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al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī

(312 words)

Author(s): Ben Abdesselem, A.
, the nisba of four distinguished dignitaries, great-grandfather, grandfather, father and son, originally from Mawṣil and occupying important offices under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs, Zangids and Ayyūbids. The latest in date of the members of this prestigious line of S̲h̲āfiʿī fuḳahāʾ was Muḥyī al-Dīn Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. Kamāl al-Dīn Abi ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī. He was a disciple in fiḳh at Bag̲h̲dād of Abū Manṣūr Ibn al-Razzāz. He entered the service of Nūr al-Dīn b. Zangī (d. 569/1174 [ q.v.]) at Damascus, replacing his father as minister in Ṣafar 555/Februar…

al-S̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī

(486 words)

Author(s): Ben Abdesselem, A.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Kamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-Ḳaysī, grammarian, philologist and littérateur of Muslim Spain (557-619/1181-1222), born at S̲h̲arīs̲h̲ [ q.v.] (modern Jerez de la Frontera) in the province of Cadiz and died in his natal town. He functioned mainly as a teacher of Arabic language, but like many of his compatriots, went to the East, probably to make the Pilgrimage to Mecca and probably search of knowledge ( fī ṭalab al-ʿilm ). The biographies of him cite a piece of verse which he composed when resident in Egypt in which he e…

S̲h̲umaym

(551 words)

Author(s): Ben Abdesselem, A.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAntar al-Ḥillī, best known under his Sibylline surname of S̲h̲umaym, usually without the definite article, littérateur of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ (511-601/1117-1204). Originally from the Mazyadid centre of al-Ḥilla [ q.vv.], he later moved to Bag̲h̲dād where he studied and tried to earn his living, but we know very little of this period of his life. In any case, he did not stay there long but preferred to move to Syria and Diyār Bakr, where he found generous patrons whom he eulogised in return for substantial presents; finally, he settled at Mawṣil, where he died. H…

S̲h̲āʿir

(23,851 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Moreh, S. | Ben Abdesselem, A. | Reynolds, D.F. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Et al.
(a.), poet. ¶ 1. In the Arab world. A. Pre-Islamic and Umayyad periods. Among those endowed with knowledge and with power in ancient Arabia stands the figure of the s̲h̲āʿir , whose role is often confused with that of the ʿarrāf ( s̲h̲aʿara and ʿarafa having the same semantic value: cf. I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen , i, 3 ff.) and of the kāhin [ q.v.]. They were credited with the same source of inspiration, the d̲j̲inns (Goldziher, Die Ǧinnen der Dichter , in ZDMG, xlv [1891], 685 ff.). However, the s̲h̲āʿir was, originally, the repository of magical rather than divinatory knowledge; …

Sad̲j̲ʿ

(6,970 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Heinrichs, W.P. | Ben Abdesselem, A.
(a.), originally, the formal expression of the oracular pronouncement. 1. As magical utterances in pre-Islamic Arabian usage. Here, sad̲j̲ʿ was the rhythmical style practised by the Arab kāhin s [ q.v.] and kāhina s [see al-kāhina ], a style intermediate between that of the versified oracular utterances of the Sibylls and Pythians and that of the prose utterances of Apollo (see P. Amandry, La mantique apollinienne à Delphes . Essai sur le fonctionnement de l’oracle, diss. Paris 1950, 15). These utterances are "formulated in short, rhymed phrases, with rhythmical caden…