Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)" )' returned 73 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Novensides, Di.

(487 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[English version] Eine Gruppe von Gottheiten, deren Verehrung sich inschr. in Marruvium (Vetter Nr. 225 = [1. 43-47 Nr. 36]: esos nouesede, 3. Jh.v.Chr.) und Pisaurum (CIL XI 6297 = ILLRP 20: deiu no[ u] esede, 3./2. Jh.v.Chr.) widerspiegelt. Calpurnius Piso (fr. 45 HRR = 35 Forsythe) will vom Ursprung und Kult der Di N. im sabinischen Trebula Mutuesca wissen. Als divi Novensiles (die Endung auf -ilis ist wohl sekundär) werden die Di N. auch in der Devotionsformel des P. Decius [I 1] Mus im J. 340 v.Chr. gemeinsam mit den Di Indigetes (s.u.) und weiteren Go…

Mundus

(835 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] A subterranean pit, presumably expanded into a chamber, associated in Rome and other Italic cities with religious cult. A possible architectonic parallel is the subterranean sanctuary of Dionysus in Volsinii (Bolsena) from the 3rd cent. BC [1 Fig. 1]. There is agreement neither on the etymology of the Latin word mundus [2], nor on the origins or the function of the religious mundus. It has been associated with a pre-deistic form of worship of the spirits of the dead, but also with primitive agrarian and fertility rituals (critica…

Septemviri

(465 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ('College of seven men'). Founded at Rome in 196 BC by resolution of the people, initially as a college of three men (Liv. 33,42,1), later (perhaps under L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla) enlarged to seven, and finally, by Caesar, to ten members (Cass. Dio 43,51,9), the Roman urban priestly college known as the tresviri, later septemviri epulonum (e.g. InscrIt 13,2 p. 114 f.) or epulones ( epulo ; e.g. Liv. 33,42,1; Paul. Fest. 68 L.), took its name from its arrangement of the Iovis epulum , the sacrificial banquet ( ludorum epulare sacrificium: Cic. De or. 3,73) for Jupiter, …

City deity

(508 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The religion of Mesopotamia is characterized by a system of tutelary deities for the numerous city settlements that has its origin in the Sumerian religion of the 4th millennium BC. There is evidence of the existence and worship of city deities from the 3rd to the 1st millennium. Individual city deities achieved supraregional importance in the course of history (e.g.  Assur [2];  Enlil;  Ištar,  Marduk;  Nabû).  Asia Minor IV.;  Pantheon;  Religion II. and III. Renger, Johannes (Berlin) [German version] II. Classical antiquity For Graeco-Roman …

Pythioi

(195 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Πύθιοι/ Pýthioi). In the political organization of Sparta - according to tradition established by Lycurgus [4] - each of the two Spartan kings chose two ambassadors which were dispatched to obtain the oracles of Apollo Pythios in Delphi. In the Greek poleis, these ambassadors were usually called theoprópoi or theōroí; the name Pýthioi at Sparta thus reflects a special relationship between this polis and the Delphic oracle. The Pýthioi were allowed to dine in the skēnḕ dēmosía - at the expense of the dḗmos - as fellows in the kings' tent ( sýskēnoi) and at their table ( sýssit…

Pantheus

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
(Πάνθεος/ Pántheos, Πάνθειος/ Pántheios, Lat. Pantheus). In antiquity, P. ('all-god' or 'universal deity') referred (Auson. Epigrammata 32 Green; CGL V 318,38) to a deity which, within a differentiated polytheistic system, combined in itself the attributes, traits and identities of several or all gods (syncretism). [German version] I. Ancient concepts of a universal god In Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, gods were structured into a hierarchic pantheon [1. 107-113; 177-181] analogous to hierarchic human social structures (cf. ruler). This structure e…

Romulus

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Legendary founder of Rome The legendary founder of Rome. Perhaps literally 'the Roman'. A possible correspondence between the Etruscan nomen gentile Rumelna (Volsinii, 6th cent. BC: ET Vs 1,35) and the alleged Roman nomen gentile Romilius - the name is securely attested only in an old tribus Romilia/-ulia (Paul Fest. 331 L.) - and between R. and an Etruscan praenomen * Rumele [1. 31 f.] proves nothing about the historicity of the figure of R. Also problematic is the attempt [2. 491-520; 3. 95-150] to connect the finds from the Roman Mon…

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Moles Martis

(151 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Mentioned in the Republican libri sacerdotum as an addressee of prayers (Gell. NA 13,23,2). In the Augustean period, the MM received a supplicatio every 12 May (Feriale Cumanum, InscrIt 13,2, p. 279). This supplication is connected with the natalis templi of the sanctuary of Mars Ultor in the Forum Augustum and with the ludi for Mars on the same day (Mars I.C.). The compound moles belli, ‘the dangers’ or ‘privations of war’, inspired by the mṓlos Árēos (since Hom. Il. 2,401), is present in Roman poets and historians from the 2nd cent. BC (Acc. fr. 610 TRF…

