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Ambāla

(606 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, town in East Pand̲j̲āb, India, situated 30° 21′ N and 76° 52′ E, 125 miles from Delhi on the way to Sirhind. The town consists of the old town and the cantonments, four miles away. The population in 1951 was 146,728. Though the neighbourhood of Ambāla played an important role in early Indian history, the town itself is first mentioned in the Safar-nāma-i Ḳāḍī Taḳī Muttaḳī (Bid̲j̲nawr 1909, 2 ff.), according to which it was occupied by the Muslims at the time of the second invasion of India by Muʿizz al-Dīn b. Sām in 587/1192. Iltutmis̲h̲ (608-33/1211-36) is reported to have appointed a ḳāḍī

D̲j̲aypur

(737 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, formerly a princely state in India, now a part of the Indian Union, lying between 25° 41′ and 28° 34′ N. and 74° 13′ E., with an area of 15,579 sq. miles and a population of 1,650,000 in 1951. The ruling dynasty claimed descent from a son of Rāma, the legendary king of Ayōdhyā and the hero of the Sanskrit epic Rāmāyaṇa by Valmīki, in spite of the fact that the ex-ruler was also the head of the Kačhwāha clan of Rād̲j̲pūts. The fi…

Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh Arg̲h̲ūn

(967 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
(also known as Mīrza S̲h̲āh Ḥasan ) b. S̲h̲āh Bēg Arg̲h̲ūn, the founder of the Arg̲h̲ūn dynasty of Sind, was born in 896/1490 most probably at Ḳandahār which was then held by his father. On Bābur’s occupation of Ḳandahār in 913/1507 S̲h̲āh Bēg came to Sind and occupied the adjoining territories of S̲h̲āl and Sīwī (modern Sibī). In 921/1515 Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh fell out with his father and joined the service of Bābur, with whom he remained for two years. The domestic quarrel having been …

Islāmābād

(282 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the name given by the emperor Awrangzīb [ q.v.] to several towns in India, for reasons not precisely known. All these towns were already included in the Mug̲h̲al territories and were not freshly conquered from the Hindus to provide an excuse for their rechristening. Of these Čittāgong [ q.v.], now in E. Pakistan, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, is still known occasionally in religious circles as Islāmābād, the official name remaining the original Čittāgong. Mathurā, on the river Yamunā, known for its numerous temples and Hindu shrines, was…

Bharatpūr

(470 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, formerly a princely State in India, now forming a part of Rād̲j̲astʿhān, lying between 26° 43′ and 27° 50′ N. and 76° 53′ and 77° 46′ E. with an area of 1,982 sq. miles. The chief city is Bharatpūr, situated in 27° 13′ N. and 77° 30′ E., 34 miles from Agra, with a population of 37,321 in 1951. Paharsar, 14 miles from Bharatpūr, was first conquered in the 5th/11th century by the troops of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, under the Sayyid brothers, D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn and ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, who claimed descent from Imām D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ, in about 3 hours, as the local tradition goes, whence the place derives its name pahar…

Iʿtiḳād Ḵh̲ān

(314 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a Kas̲h̲mīrī of obscure origin, whose name was Muḥammad Murād, was originally in the service of Bahādur S̲h̲āh I ( reg . 1119/1707-1124/1712), enjoying a rank of 1,000 and the title of Wakālat Ḵh̲ān. On the accession to the throne of the ill-starred Farruk̲h̲siyar [ q.v.] in 1125/1713 his name was included among those listed for execution but on the intercession of the (Bārha) Sayyid brothers, ʿAbd Allāh Ḵh̲ān and Ḥusayn ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, known as king-makers ( Bāds̲h̲āh-gar ), he was spared, promoted to a high office, appointed as basāwal (harbinger) of the army, a…

Aẓfarī

(531 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, muḥammad ẓahīr al-dīn mīrzā ʿalī bak̲h̲t bahādur gūrgānī , a lineal descendant of Awrangzīb and a grandson of ʿIffat Ārāʾ Begum (daughter of Muḥammad Muʿizz al-Dīn Pāds̲h̲āh (i.e. Ḏj̲ahāndār S̲h̲āh), son of S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam (Bahādur S̲h̲āh I), was born in the Red Fort at Delhi in 1172/1758 and educated within the fort. Like other princes of the line of Tīmūr, Aẓfarī was in receipt of an allowance from the East India Company. Aẓfarī decided in 1202/1789 to escape from the fort. Passing…

