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al-Muḳaṭṭam

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
, the eocene limestone plateau that borders the city of Cairo to the east, between Ṭurā near the Nile in the south and al-D̲j̲abal al-Aḥmar in the north, the Red Mountain which is near the modern quarter of ʿAbbāsiyya. In Islamic tradition, the Muḳaṭṭam is considered as a sacred mountain. Before Islam, in Christian tradition, al-Muḳaṭṭam, ¶ like all the desert mountains of Egypt, was associated with monasteries, oratories and caves for meditation and seclusion. Abū Ṣāliḥ the Armenian, who wrote in the early 7th/13th century, also designates it, perha…

Rabʿ

(967 words)

Author(s): Behrens Abouseif, Doris
(a., pl. ribāʿ ) originally means home, domicile, home town or home country; the verb rabaʿa means “to dwell”. In the context of Cairene architecture, it designates a type of urban dwelling which is a rental multi-unit building founded for investment. It can also refer to the living quarters belonging to a religious institution. In his description of Cairo in the 5th/11th century, Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw [ q.v.] mentions tenant buildings that sheltered as many as 350 dwellers, and ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Bag̲h̲dādī (d. 629/1231-2) writes about rabʿs in Cairo which included 50 living units ( bayt ) ( al-…

Cups and Vessels

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
Hollow or concave receptacles for conveying food and drink. As with qurʾānic religious terminology, some of the Qurʾān's cultural vocabulary, such as the various lexemes for cups and vessels, are of non-Arabic origin (see foreign vocabulary ). As noted by Arthur Jeffery and others who have investigated the origins of foreign words in the Qurʾān, the borrowings came ¶ from other Semitic languages, such as Aramaic, Nabatean, Syriac, Ethiopian, as well as from Persian and Greek. Eleonore Haeuptner's study on material culture in the Qurʾān deals with the relationship between…

Instruments

(2,345 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
Devices used by humans to assist them with their daily routines. There is not much literature dealing with material culture in the Qurʾān (see material culture and the qurʾān ). Arthur Jeffery (For. vocab.) and others who investigated the origins of foreign words in the Qurʾān, note that many of the cultural terms were of ¶ non-Arabic origin (see foreign vocabulary ). The borrowings for qurʾānic cultural (and religious) terminology came from other Semitic languages, such as Aramaic, Nabatean, Syriac, and Ethiopic, as well as from Persian and Greek. The studies dealing with foreign …

al-Muḳaṭṭam

(1,930 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
, plateau calcaire éocène qui borde la ville du Caire à l’Est, entre Ṭurā, près du Nil au Sud et, au Nord, al-Ḏj̲abal al-Aḥmar la «Montagne Rouge» qui se trouve près du quartier moderne de ʿAbbāsiyya. Dans la tradition islamique, le Muḳaṭṭam est considéré comme une montagne sacrée. Avant l’Islam, dans la tradition chrétienne, al-Muḳaṭṭam, comme toutes les montagnes désertiques d’Égypte, évoquait des monastères, des oratoires et autres cavernes propices à la méditation et à la retraite. L’Arménien Abū Ṣāliḥ, qui écrivait au début du VIIe/XIIIe siècle, le qualifie également de sac…

Rabʿ

(945 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a., pl, ribāʿ), à l’origine, «foyer, domicile, ville ou pays de résidence»; le verbe rabaʿa signifie «habiter». Dans le contexte de l’architecture du Caire, ¶ le mot désigne un type d’habitation urbaine consistant en un immeuble de rapport de plusieurs appartements construit pour investir. Il peut aussi s’appliquer aux locaux de séjour appartenant à une institution religieuse. Dans sa description du Caire au Ve/XIe siècle, Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw [ q.v.] mentionne des immeubles locatifs abritant jusqu’à 350 personnes, et ʿAbd al-Lafīf al-Bag̲h̲dādī (m. 629/1231-2) parle de rabʿs au Ca…

Muḳarnas

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a.), type de décoration spécifique de l’architecture islamique sur toute l’étendue des régions centrales et orientales du monde musulman; sur son pendant dans l’Occident musulman, voir Muḳarbaṣ. Le mot provient du grec κορωνίΣ; (latin coronis, fr. corniche, angl. comice); aucun dictionnaire arabe ne lui donne d’explication en relation avec sa fonction dans l’architecture islamique. Il s’agit donc d’un terme populaire, ou mieux encore d’un terme technique de maçon. La décoration de muḳarnas se compose d’une série de niches intégrées dans un cadre architectural, ass…

Aesthetics

(5,710 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
Aesthetics, that is, theory and concepts of beauty, can be analysed, with respect to classical Arab-Muslim culture, from many perspectives and with reference to a wide range of texts, including religious, philosophical, and belles-lettres from the classical period, alongside modern studies. The physical testimony of the visual arts and material culture also suggest underlying aesthetic values. Arab Muslims of the mediaeval world, like their European contemporaries, did not articulate abstract concepts of the visual arts, but instead they dealt with v…
Date: 2019-07-18

