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Theophylactus

(509 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοφύλακτος; Theophýlaktos). [German version] [1] T. Simocatta Byzantine historian, 7th cent. (Θ. Σιμοκάτης; Th. Simokátēs). Byzantine historian, born in Egypt, jurist and high official in Constantinople under the emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641). The family name Simokates is not recorded prior to the Suda, the spelling with -tt- is modern. Author of a 'General History' (οἰκουμενικὴ ἱστορία/ oikoumenikḕ historía, 8 bks), designed as a continuation of Menander [13] Protector, on the reign of the emperor Mauricius (582-602) with a look back to the time …

Colonea

(101 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium Fortress, town and bishop's seat in the province of Pontus in the north-east of  Asia Minor, developed and extended during the reign of  Iustinian I and defended against the Arabs in AD 778 and 940; part of Turkey since 1071 (today Şebinkarahisar). The area around C. had economic importance because of the alum mining carried out there ( Alum) and was the centre of the  Paulician sect from the 7th to the 9th cents. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography A. Bryer, D. Winfield, The Byzantine Monuments and Topograp…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Theme

(472 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (θέμα /théma, pl. thémata; literally: 'area of deployment' [6]). Byzantine administrative districts that replaced the Roman provincial divisions beginning in the 7th cent. AD: After the loss of Egypt and the Middle East (mid 7th cent. AD), the Roman troops were withdrawn to Asia Minor only to be re-deployed there in the four themes of Anatolia, Armenia, Thracia and Opsikion, each under the command of a strategos (Byzantium II. D. incl. map). By the mid 8th cent., the authority of the provincial administration had been complet…

Amorion, martyrs of

(101 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Designation for a group of 42 citizens of the city of Amorion in Phrygia (Asia Minor), who were taken to the caliph's residence in Samarra on the Euphrates after the Arab conquest in AD 838 and were executed there in 845. Their Greek vita, which was written by the monk Euodius soon thereafter, bears strongly legendary traits. The main focus lies with a theological discussion between the captives and their guards; the martyrs are executed because they refuse to convert to  Islam. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography Editions: V. Vasil'ev, P. Nikitin (ed.), Skazanija…

Zeuxippus

(402 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ζεύξιππος/ Zeúxippos). [German version] [1] Father of Cyclops Father of Cyclops and ancestor of the Attic hero Myrmex [1]. Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Apollo and the Nymph Syllis Another Z., son of Apollo and the Nymph Syllis, successor to the emigré king Phaestus [1] of Sicyon (Paus. 7,6,7). Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [3] Legendary king and founder of Byzantium Legendary king, of indeterminable period, who has been presented since the time of Iohannes Lydus [3] ( c. AD 500) as the founder of Byzantium [1. 261] and who also appears in apocalyp…

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…

Nikephorus

(505 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Νικηφόρος; Nikēphóros). [German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople, died 828 Patriarch. N. was born around AD 750 or 758 in Constantinople; he embarked on a magistrate's career at the imperial court which he represented in 787 at the Council of Nicaea. Around 797 he became a monk and ran a poorhouse in Constantinople. In 806 he was appointed patriarch of Constantinople and failed to end the so-called ‘Moechian controversy’ between Theodoros Studites and the government. In 815 he had to resign at th…

Opsikion

(88 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (ὀψίκιον/ opsíkion). Originally a term for a troop detachment (Latin obsequium), from c. 680 AD one of the four original themes ( thḗma ) of the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor. It comprised the northern part of the Dardanelles peninsula as far as the River Halys with a capital at Ancyra. Later it was reduced in size and limited in the west, with Nicaea [5] as its capital. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography R. Hiss, s.v. O., LMA 6, 1418f.  C.F.W. Foss, s.v. O., ODB 3, 1528f.

