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Abū Tās̲h̲ufīn I

(118 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Abī Ḥammū , fifth sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Proclaimed 23 Ḏj̲umādā I 718/23 July 1318 after the murder of his father Abū Ḥammū I, he exiled to Spain all those of his relatives who could claim the throne and thus freed his hands to lay siege to Constantine and Bid̲j̲āya (Bougie) and to make an attempt at extending his kingdom towards the east. The Ḥafṣids, however, allied themselves with the Marīnids and the Marīnid sultan Abu ’l-Ḥasan seized Abu …

Abū Ḥammū II

(218 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
Mūsā b. Abī YaʿḲūb Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yaḥya b. Yag̲h̲murāsan , king of the ʿAbd al-Wādīd dynasty. Born is Spain in 723/1323-4, he was brought up at the court of Tlemcen. After the victory of the Marinid army over his uncles Abū Saʿid and Abū T̲h̲ābit, in Ḏj̲umādā I 753/June 1352, he had to take refuge with the Ḥafṣid court of Tūnis. When the relations between the Ḥafṣids and Marīnīds deteriorated, he was put at the head of an army and reconquered Tlemcen, where he was proclaime…

Abū Ḥammu I

(153 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
Musa b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan , fourth king of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Proclaimed on 21 S̲h̲awwāl 707/15 April 1308, he had first to repair the damage caused by the siege of Tlemcen by the Marīnids; he then prepared the defence of his capital against external attacks and fortified it in the expectation of a new siege. In the exterior, he restored his authority over the Banū Tūd̲j̲īn and the Mag̲h̲rāwa and pushed as far as Bid̲j̲āya (Bougie) and Constantine, while…

Abū Tās̲h̲ufīn II

(147 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. Abī Ḥammū Mūsā , sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Born in Rabīʿ I 752/April-May 1351, he passed his youth in Nedroma. After the flight of Abū Ḥammū II to Tunis, the Marīnid sultan Abū. ʿInān sent him to Fez; he returned to Tlemcen only in 760/1359. In spite of his father’s concessions to him, his impatience to acceed to the throne drove him to attempts to get rid of Abū Ḥammū. But Abū Ḥammū, put into prison in Oran, escaped; and when sent on pilgrimage, returned trium…


(431 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
(a., masc. or fem.), a measure for grain "of the value of 4 mudd ( modius ) according to the custom of Medina" ( LʿA ; al-Ḵh̲wārazmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm , ed. Van Vloten, 14). If the cubic contents of the ṣāʿ , like that of the mudd, varied with town and district as far as commercial transactions were concerned, the value of the ṣāʿ was from the canonical point of view fixed in religious law by the Prophet in the year 2/623-4 when he laid down the ritual details of the orthodox feast of ʿīd al-fiṭr , which carried with it the compulsory giving of alms called zakāt al-fiṭr , the value of which in grain was one ṣāʿ…


(709 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
(Banū ʿAbd al-Wād). This name was at first given to a part of the great Berber tribe of the Zanāta and was afterwards extended to many other portions of the same tribe. The dynasty of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib, who took Tlemcen as their capital and whose kingdom lasted from 637 to 962 (1239—1554) was of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād family. During this period of 315 years, twenty-seven kings of this family (of whom two reigned together) ascended the throne of Tlemcen. These kings are also often called Banū Zaiyān, because one of their ancestors, the father of the first independent ¶ king of Tlemcen …

ʿAbd al-Wād

(326 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, an ancestor of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib (Tlemcen) [see ʿabdalwādides]. The following is the genealogy of ʿAbd al-Wād as given by Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲aldūn: „The origin of this name goes back to ʿAbd al-Wādī, so called from the ascetic life led by the ancestor of the ʿAbdalwādides. — He was a son of S̲h̲ad̲j̲īh…b. Muḍar b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān, according to the opinion given to us by Ibn Abi’l-Faiyāḍ and other authors“. Notwithstanding the slight value of this genealogy, it still shows that ʿAbd al-Wād …