Muḳarnas

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a.), a type of decoration typical for Islamic architecture all over the central and eastern parts of the Muslim world; for its counterpart in the Muslim West, see muḳarbaṣ. The term derives from the Greek κορωνίσ (Latin coronis , Fr. corniche , Eng. cornice ), and has no explanation whatsoever in any of the Arabic dictionaries that could be associated with its function in Islamic architecture. It is therefore a popular term, or rather, a mason’s technical term. Muḳarnas decoration is composed of a series of niches embedded within an architectural fr…

Mas̲h̲rabiyya

(1,900 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris | Orazi, R.
(a. ) designates a technique of turned wood used to produce lattice-like panels, like those which were used in the past to adorn the windows in traditional domestic architecture. 1. In Egypt. The term derives from Arabic s̲h̲ariba “to drink”. The connection between the turned wood technique and drinking was established last century by E. W. Lane, who describes the mas̲h̲raba as a niche attached to such lattice wooden ¶ windows and used to keep the water jars cool and fresh for drinking. This interpretation is confirmed by waḳf [ q.v.] documents, which since the 10th/16th century refe…

Sabīl

(3,095 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a.), pi. subul , literally “way, road, path”, a word found frequently in the Ḳurʾān and in Islamic religious usage. 1. As a religious concept. Associated forms of the Arabic word are found in such Western Semitic languages as Hebrew and Aramaic, and also in Epigraphic South Arabian as s 1 bl (see Joan C. Biella, Dictionary of Old South Arabic , Sabaean dialect, Cambridge, Mass. 1982, 326). A. Jeffery, following F. Schwally, in ZDMG, liii (1899), 197, surmised that sabīl was a loanword in Ḳurʾānic usage, most likely taken from Syriac, where s̲h̲ebīlā has both the l…

Sabīl

(3,033 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E. | Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a.), pl. subul, littéralement «voie, route, chemin», terme d’occurrence fréquente dans le Ḳurʾān et dans l’usage religieux musulman. 1. Comme concept religieux. Des formes apparentées au mot arabe existent dans des langues sémitiques comme l’hébreu et l’araméen, ainsi qu’en sud-arabique épigraphique sous la forme slbl (voir Joan C. Biella, Dictionary of Old South Arabic, Sabaean dialect, Cambridge, Mass. 1982, 126). A. Jeffery, à la suite de F. Schwally, dans ZDMG, LIII (1899), 197, suggérait que sabīl était, dans son usage ḳurʾānique, très vraisemblablement emprunté …

Mamlūks

(17,883 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris | Contadini, Anna | Darley-Doran, R.
(iii) Art and Architecture (a) Architecture Within the history of Islamic art, the architecture of the Mamlūk period (648-922/1250-1517) occupies an intermediary position between what might be termed the early period predating the Mongol invasion and the later imperial arts of the Tīmūrids, Ṣafawids, Ottomans and Mug̲h̲als. Unlike its Tīmūrid counterpart, with which it is partly contemporary, Mamlūk architecture did not substantially impact on the later history of Islamic art once Egypt and Syria had …

Mamlūks

(19,287 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris | Contadini, Anna | Darley-Doran, R.
(III) Art et Architecture (a) Architecture Ḍans l’histoire de l’art musulman, l’architecture de la période mamlūke (648-922/1250-1517) occupe une place intermédiaire entre ce qu’on pourrait appeler l’époque ancienne qui précéda l’invasion mongole et, par la suite, les arts impériaux des Tīmūrides, des Ṣafavides, des Ottomans et des Moghols. A la différence de l’architecture tīmūride, avec laquelle elle est en partie contemporaine, celle des Mamlūks n’eut pas d’influence marquée sur l’histoire ultérieu…

Waḳf

(50,069 words)

Author(s): Peters,R. | Behrens-Abouseif, Doris | Powers, D.S. | Carmona, A. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), en Droit musulman, l’acte de fondation d’une institution charitable, d’où l’institution elle-même. Le synonyme, utilisé principalement par les juristes mālikites, est ḥabs, ḥubus ou ḥubs (souvent traduit en français par habous). L’essentiel, pour quiconque a l’intention d’accomplir une pieuse action, est qu’il ou elle déclare qu’une partie de ses biens immobiliers est désormais inaliénable ( ḥabs, taḥbīs) et qu’il ou elle désigne des personnes ou des services publics comme bénéficiaires de leurs revenus ( al-taṣadduḳ bi l-manfaʿa, tasbīl al-manfaʿa). Le S̲h̲īʿisme im…