Iohannes

(7,268 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης; Iōánnēs). Well-known persons i.a.: I. [1] the Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, bishop of Constantinople and Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, author of the world chronicle, I. [25] of Gaza, rhetor and poet, I. [33] of Damascus, the theologian, I. [39] Baptistes. [1] I. the Evangelist [German version] A. Tradition and criticism According to the inscriptions, the author of a  Gospel (Jo), of three letters and the Apocalypse in the NT is called I. (= J.; the name appears only in Apc. 1:1; 1:4; 1:9; 22:8). Since the end of the 2nd cent. (Iren. adv…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Germanus

(558 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Byz. general under Justin I Son of a sister of Justin I, cousin of Justinian I, Byzantine general, as magister militum per Thracias under Justin I he conquered the people of the Anti who had invaded the Empire from the lower Danube. As patricius and primus magister militum praesentalis, he successfully combated the military revolt of Stotzas in North Africa in 536-537, on the orders of Justinian I. In a deployment in 540 against the first assault by Chosroes [5] I after the ‘eternal peace’ of 532, a shortage of troops preven…

Themata, naval

(114 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Themes of the Byzantine Empire, established from the early 8th cent. AD for the construction and maintenance of a fleet. The most significant of them comprised the whole Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor from Miletus to Cilicia. The capital was probably Attaleia [1], but the crews were predominantly from the mountainous hinterland in the western part of the theme, as is shown by the name 'Theme of the Cibyrrhaeoti', which can be traced to the city of Cibyra about 80 km from the sea in the Carian-Lycian border region. Theme Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography 1 H. Ahrwe…

Cyprus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Cyprus [3] The island was incorporated into Roman possessions in 58 BC and remained part of the province of Cilicia until 48/47 BC. It was returned to the Ptolemaic kingdom by Caesar and Antony, and came permanently into Roman possession from 30 BC. As a province in its own rights, it was initially administered by a legatus, then from 22 BC by the Senate through an annually appointed procurator; following Diocletian's reorganization of the provinces, it was placed under the administration of the consularis of the dioecesis Oriens in Antioch [1] . After the initial f…

Taktika

(326 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Military handbook Byzantine term for military handbook, cf. Taktika [2]; cf. also stratēgikón . Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] [2] Taktika of Leo Military handbook ( stratēgikón) in 20 books, written c. AD 905 by the emperor Leo [9] VI or at his command. It is to some extent based on earlier sources such as writings by Onasander [2] and the stratēgikón of Mauricius, but it also contains many contemporary passages, e.g. on the Arabs and Hungary. The work, which is preserved in two different versions, exer…

Nomos nautikos

(141 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (νόμος ναυτικός; nómos nautikós). Byzantine collection of legal rules concerning shipping, compiled in the 7th or 8th cent. AD and incorporated in the 9th cent. AD into the legal compilation of the ‘Basilica. Its traditional meaning of ‘Rhodian Sea Law’ derives from the subsequently added prologue asserting that the Roman emperors affirmed the ancient sea law of Rhodes. This statement, although mentioned in legal writings (e.g. Dig. 14,2), cannot be verified historically in any detai…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Zonaras

(424 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Ioannes (Ἰωάννης ὁ Ζωναρᾶς; Iōánnēs ho Zōnarâs). Byzantine historian and ecclesiastical jurist, head of the chancellery (Protasekretis) and high judge ( droungários tēs bíglēs) under the emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118). After Alexius' death Z. became a monk, he died after 1159 (?). One of Z.' main works is his chronicle (Ἐπιτομὴ ἱστοριῶν/ Epitomḕ historiôn), the division of which into 18 bks. is not due to the author. It extends from the creation of the world until the year 1118. Its sources are largely known. For Graeco-Roman…

Literature

(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…

Nubia

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] A. Name A country on the middle reaches of the Nile; more precisely, the area today settled by a Nubian-speaking population: Lower Nubia from the 1st to the 2nd Nile cataract (Aswān to Wadi Halfa, Republic of Egypt) and Upper Nubia from the 2nd to the 4th cataract (Wadi Halfa to Meroe, northern Sudan). In a culturally and historically understood sense, Nubia also includes the land as far as the 6th cataract and around Khartoum (central Sudan). Besides the general term t-stj for the country, recorded from the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000 BC), the Egyptian la…
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