Tritopatores

(155 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Τριτοπάτορες/ Tritopátores, also Τριτοπατρεῖς/ Tritopatreîs). The cultically worshipped ancestors - usually as a collective, but also individually (Τριτοπάτωρ/ Tritopátōr: IDélos 1,66) - of a particular social group. Cults of the T. of a pólis , of demes ( dêmos [2]), phratríai or génē (Family, IV. A. 3.) are recorded in Attica and on Attic-influenced Delos, in Selinus [4], Troezen and Cyrene. Several local inscriptional texts, primarily including a lex sacra from Selinus, give information about their cultic status. Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 182) in…

Ritual

(8,221 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Term Ritual refers to an elaborate sequence of individual rites which, following an established ritual syntax, are logically connected within a certain functional context. Rituals are not limited to religious contexts but exist in other cultural contexts, political as well as social. The significance of rituals for those who participate in them can be reduced neither to an integrative function (legitimation ritual) nor to a temporary disabling of the regular structure - the two e…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Maiesta

(147 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] According to Calpurnius Piso fr. 42 Peter = 10 Forsythe the wife of Volcanus, no other references. Assumed Oscian origin [1] contributes little to clarification. It is possible that Piso, against a contemporary identification of Maia as the wife of Volcanus and eponym of the month of May (conceivable with Gell. NA 13,23; Cincius fr. 8 GRF in Macrob. Sat. 1,12,18; Ov. Fast. 5,81-106), derives the name of the month from a goddess M., with M. for her part probably coming from Latin maiestas (Ov. Fast. 5,11-53 mentions the latter as a possible eponym of the name of …

Moneta

(635 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Epithet of Juno. According to tradition, her Roman temple on the Arx (Capitolium) was vowed by L. Furius ([I 11], probably not [I 12]) Camillus in 345 BC (Liv. 7,28,4) and dedicated on 1 June 344 (Liv. 7,28,5f.; Ov. Fast. 6,183f.; Fasti Venusini, InscrIt 13,2, p. 58). The traditional story that the shrine was erected at the site of the house of M. Manlius [I 8] Capitolinus (e.g. Liv. 6,20,13; 7,28,5; Ov. Fast. 6,185f.) is based on its erroneous localization on the Arx. The source …

Scapegoat rituals

(740 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] 'SR' take their name from an ancient Israelite ritual sequence described in Lv 16,5-10 and 20-22, in which every year at Yom Kippur a ram was sacrificed to Yahweh and a second, on to which all the guilt of the people of Israel had been transferred, was driven into the wilderness "to take away divine anger"( ăzāzēl: [1. 159-162]). Post-Exile and, later, Jewish Rabbinic tradition explain Azazel as a demon or fallen angel, whereas early Christian theology interprets the ram as an allegory for Christ, who by his death is supposed to hav…

Volcanus

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] is the original form of the name of the Roman god (CIL I2 453; Vetter No. 200B 6b; Volchanus: CIL I2 1218; Volganus: CIL I2 364; Volkanus: CIL IX 6349), the form Vulcanus is more recent. Attempts to trace this name back through the Etruscan Velch(ans) [1. 289-409] to a Cretan ελχάνος ( Welchános, or Zeus Velchanos) [1. 155-287] and thus to identify its origin in the eastern Mediterranean region are based primarily on linguistic similarities; the conclusion that Volcanus was therefore originally a god of vegetation is hypothetical …

Board games

(916 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Ancient East Attested since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium, board games were used as a pastime but also for divination purposes ( Divination; in conjunction with models of the liver [3]). The playing boards of 5 × 4 squares were made from wood (carved or with coloured inlays), stone (painted or with inlays) or baked clay; the playing pieces and dice, from ivory or bone; no information is available on the way the games were played. There is probably no connection with the Egypt…

Septerion

(307 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Σεπτήριον/ Septḗrion), not Stepterion (Στεπτήριον/ Steptḗrion), was the name of a nine-yearly sequence of festivals and rituals, in the course of which a boy would set fire to a wooden construction beneath the temple of Apollo in Delphi, would then himself be led in a procession into the Thessalian Tempe valley to be ritually purified there of his 'offence' with accompanying sacrifices in the river Peneius. A central constituent was the plucking at the sanctuary to Apollo there of a l…

Nomioi Theoi

(181 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Νόμιοι Θεοί; Nómioi Theoí). As an adjunct to νομεύς/ nomeús, ‘shepherd’, νόμιος/ nómios is a poetic apostrophe or actual cult invocation for the identification of groups of gods (anon. NT in Rome: IG XIV 1013) and individual gods in their function as pastoral deities. The following are addressed as Νόμιος/ Nómios: Hermes (Aristoph. Thesm. 977f.); Pan (Hom. H. 19,5; Paus. 8,38,11: cult of Lycosura in Arcadia); the Nymphs (Orph. H. 51,11f.); Aristaeus [1] in Cyrene (Pind. Pyth. 9,65); Dionysus (Anth. Pal. 9,524); Zeus (Stob. 53,13…
▲   Back to top   ▲