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Loeffler, Josias Friedrich Christian

(184 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1752, Saalfeld – Feb 4, 1816, Gamstädt near Gotha), studied in Halle an der Saale from 1769 onward (esp. under J.S. Semler and J.A. Nösselt), served as a preacher in Berlin, was appointed professor of theology in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1782, and general superintendent as well as senior councilor of the consistory in Gotha in 1788. As the ecclesial and theological popularizer of an enlightened rationalism (1803–1816: editor of the Magazin für Prediger [Journal for preachers]), Loeffler's translation (1781, 21792) of Souverain's Le Platonisme dévoilé (1700) …

Dietenberger, Johannes

(211 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (c. 1475, Frankfurt am Main – Sep 4, 1537, Mainz) joined the Dominican Order of Preachers (1501), became prior in Frankfurt (1510), received his Dr.Theol. (1515), was again prior in Frankfurt (1516/1517), then regens in Trier (1518), prior in Koblenz (1519), again in Frankfurt (1520–1526) and in Koblenz (from 1527), and finally became professor of theology in Mainz (1532). With the encouragement of J. Cochläus, Dietenberger authored many polemical writings (e.g. Contra temerarium M. Lutheri de votis monasticis iudicium, 1524) and ascetic tractates which did…

Heerbrand, Jakob

(169 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Aug 12, 1521, Giengen/Brenz – May 22, 1600, Tübingen), studied philosophy and theology in Wittenberg (1538–1543, with Luther and Melanchthon, among others), became dean in Tübingen (1543), was removed from office (1548; Augsburg Interim), became pastor and superintendent in Herrenberg and received the Dr.theol. (1551), was professor of theology in Tübingen (1557–1598), while also serving as superintendent after 1561, chancellor of the university (1590–1599), provost and ducal adviser. Heerbrand was a signatory to the Confessio Virtembergica (1551) and w…

Holbach, Paul Heinrich Dietrich

(178 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (baptized Dec 8, 1723, Edesheim – Jan 21, 1789, Paris). Holbach studied law and natural sciences in Leiden from 1744 to 1748 and lived the rest of his life as a wealthy man in Paris. Holbach's Paris townhouse and his country residence Granval were meeting points of pre-revolutionary Enlightenment (I) and were frequented by D. Hume, J.-J. Rousseau, D. Diderot, Claude Adrien Helvetius, and others. Holbach wrote over 400 (perhaps as many as 1,100) articles for Diderot's Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia, Encyclopedists), which he probably helped finance to a conside…

Stosch

(254 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[English Version] Stosch, Bartholomäus (12.9.1604 Strehlen, Schlesien – 5.[?] 3.1686 Berlin), ref. Theologe und Kirchenpolitiker. Nach Schulbildung am Beuthener Schönaichianum 1626 Studium der Theol. in Frankfurt/O., 1629 Hauslehrer in Ostpreußen, 1632–1640 Studienreise nach den Niederlanden (Leiden), England und Frankreich, 1640 Pfarrer in Pilten (Livland), 1643 Hofprediger in Berlin. S., dessen rel. Einfluß auf die brandenburgische Herrscherfamilie erheblich gewesen sein dürfte, prägte seit 1659 …

Opitz

(247 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[English Version] Opitz, Martin (23.12.1597 Bunzlau, Schlesien – 20.8.1639 Danzig), späthumanistischer Dichter und Diplomat. Studium der Jurisprudenz und Philos. in Frankfurt/O. (1618) und Heidelberg (1619), 1620 Flucht vor den span. Truppen in die Niederlande, 1621 nach Jütland, 1622 Lehrer in Weißenburg (Siebenbürgen), 1623 Rat am Hof der Herzöge von Liegnitz und Brieg, 1625 zum »poeta laureatus« gekrönt, 1626–1632 Diplomat im Dienst des kath. kaiserlichen Kammerpräsidenten Karl Hannibal Graf zu …

