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(998 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | de Souza, Philip (Twickenham)
[German version] I. General Cloven-hoofed animal of the Old World from the hot deserts and steppes of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula ( Camelus dromedarius, one-humped) and the cold deserts of South-West and Central Asia ( Camelus bactrianus, two-humped): various anatomical and physiological adaptations to extreme climates. The camel descends from a North American fossil type ( Protolabis) that migrated to Eurasia c. three million years ago. Wild camels were common from Central Asia to North Africa (bone finds). Fertile cross-breedings between the dromeda…

Römisch-Germanische Kommission

(2,364 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | Junker, Klaus | Becker, Katharina
Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) Junker, Klaus [German version] A. Founding and History to 1933 (CT) The Römisch-Germanische Kommission (RGK) is a branch establishment of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI) founded in 1902. Its inception occurred in a time of intensive efforts to strengthen the research of mainly regional institutions and societies in the areas of German prehistory and the period of the Roman presence on German soil by creating central, government-controlled establishments. Strong impulses for creating the RGK came from the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmus…

Breeding, of small domestic animals

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Fowl breeding is of particular significance: domestic chickens (Gallus gallus f. domestica) were probably kept as early as about 8,000 years ago in China, certainly however in the Harappa culture in the Indus Valley (3rd millennium BC; bone finds, statuettes, vase paintings, seal depictions). In the 1st millennium BC it spread to the Mediterranean via Asia Minor.  Domestication of the greylag goose (Anser anser) can be established in Egypt in the 3rd millennium BC; perhaps geese were kept at an early…


(1,021 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Early History In the Early Holocene, the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, was common from central China to the Syrian Mediterranean coast. Written sources, representations, and, in particular, bones found in the excavations of settlements, indicate that some survived along the Syrian rivers into the 7th/8th cents. BC. Today their habitat is restricted to parts of southern Asia. Because of their physical strength and intelligence, Asian elephants were trained as working animals without act…