Abū Tās̲h̲fīn I

(771 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, fifth sovereign of the dynasty of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād [see ʿabdalwādides] of Tlemcen. He was only 25 when he had his father Abū Ḥammū Mūsā I [q. v.] assassinated and seized the regal power. Abū Tās̲h̲fīn I was solemnly proclaimed king on the 23d Ḏj̲umādā I 718 (23d July 1318), and at the very commencement of his reign he exiled into Spain all those of his relations who might raise any pretention to the throne. His principal confident and prime minister was one of his freedmen, a renegade Christian, a Catalonian, who had taken the name of Hi…

Abū Madyan

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
S̲h̲uʿaib b. al-Husain al-Andalusī, a famous Andalusian mystic, was born at Cantillana (Ḳaṭniyāna), a village near Seville, died in 594 (1197-1198), and was buried at al-ʿUbbād near Tlemcen. His family was obscure and his parents were poor. From childhood Abū Madyan had to learn the Ḳorʿān by heart in his own country according to the custom which still exists; he learned also the weaver’s trade. Feeling a natural leaning toward study, he applied himself to it with ardor; and, attracted by the reputation of certain Mag̲h̲ri…

Abū Ḥammū Mūsā II

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. Abī Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yaḥyā b. Yag̲h̲mu-rāsan, king of Tlemcen of the dynasty of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād, born in Spain in 723 (1323-1324). He was the nephew of the two sovereigns Abū Saʿīd and Abū T̲h̲ābit, who had reigned together at Tlemcen after having restored the ʿAbd-alwādide throne. It was to Spain that the father of Abū Ḥammū was banished, with all the members of his family, by Abū Tās̲h̲fīn I [q. v.]. There doubtless he studied hard and acquired a taste for poetry, literature, art and magnificent feasts which he instituted in the court at Tlemcen. Abū Ḥammū’s father had…


(1,900 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. G̲h̲āniya, leader of the Almoravids who revolted against the Almohades. — The name of Banū G̲h̲āniya is given to all the descendants of the lady G̲h̲āniya, a relative of the great Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn, the founder of the Almoravid empire. G̲h̲āniya had married a certain ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Masūfī. The last of the Banū G̲h̲āniya are famous in the history of the Mag̲h̲rib and Spain for their struggle against the Almohades. But the best noted of all is the one to whom the present article refers. In the family of the Banū G̲h̲āniya, the members of which occupied high posts as governors ¶ in Spain and t…


(1,927 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
is the name of a Muslim dynasty. This word has been derived from the Arabic al-Murābiṭūn, a sort of warrior-monks inhabiting a ribāṭ or convent more or less fortified (see E. Doutté, Les Marabouts, extr. from the Revue de l’Hist. des Religions xl. and xli. p. 29 et seq.). Under the name of Almoravids we understand especially the royal dynasty founded by several branches of the large Sahara-tribe of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a, which, grouped under the authority of a religious leader, invaded and conquered the Mag̲h̲rib in the first half of the 5th (i. e. the middle of the 11th) century, afterwards breaki…


(818 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn (477—537 = 1084— 1142) was an Almoravid Sultan. He was one of the five sons of Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn, the founder of the Almoravid empire and dynasty; he was born at Ceuta (Sibta) in 477 (1084) and was the son of a Christian female slave named Ḳamra, not of Yūsuf’s wife, the famous Zainab, who died in 464 (1071). It is noteworthy that this son — who seems to have been the eldest of Yūsuf’s children — was born when his father was already 77 (lunar) years of age if the chronicles are to be believed, which are unanimous in giving the date of the father’s birth as 400 (1009). Being chosen by …

Abū Ḥammū Mūsā I

(511 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. Abī Saʿīd ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, fourth king of the dynasty of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād [see ʿabdalwāides], who reigned at Tlemcen and over Cen tral Mag̲h̲rib; he succeeded his brother Abū Zaiyān (d. April 1308), and was proclaimed king on the 21st S̲h̲awwāl 707 (15th April 1308). In his interior administration he rebuilt the ruins accumulated during the long siege of Tlemcen by the Marīnides, which had lasted from s̲h̲aʿbān 698 to Dhu ’l-Ḳa’da 706 (May 1299—May 1307); he had the ramparts of the town repaired and a moat dug all round the …