Teller

(587 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[English Version] 1.Romanus , (21.2.1703 Leipzig – 5.4.1750 ebd.), 1719 Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Leipzig (1721 M.A.), 1723 Katechet an St. Petri, 1727 Sonnabendprediger an St. Thomae ebd., 1730 Diakonus an St. Maximi in Merseburg, 1731 Katechet an St. Petri, 1737 Diakonus, 1745 Pastor an St. Thomae in Leipzig. Daneben als Bacc. theol. seit 1723 exegetische und homiletische Vorlesungen, 1735 a.o., 1740 o. Prof. der Theol. in Leipzig, 1741 zudem Domherr in Zeitz. – T. war ein überregional g…

Spalding

(695 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[English Version] Spalding, Johann Joachim (1.11.1714 Tribsees, Vorpommern – 22.5.1804 Berlin). Als einer der bedeutendsten luth. Theologen des 18.Jh., von den Zeitgenossen wegen seiner intellektuellen Redlichkeit, kirchl. Modernität und menschlichen Integrität als der Patriarch der Aufklärungstheol. verehrt, ist S. zu einem theol. Bahnbrecher der Moderne geworden. 1731–1733 Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Rostock, danach in Greifswald (1736 Dr. phil.). 1745–1747 Sekretär der schwedischen Gesandtschaft in Berlin, zugleich freundschaftli…

Reimarus

(372 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[English Version] Reimarus, Hermann Samuel (22.12.1694 Hamburg – 1.3.1768 ebd.), 1714 Studium der Theol., Philos. und Philol. in Jena, 1716 in Wittenberg, 1717 M.A., 1719 Adjunkt der philos. Fakultät ebd., 1720–1722 Studienreise nach Leiden, Oxford und London. Nach kurzem Lehraufenthalt in Wittenberg wurde R. 1723 Rektor der Stadtschule Wismar und 1728 (nicht 1727) Prof. für orientalische Sprachen am Akademischen Gymnasium Hamburg; 1761 Aufnahme in die Petersburger Akademie der Wiss. und Ablehnung e…

Crusius, Christian August

(183 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1715, Leuna – Oct 18, 1775, Leipzig) was appointed adjunct professor of philosophy in Leipzig in 1744 and professor of theology at the same university in 1750. As a philosopher, Crusius gave anti-Wolffianism (C. Wolff) its definitive form. By distinguishing between epistemic or ideal causes and real causes, he was able to contest the ontological proof of the existence of God, as well as Leibniz-Wolffian determinism and the notion of a preestablished harmony (G.W. Leibniz). As a theologian, ¶ Crusius was inspired by J. Cocceius and J.A. Bengel …

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von

(360 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 31,1741, Zheleznodorozhny [Gerdauen], Russia – Apr 23, 1796, Kaliningrad [Königsberg], Russia). Hippel studied theology in Königsberg from 1756 to 1760, journeyed to Russia from 1760 to 1761, and was tutor in Königsberg from 1761 to 1762. He studied jurisprudence there from 1762 to 1765, became barrister at the municipal court of Königsberg, and later director of the criminal court and city councillor. A member of the Prussian Landrechtskommission (commission for regional law) from 1780 onward, he was then appointed mayor of ¶ Königsberg and war councillor,…

Döderlein, Christian Albrecht

(179 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1714, Seyringen, Principality of Oettingen – Nov 4, 1789, Büt-¶ zow) was inspector of the Halle orphanage in 1752 and deacon at St. Moritz (Halle) in 1753. In 1758 Döderlein was called by Duke Friedrich v. Mecklenburg to Rostock as professor and consistory councillor. Owing to unanimous opposition to the installation of the Pietist Döderlein on the part of the cleri…

