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Eastern Europe, Book Production in

(8,452 words)

Author(s): Baumgarten, Jean | Cohen, Nathan
1. ManuscriptsForthcoming.2. Printed Books2.1. Until c. 1750Jews in Poland and the History of the Jewish bookFrom the Middle Ages onward, Jews began to move eastward to escape persecution, discrimination, and expulsion from Western Europe. They settled in Bohemia, Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and these regions became new centers of Jewish life. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Jewish population of the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was between 10,000 and 30,000. By the middle of the 18th c…
Date: 2023-11-20

France, Book Production in

(10,174 words)

Author(s): Olszowy-Schlanger, Judith | Nahon, Peter | Baumgarten, Jean | Dreyfuss, Mathias
1. Manuscripts1.1. MedievalForthcoming.Judith Olszowy-Schlanger1.2. Post-MedievalIntroductionThe edict of expulsion of the Jews proclaimed in 1394 by King Charles VI, forbade the settlement of Jews in France. The edict remained officially in force until the French Revolution (1789). Nevertheless, as early as the 16th century, Judaism was being practiced within the territory that makes up modern France by three distinct cultural entities (Blumenkranz 1972):1The Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Gascony, descendants of former “New Christians” from the Iberian …
Date: 2023-11-20