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Kardec, Allen

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Bergé, Christine
Kardec, Allen (ps. of Denizard Hyppolyte Léon Rivail), * 3 Jan 1804 (Lyons), † 31 Mar 1869 (Paris) Léon Rivail was born at 76 Rue Sala in Lyons. His father, a jurist in that city, sent him to study, from the age of ten, in Yverdon (Switzerland), in one of the most famous institutions of the era, directed by Rousseau's disciple Jean Henri Pestalozzi. Pestalozzi put the pedagogy of Emile into practice and offered his pupils, who came from every country in Europe, an original method that he called “mutual instruction”. The older children taught the younger; mutual a…


(4,875 words)

Author(s): Bergé, Christine
The complex intellectual and spiritual movement known as “Illuminism” is an integral part of modern Western esotericism in Europe. Chronologically it covers the last third (or even the second half) of the 18th century and the first third of the 19th. In the history of ideas and of literature, it has profound affinities with pre-Romanticism and → Romanticism. The emergence of Illuminism shows that the century of the philosophers of the Enlightenment was in fact a century of contrasts; but nevertheless, it would be a simplification to oppose the two move…