Dilāwar K̲h̲ān

(622 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, founder of the kingdom of Mālwa [ q.v.], whose real name was Ḥasan (Firis̲h̲ta, Nawalkishore ed., ii, 234); or Ḥusayn (Firis̲h̲ta, Briggs’s tr., iv, 170; so also Yazdani, op. cit. below); or ʿAmīd S̲h̲ah Dāwūd ( Tūzuk-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī . tr. Rogers and Beveridge, ii, 407, based on the inscriptions of the D̲j̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id (= Lāt́ masd̲j̲id) in Dhār, cf. Zafar Hasan, Inscriptions of Dhār and Mānḍū , in EIM, 1909-10, 11-2 and Plates III and IV). He was believed to be a lineal descendant of ¶ Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn G̲h̲ūrī, and this belie…

Ḥāfiẓābād

(232 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, headquarters of a taḥṣīl of the same name in the Gūd̲j̲rāńwāla [ q.v.] district of West ¶ Pakistan, lying between 31° 45′ and 32° 20′ N. and 73° 10′ and 73° 50′ E. on the east bank of the river Čenāb, with an area of 894 sq. miles. It is 33 miles by road from Gūd̲j̲rāńwāla with a population (1961) of 34,576. It is an ancient town and was of considerable importance during Mug̲h̲al times, as it finds mention in the Āʾīn-i Akbarī , where it is described as the seat of a maḥāll . Its importance declined with the rise of Gūd̲j̲rāńwāla, which lies on the main rail-road t…

Burhānpūr

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, town in Madhyā Pradēs̲h̲ (India) situated in 21° 18′ N. and 76° 14′ E., along the north bank of the Tāptī, with bathing-steps ( ghāts ) on the river-side and a solid masonry wall, pierced by a number of massive gates and wickets, on all the other sides. This wall was constructed by Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf D̲j̲āh I [ q.v.] in 1141/1728, during his governorship of Burhānpūr. The population in 1951 was 70,066. While the walled town occupies an area of 2½ sq. miles, numerous remains outside show that the suburbs, which now comprise ʿĀdilpūra, must have been very extensive. This town, which was of grea…

Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān

(513 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a favourite eunuch, confidant and personal attendant of Awrangzīb [ q.v.] who entered his service in 1065/1654 while the latter was still a prince. In 1080/1669 he was appointed Dārōg̲hā-i Ḵh̲awāṣṣān . He died after a short illness at Aḥmadnagar on 15 Rabīʿ I, 1096/168 5 after faithfully serving Awrangzīb for 30 years. His death was personally mourned by the Emperor who led the funeral prayers and carried the bier for some paces. His dead body wa brought to Delhi where he was buried in a tomb that he had built for himself in…

Bōgrā

(352 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, town and head-quarters of the district of the same name in East Pakistan, situated in 24° 51′ N. and 89° 23′ E. on the west bank of the Karātōyā. Population, (1951) was 12,80,581 for the district and 25,303 for the town. The town is predominantly ¶ Muslim; even before the partition of the sub-continent in 1947 it had the largest number of Muslims in the whole of Bengal. They are mostly couverts from the Kōč or Rād̲j̲bansīs of the northern areas although there are some Pathāns and Sayyids also. The district and the town are both liable to …

D̲j̲ahāngīr

(2,354 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the fourth Mug̲h̲al emperor of India in the line of Bābur [ q.v.], the first surviving child of Akbar, others born earlier having all died in infancy, was born on 17 Rabīʿ I 977/31 August 1569 of a Rād̲j̲pūt queen, called Miryam al-Zamānī, at (Fatḥpur) Sīkrī, near Āgrā, in the hermitage of a recluse S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Salīm Čis̲h̲tī, to whose intercession the birth of a son was attributed. The young prince was named Salīm after the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ but Akbar always called him S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ū Bābā, scrupulously avoiding the …

Farīdkōt́́

(291 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, formerly a small feudatory princely state in the Pand̲j̲āb, now merged with the Fīrūzpur Division of the Indian Pand̲j̲āb, and lying between 30° 13′ and 30° 50′ N. and 74° 31′ and 75° 5′ E. with an area of 642 sq. miles. Both the State and the principal town of the same name are unimportant. The town, lying in 30° 40′ N. and 74° 49′ E., 20 miles south of Fīrūzpur [ q.v.], has a fort built by Rād̲j̲a Mokulsī, a native Rād̲j̲pūt chief, in the time of Farīd al-Dīn Gand̲j̲-S̲h̲akar [ q.v.], popularly known as Bāwā (Bābā) Farīd, after whom the fort was named Farīdkōt́ ( kōt́ = fort)…

