plateau (Meseta). They never formed a political unit; of significance in this context is the fact that they had no collective name for referring to themselves.…

Termes

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Τέρμες/ Térmes). City in the territory of the Celtiberic Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Flor. Epit. 2,19,9; Ptol. 2,6,56), at modern Tiermes (Montejo de Liceras). With Numantia a focus of the Celtiberic Wars in 154-133 BC. T. also asserted itself after the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and was not occupied until 98 BC by T. Didius [I 4] (App. Ib. 431). The latter caused the inhabitants of T. to resettle in the Sobre valley. Remains of a Celtiberic settlement on sandstone rocks survive: rock habitations, rock walls, necropolis in Carratiermes (6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.

Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its principal location (Ptol. 2,6,13; 60). After his conquest of Carthago Nova in AD 207, P.  Scipio sent his brother L. to the B., where the latter defeated the Carthaginian  Mago (Liv. 28,1f.; Zon. 9,8,8). On the role of the B. in the revolt of  Viriatus, cf. App. Ib. 66. There is evidence for Bastetania still for the time of the West Goths, when Leovigild fought the Byzantines there (Chron. min. 2,212,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3,26f.

Consabura

(75 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Remains of this probably Celtic town [1. 1105] near Consuegra south of Toledo (CIL II p. 431; [3. 177]). Frontin. Str. 4,5,19 mentions C. in the context of the war with Sertorius in 78 BC. Other attestations: Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57; It. Ant. 446,6; Geogr. Rav. 313,15; CIL II 2,2166; 4211. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1  E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV I, 889 3 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937. Tovar 3, 222-224.

Arevaci

(62 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberians, who settled in Old Castile (Soria province), first mentioned in conjunction with the Numantine War (cf. Pol. 35,2); under the leadership of  Viriatus and  Sertorius, they put up stubborn resistance to the Romans. In imperial times, they provided cavalry units for the Roman army (CIL XVI 26 ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography W. Schüle, Die Meseta-Kulturen der iberischen Halbinsel, 1969.

Aeso

(66 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the  Lacetani, modern Isona, part of the conventus Tarraconensis (Plin. HN 3,23) and enrolled in the tribus Quirina, minted coins with the Iberian legend E-S-O [1. II,63; MLI, 32]. An episcopus ecclesiae Aesonensis took part in the sixth Council of Toledo (Conc. 6; Fuentes Históricas Aragonenses 9,294). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives y Escudero, La moneda hispánica, 1926. Tovar 3, 1989, 451.

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 W. V. Harris, Roman Expansion in the West III. Spain, in: CAH 8, 21989, 118-142. Schulten, Landeskunde 2, 314 f.  TIR K 3…

Lacobriga

(186 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were three towns of this Celtic [1] name. [German version] [1] Town in the north of Palantia In the territory of the Vaccaei, north of Palantia in northern Spain ([2]; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,49; It. Ant. 395,1; 449,3; 454,1). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Lusitanian town near modern Lagos Lusitanian town (Plut. Sertorius 13,7; Ptol. 2,5,5; Mela 3,7). Many remains on the Monte de Figuerola near modern Lagos in the Algarve [3], possibly identical to the diocese Laniobrensis ecclesia, mentioned often in ecclesiastical documents [2. 134; 4; 5; 6]. Barceló, Pedro (Po…

Damania

(117 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (name on Iberian coins [1. no. 86]: dmaniu) was an oppidum stipendiarium of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24) and part of the tribe of the Sedetani or Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62); Hübner [2] presumes here that there were two different tribes while Schulten sees both as one (cf. [3. 229]). In spite of inscriptions (CIL II 2960; 3990; 4249) its position cannot be ascertained more exactly. Spanish local researchers have identified it as modern Mediana (province of Zaragoza), others as Domeño (province of Valencia) [4. 859]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography…
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