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(1,545 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Zürcher, Markus Daniel | Baumgartner, Alois
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term solidarity (from neo-Lat. solidaritas, derived from solidus, “solid, firm”; Fr. solidarité) denotes the cohesiveness of a “group,” ultimately society, expressed in a generally ethical sense of cohesion. In the history of the term, originally borrowed from legal usage (Wildt, Baumgartner), É. Durkheim (1893) distinguishes the “organic solidarity” of a differentiated modern society from the “mechanical solidarity” of so-called primitive societies, in which the individ…

Katholische Arbeitnehmerbewegung

(379 words)

Author(s): Baumgartner, Alois
[German Version] The roots of the Catholic Employees' Movement (Katholische Arbeitnehmerbewegung, KAB) go back to the mid-19th century denominational and charitable associations organized for the support of workers. The first was founded in Regensburg in 1849, and an organization for female employees was founded in Mönchengladbach in 1868. These associations never achieved the importance of the journeymen's organizations established in the same period by A. Kolping. With the support of the bishop …