Stosch, Bartholomäus

(331 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1604, Strehlen, Silesia [now Strzelin, Poland] – Mar 5 [?], 1686, Berlin), Reformed theologian and adviser on religious policy. After schooling at the Schönaichianum Gymnasium in Beuthen [Bytom], he began to study theology in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1626. In 1629 he began working as a private tutor in East Prussia. From 1632 to 1640 he broadened his education by traveling in the ¶ Netherlands (Leiden), England, and France. In 1640 he was appointed pastor in Pilten (Livonia; now Piltene, Latvia). In 1643 he was appointed court chaplain i…

Perfectibility

(176 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] Beginning in the 17th century, the early modern notion of progress took on a dynamic that increasingly permeated ethical, religious, and political theory, making the idea of perfectibility a fundamental thought form of the era. In France the word perfectibilité quickly came into use after 1750 and became a guiding principle of the French Revolution. Borrowed into German in the mid-18th century, the concept of anthropological, ethical, and religious perfectibility, extended around 1800 to cultural (Christianity, science…

Reimarus, Hermann Samuel

(495 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1694, Hamburg – Mar 1, 1768, Hamburg), began studying theology, philosophy, and philology at Jena in 1714 and moved to Wittenberg in 1716, where he received his M.A. in 1717 and was appointed adjunct on the philosophical faculty in 1719. From 1720 to 1722 he took a study trip to Leiden, Oxford, and London. After a brief teaching stint in Wittenberg, he was appointed rector of the municipal school in Wismar and in 1728 (not 1727) professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages …

Spalding, Johann Joachim

(843 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Nov 1, 1714, Tribsees, Swedish Pomerania – May 22, 1804, Berlin). One of the most important Lutheran theologians of the 18th century, revered by his contemporaries as the patriarch of Enlightenment theology for his intellectual honesty, ecclesiastical modernity, and human integrity, Spalding was a pioneer of modern theology. From 1731 to 1733 he studied philosophy and theology in Rostock and afterwards in Greifswald, receiving his Dr.phil. in 1736. From 1745 to 1747 he served as secretary of the Swedish embassy in Berlin, whil…

Döderlein, Johann Christoph

(163 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1746, Windsheim, Franken – Dec 2, 1792, Jena) became professor of theology and dean in Altdorf in 1772, and professor in Jena in 1782. A proponent of a moderate Enlightenment theology, Döderlein was the only neologist (Enlightenment: II, 4.c) to protest against the Fragmente eines Ungenannten (Anonymous Fragments, 1774–1778) published by G.E. Lessing in writing ( Antifragmente, 1778/79, 21780). Here, he explicitly maintained the resurrection of Jesus as a miraculous proof of his divine commission. His chief work of dogmatics, Institutio theologi christ…

Bahrdt, Carl Friedrich

(281 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1740 [not 1741], Bischofswerda – Apr 23, 1792, Nietleben near Halle) studied theology in Leipzig, became lecturer there in 1761, and professor in 1766, followed by Erfurt in 1769 and Gießen in 1771; in 1775, he became director of the Philanthropinum in Marschlins (Graubünden), then General Superintendent of Dürkheim on the Haardt in 1…

Bauer, Georg Lorenz

(288 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Aug 14, 1755, Hiltpoltstein – Jan 13, 1806, Heidelberg). From 1789 professor of eloquence, oriental studies, and ethics and from 1793 professor of Biblical Exegesis at Altdorf. From 1805 professor of oriental studies and practical exegesis; and member of the church council in Heidelberg. Within the theology of the Enlightenment, Bauer was the most important exponent of a strictly historical “biblical theology.” He was the first to call this approach programmatically “historical-critical” ( Historisch-kritische Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 1794, 31806). …

Nicolai, Christoph Friedrich

(591 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1733, Berlin – Aug 1, 1811, Berlin), bookseller and writer. After attending the Gymnasium in Joachimsthal, the Latin school of the Halle orphanage (1745–1748), and Hecker’s Realschule in Berlin (1749) he went to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1749 to learn his father’s bookselling business, continuing his education as an autodidact. In 1752 he joined the staff of the Berlin bookstore and in 1758 took over as director. There he became one of the most important representatives of the (Berlin) Enlightenment …
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