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Dialogue of the Dead

(1,853 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] A. Creation of the Genre (CT) “How much would a person possibly give (...) for questioning him who led the great army against Troy, or  Odysseus, or Sisyphus, or  the countless other men and women that could be named and for the eternal bliss of talking to them, of being with them and  asking them questions?” (Pl. Ap. 41b-c). Socrates' vision of continuing the 'Socratic' dialogues in the underworld where he imagines a temporarily and spatially unlimited dialogue …

Lupercus

(203 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Λούπερκος; Loúperkos). Grammarian from Berytus who lived around the reign of Emperor Claudius Gothicus (AD 268-270). Of his works nothing is extant; the Suda (Λ 691) mentions eight titles, among which are works on the use of particles and accents (Περὶ τοῦ ἄν, Περὶ τοῦ ταώς), an investigation on the quantity of the iota in καρίς (Περὶ τῆς καρίδος) and a work regarding Pl. Phd. 118a (Περὶ τοῦ παρὰ Πλάτωνι ἀλεκτρυόνος). Further writings were the Ἀττικαὶ λέξεις, a Κτίσις τοῦ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ Ἀρσινοήτου (νομοῦ) [1] and a Τέχνη γραμματική, am…

Neoteles

(130 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Νεοτέλης; Neotélēs). Greek grammarian, probably a pupil of Aristarchus [4] [1. 78]. The author of a commentary on the Iliad (fragments in the Homeric scholia): Didymus [1] mentions him in connection with Hom. Il. 24,110, and Nicanor [10] of Cyrene tells us of N.'s comment on the Teucer scene (Hom. Il. 8,325) in which he observes that Teucer strung his bow in the manner of the Scythians [2. 31f.]. Based on this passage, Porphyrius (1,123,11ff. Sch.) attributed to N. an entire work (ὅλην βίβλον/ hólēn bíblon) on archery (Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τοὺς ἥρωας τοξείας/ Perì tês katà toù…

Moeris

(396 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Indian prince of the Patalii Indian prince of the Patalii at the mouth of the Indus, a companion of Alexander [4] (Curt. 9,8,28). The name M. is said to have been derived from Maurya [1. 25-27], but this is extremely unlikely. India Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan, 1975, 25-27. [German version] [2] Grammarian and lexicographer, 2nd/3rd cent.? (Μοῖρις; Moîris). Greek grammarian and lexicographer of the late 2nd or early 3rd cent. AD. Author of an alphabetically ordere…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Pyres

(114 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρης/ Pýrēs, Πύρρος/ Pýrros) from Miletus. According to Ath. 14,620e, he, Alexander [21] Aetolus and Alexas were precursors to Sotades and co-founders of ionicology or cinaedology ([1]; Suda Σ 871, s. v. Σωτάδης). In this type of solomimetic songs the performer recited what were known as  Ἰωνικὰ ποιήματα/ Iōnikà poiḗmata ('Ionic poems'), by which we have to imagine a connection between Ionic form and lascivious content. Of P.' works nothing survives, and we have no certainty on the dating (late 4th/early 3rd century BC). It ma…

Mythology

(11,788 words)

Author(s): Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) I. Literature (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In the Encyclopédie of the French Enlightenment (1751-1780) we read in the entry 'mythology' ( mythologie, fable): "The study of mythology is indispensable for painters, sculptors and particularly for poets. Mythology is the foundation of their works and from it they draw their principal ornaments (...). Our theatre plays and operas, all genres of literature constantly make allusions to mythology; the engravings, paintings and stat…

Stesimbrotus

(584 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Στησίμβροτος; Stēsímbrotos) from Thasus, 5th cent. BC rhapsode and exegete of Homer (Homerus); fragments of three of his writings survive (FGrH 107). S. is considered one of the first allegorists and co-founder of the genre of biography. Niceratus [1] (Xen. Symp. 3,6) and Antimachus [3] (Suda s.v. Ἀντίμαχος) were his pupils. S. acquired significance through is allegorical interpretations of Homer; in Pl. Ion 530c-d he is invoked, alongside the allegorist Metrodorus of Lampsacus, a…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Salustius

(665 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος; Saloústios). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian (perhaps 4th/5th cents. AD [3. 31]); author of a commentary on Callimachus' [3] Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), the use of which can still be detected in the Suda [4. 13-18]. The attribution of an edition of the hymns of Callimachus [5. 78] and of the hypothesis to Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus in Colonus [6. 17-20] is probable. Likely identical to the S. mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ἄζιλις. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography Editions: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, 1990 2 R. P…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Obelus

(132 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (ὀβελός/ obelós). Text-critical sign of Alexandrian philology in the shape of a line (- -) in the left margin [2. 204]. Its use goes back to Zenodotus of Ephesus [3. 9f.]. The obelus - originating in the textual criticism of Homer - was used primarily for marking poetic passages that were regarded as inauthentic or corrupted [4. 115; 5. 9]. In connection with the asterískos the obelus marks a versus iteratus (‘repeated verse’) regarded as interpolated. Correction marks; Critical marks; Emendation of texts; Text, corruption of the Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliogr…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Protos heuretes

(768 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (πρῶτος εὑρετής/ prôtos heuretḗs, Lat. primus inventor). Term widely used as a topos from the 5th cent. BC on for one or more 'inventors' ( heuretḗs, pl. heuretaí) of particular objects or techniques, considered, by the connection of heurḗmata ('inventions') with his name , as their first ( prôtos) originator. The earliest witness to this usage can be found in the 7th-6th cent. BC Phoronis (fr. 2 Bernabé): οἳ πρῶτοι τέχνην πολυμήτιος Ἡφαίστοιο εὗρον ( hoì prôtoi téchn ēn polymḗtios Hēphaístoio heûron ("they <the Idaean Dactyls> were the first to invent the art…

Tyrannion

(277 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τυραννίων/ Tyranníōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. BC T. of Amisus, Greek grammarian of the 1st cent. BC (d. c. 25 BC). After training with Hestiaeus and Dionysius [17] Thrax, he probably worked at Rome from c. 68 BC [1. 29], where he came into contact with Caesar, Atticus and Cicero [2. 94]. Among his pupils was Strabo. T., with other grammarians (e.g. Tryphon [3]), marked the beginnings of normative grammar [3. 27]. On his role in the establishment of the grammatical quadripartite model, s. [4. 31-32]. Of …

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Theodoretus

(442 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Θεοδώρητος; Theodṓrētos). [German version] [1] Bishop of Cyrrhus, 1st half of the 5th cent. Bishop of Cyrrhus (born in c. 393, bishop in 423, died in c. 466). T. received a solid classical education in the monastic milieu of Antioch [1]. A devoted pastor in his diocese, he fought against heretics (Heresy) and worked towards improving living conditions. In the Christological conflict between Cyrillus [2] of Alexandria and Nestorius he joined the latter without reservations. He was dismissed by the Synod of Ephesus in 449…

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…
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