Ḳāniʿ

(393 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
mir ʿalī s̲h̲er , historian of Sind, son of ʿIzzat Allāh al-Ḥusaynī al-S̲h̲īrāzī, was born in T́hat́t́a, the capital of Sind in the Mug̲h̲al and pre-Mug̲h̲al period, in 1440/1727 and died there in 1203/1788. His grave still exists on the nearby Maklī hills. He received his education from local scholars, some of whom are mentioned in his Maḳālāt-al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Karachi 1957, 114, 150, 339, 359, 817). In 1175/1761 he was commissioned by the Kalhōfa ruler of Sind, G̲h̲ulām S̲h̲āh ʿAbbāsī (1170-86/1757-72), to write a Persian history of the ruling dynasty on the lines of the S̲h̲āhnāma

(Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī) Imdād Allāh

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
al-Muhād̲j̲ir al-Hindī al-Makkī b. Muḥammad Amīn al-Fārūḳī , the spiritual guide and preceptor of a number of leading religious personalities of India (including Muḥammad Ḳāsim al-Nānawtawī, founder of the Dār al-ʿUlūm at Deōband [ q.v.], Ras̲h̲īd Aḥmad al-Anṣārī of Gańgōh (d. 1323/1905), a well-known muḥaddit̲h̲ , faḳīh , divine and scholar of his days and As̲h̲raf ʿAlī Thānawī [ q.v.]), was born at Nānawta (dist. Sahāranpūr, India) in 1231/1815. A ḥāfiẓ of the Ḳurʾān, he was moderately well educated in Persian, Arabic grammar and syntax and…

Ismāʿīl S̲h̲ahīd

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, Muḥammad , the only son of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-G̲h̲ānī, youngest son of S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh al-Dihlawī [ q.v.], was born at Phulat (dist. Muẓaffarnagar, India) on 12 Rabīʿ II 1193/29 April 1779. His father having died in Rad̲j̲ab 1203/April 1789, when he was only ten years old, he was adopted by his uncle S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [ q.v.], the first Urdu translator of the Ḳurʾān, who had no male issue and who later married his grand-daughter Kult̲h̲ūm to him. Educated by ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, he also drew upon the vast learning of his uncles S̲h̲āh Rafīʿ al-Dīn, anothe…

Ḏj̲āt́́

(1,567 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
the central Indo-Aryan (Hindī and Urdū) form corresponding to the north-west Indo-Aryan (Pand̲j̲ābī, Lahndā) D̲j̲aťť, a tribe of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent found particularly in the Pand̲j̲āb, Sind, Rād̲j̲āsthān and western Uttar Pradēs̲h̲. The name is of post-Sanskritic Indian origin (Middle Indo-Aryan * d̲j̲at́t́a ), and the form with short vowel is employed by the Persian translator of the Čač-nāma (compiled 613/1216), the author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sind ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Maʿṣūmī ) and S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh al-Dihlawī [ q.v.] in his Persian letters. For the Arabicized form Zuṭṭ [ q.…

al-Banūrī

(848 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, muʿizz al-din abū ʿabd allāh ādam b. s. ismāʿīl , one of the premier Ḵh̲ulafāʾ of Aḥmad Sirhindī [ q.v.], was a native of Banūr [ q.v.]. He claimed descent from Imām Mūsā al-Kāẓim [ q.v.], but it was disputed on the ground that his grandmother belonged to the Mashwānī tribe of the Afg̲h̲āns and he too lived and dressed after the fashion of the Afg̲h̲āns. His nasab was again questioned when in 1052/1642 he was in Lahore accompanied by 10,000 of his disciples, mostly Afg̲h̲āns, by ʿAllāmī Saʿd Allāh Ḵh̲ān Chinyōtī, the chief Minister of Shāhd̲j̲ahān, and by ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm al-Siyālkōtī [ q.v.], who …

Ḥaydarābād

(912 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
(Sind), a town in the former province of Sind (West Pakistan) situated between 25° 23′ N. and 68° 20′ E. and covering an area of 36 sq. miles, is the third largest city in West Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore, pop. (1961) 434,537 (of which the Muslims numbered 422,786). Built on the site of the ancient Nīrūńkot́, which fell to the arms of Muḥammad b. Ḳāsim al-T̲h̲akafī at the time of the first Muslim conquest of Sind in the 2nd/8th century, the town …
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