Abū Tās̲h̲fīn II

(821 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, king of Tlemcen, born at the beginning of Rabīʿ I 752 (April-May 1351) at Nédroma, where his father Abū Ḥammū Mūsā II was on a holiday with the saintly Abū ¶ Yaʿkūb, the grandfather of Abū Tās̲h̲fīn. The latter passed his youth at Nédroma with his grandfather, whilst his father Abū Ḥammū, fleeing from Tlemcen with the sultan, who had been defeated by the Marīnide Abū T̲h̲ābit, went to seek refuge in Tunis [see abū ḥammū ii]. The Marīnide Abū ʿInān, who did not hesitate to put the two uncles of Abū Ḥammū II to death, had consideration for the latter’s father, Abū Yaʿḳūb…

ʿAbd al-Muʾmin

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. ʿAlī, a Zanāta chief and founder of the Almohade dynasty, born towards the end of 487 = 1094 (other dates are also given) in a village, a day’s journey from Tlemcen. In accordance with a custom which exists to this day ʿAbd al-Muʾmin studied the Ḳorʾān in his village and afterwards went to Tlemcen to complete his studies. The chroniclers vie with one another in praising his physical and moral qualities and the height of his intelligence. His attractive appearance, his open countenance, the broadness of his views and the width of his judgment immediat…

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(846 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
al-Ras̲h̲īd, ninth Al-mohade emperor, son of and successor to Abu’l-ʿAlaʾ Idrīs (al-Maʾmūn). His mother, Ḥabāb, who was a Christian captive, helped by her cleverness in having the young prince, then only fourteen years old, proclaimed emperor. The death of al-Maʾmūn took place suddenly on the last day of 629 (17th Oct. 1232) according to the author of the Ḳarṭās, or at the beginning of 630 according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, when he had just raised the siege of Ceuta — where his brother Abū Mūsā had stirred up a revolt against him — and was marching on Marrākus…


(4,083 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
name of a Muslim dynasty. — The founding of the Almohade empire in Africa, ¶ generally traced back to 515 (1121) — at which date the branches of the great Berber tribe of the Maṣmūda swore the oath of loyalty to Ibn Tūmart — is the result of the religious movement excited in the Mag̲h̲rib by Ibn Tūmart. To understand the success of this movement we must take into consideration the religious condition of the Mag̲h̲rib at the time when Ibn Tūmart came to preach his doctrines. For valuable details on this subject see the remarkable study of Goldziher, Mohammed Ibn Toumert et la théologie de l’Is…

Abū Ḥammū II

(214 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
Mūsā b. Abī Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yaḥyā b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, roi de la dynastie ʿabd al-wādide. Né en Espagne en 723/1323-24, il fut élevé à la cour de Tlemcen. Après la victoire de l’armée marīnide sur ses oncles Abū Saʿīd et Abū T̲h̲ābit, en d̲j̲umādā Ier 753/juin 1352, il dut aller chercher refuge à la cour ḥafṣide de Tunis, puis, les rapports entre Ḥafṣides et Marīnides s’étant altérés, il fut placé à la tête d’une armée et reconquit Tlemcen où il fut proclamé roi le Ier rabīʿ Ier 760/9 février 1359. En 772/1370, la capitale retomba sous la domination des Marīnides qui …

Ibn K̲h̲aldūn

(881 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, Abū Zakariyāʾ Yaḥyā, né à Tunis vers 734/1333, mort à Tlemcen en ramaḍān 780/déc 1378-janv. 1379. I- fit dans sa ville natale de bonnes études, comme son frère ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [voir ci-dessus] et sans doute avec lui, et fréquenta tous les maîtres en renom à cette époque dans la capitale ḥafṣide, Il semble avoir eu un goût particulier pour la poésie et les belles-lettres, si l’on en juge ¶ par son livre dont il sera question plus loin. Les renseignements que l’on peut trouver sur ce personnage sont assez maigres; ils sont épars çà et là dans quelques chroniques, …
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