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(408 words)

Author(s): Beintker, Michael
[German Version] or doctrine of the church (chapter “de ecclesia” in 16th and 17th-cent. dogmatics) refers to the subdivision of dogmatics which develops the concept of the church and clarifies the question of the nature, task, form, and structure of the church. A distinction can be made between a more implicit ecclesiology (pre-theoretical self-reflection of a church) and an exp…

Heppe, Heinrich

(307 words)

Author(s): Beintker, Michael
[German Version] (Mar 30, 1820, Kassel – Jul 25, 1879, Marburg), Dr.phil. in 1844 and Lic.theol. in Marburg in 1845. He officiated as parish administrator at the church of St. Martini in Kassel (1845) and as Privatdozent in Marburg (1849), where he was later appointed adjunct professor (1850), and finally full professor of theology (1864). Heppe lectured in systematic theology, church history, the history of dogmatics and theology, and education. He was an immensely productive and versatile author. In the numerous historical publi…

Barth, Karl

(1,846 words)

Author(s): Beintker, Michael
[German Version] (May 10, 1886, Basel – Dec 10, 1968, Basel) I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence I. Life Karl Barth, Reformed theologian (dogmatics), son of Fritz Barth, professor of church history and New Testament in Basel. – Barth studied theology in Bern, Berlin, Tübingen, and finally Marburg, where he was strongly influenced by W. Herrmann. In 1908/1909 he was editorial assistant of M. Rade in Marburg, helping with the publication of Christliche Welt. In 1909–1911, he served as an assistant pastor in Geneva, and in …


(4,111 words)

Author(s): Koester, Helmut | Beintker, Michael
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Genre – III. Dogmatics I. Terminology The Greek noun εὐαγγέλιον/ euangélion (usually translated “gospel”) first appears in Homer, where it means “a messenger's pay”; later it sometimes means “message.” The verb εὐαγγελίζεσθαι/ euangelízesthai (since Aristophanes) refers to the bringing of good news, for example, reports of victory. The idiom εὐαγγέλια θύειν / euangelia thýein means “offer thankofferings for good news.” Both the noun and the verb can also refer to bad news. The words are rare outside biblical and …

Judaism and Christianity

(5,219 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt | Lindemann, Andreas | Meyer, Michael A. | Beintker, Michael
[German Version] I. Problems of Terminology – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament and Primitive Christianity – IV. Early Church – V. Middle Ages to the Present – VI. The Church and Judaism Today I. Problems of Terminology The terminological distinction between Judaism and Christianity (Ἰουδαϊσμός – Χριστιανισμός) made its first appearance at the beginning of the 2nd century, initially in the Ignatian Epistles (Ign. Magn. 10.3; Phld. 6.1). It was a product of Christian usage, borrowed from the contrast between Judaism and Hellenism (Ἑλληνισμός) current in Jewish circles;…


(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…


(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …


(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…