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Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Bienert, Wolfgang A." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Bienert, Wolfgang A." )' returned 21 results. Modify search

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Cluny, Order of

(807 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
1. The Benedictine monastery of Cluny, northwest of Mâcon in Burgundy, was founded in 910 by Duke William III of Aquitaine. In the 10th and 11th centuries it became the center of a reforming movement that began as a return to the original goals of monasticism (i.e., renunciation of the world in anticipation of the life of paradise in adoration and praise). In the course of time, it radically changed the Christian world in the West. 2. The basis of …

Liberius, Pope

(214 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (episcopate May 17, 352 – Sep 24, 366). Liberius, the successor to Julius I as bishop of Rome, …

Peter of Alexandria

(238 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] …

Schneemelcher, Wilhelm

(296 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (Aug 21,…

Pierius

(244 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] …

Junilius (Junillus) Africanus

(192 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (born in North Africa), high official ( Quaestor sacri palatii) at the court of Justinian I (527–565). Around 542, he translated an exegetical handbook by the Nestorian (Nestorianism) Paul of Nisibis from the Greek into Latin and edited it as a textbook. The book especially emphasized the literal meaning of the Bible in the tradition of Theodore of Mopsuestia. Under the title Instituta regularia divini legis, this brief introduction to the study of the Bible, rather widely distributed in the Middle Ages, was often considered the work of an othe…

Beryllus of Bostra,

(127 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] bishop of Bostra in Arabia (Jordan), was one of the “learned churchmen” (Eusebius Hist. eccl. VI, 20) of the 3rd century. His writings and letters were kept in the library established by Alexander of Jerusalem, but none have been preserved. Historical theology knows Beryllus for denying the pre-existence and Christ's independent divinity (so-called dynamic Monarchianism). Among those who took part in the controversy was Origen, who – in a public disputation between 238 and 244 – brought him back to the church's teaching. The proceedings and his c…

Alexander of Jerusalem

(160 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (Aelia Capitolina). Alexander, who came from Asia Minor, studied in Alexandria with Pantaenus and Clement of Alexandria (who dedicated …

Sabellius/Sabellians

(304 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] In the theological conflicts of the 4th century, the Modalistic Monarchianism that was condemned as a heresy was often called Sabellianism. Marcellus of Ancyra and his followers in particular were considered “Sabellians,” because they rejected the doctrine of three divine hypostases (Hypostasis; cf. Origen) as tritheism, emphasizing God’s unity as μονάς/ monás instead, citing John 10:30. Eusebius of Caesarea considered Marcellus a “new Sabellius” but had nothing more to say about the author of this heresy, so that later the teachi…

Pantaenus

(204 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (died c. 200), a Stoic from Sicily (perhaps), who converted to Christianity. He is said to have carried the gospel to the peoples of the East, traveling as far as India. From about 180, he was a member of the Alexandria presbytery and led there, as one famous for his learning, “the school of the faithful” (Eus. Hist. eccl., V 10.1). Eusebius of Caesarea descri…

Nepos of Arsinoe

(193 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] Nepos of Arsinoe, Egyptian bishop (early 3rd cent.). He defended the millenarianism of the book of Revelation in a literal, physical sense in his writing Refutation of the Allegorists. A schismatic movement arising from this was led, after Nepos’s death, by a certain Korakion. Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria opposed the movement in discussions and in two books On the Promises. He distinguished between the writings of John the Apostle and the book of Revelation, on philological and historical grounds; accordingly, they were written by diffe…

Eusebius of Emesa

(259 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (born c. 300 in Edessa, died shortly before 359) was a student of Polychronius of Skythopolis and Eusebius of Caesarea in Palestine; he also studied in Antioch and Alexandria; he was one of the founders of Antiochene biblical exegesis (interpretations of the Pentateuch, of the books of Kings, and of individual letters of Paul – probably in continuation of the exe…

Modalism

(609 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] Modalism, the opposite of tritheism, is a collective term for a heterodox interpretation of the Trinity; in order to maintain the unity of God, it understands the divine triad – Father, Son, and Spirit – not as truly distinct persons but merely as aspects or manifestations ( modi) of the one divine being. The term was already in common use in the 18th century (e.g. J.F. Buddeus, 1723). Since the 19th century, it has been used primarily in the history of dogma (Dogma, History of) to categorize certain early Christian heresies, …

Didymus the Blind

(403 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (c. 313–398) was a distinguished and influential teacher of theology in the tradition of Origen in Alexandria (III; Exegesis: V, 1) who wrote commentaries on almost all the books of the Bible. His students included Jerome, Palladius, and Rufinus. Didymus probably died before the disputes over the legacy of Origen broke out at the end o…

John of Jerusalem

(252 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (c. 356 – Jan 10, 417). As a young monk, John succeeded Cyril of Jerusalem as bishop of this city in 387. In the Origenist controversies, he defended the position of Origen against Epiphanius of Salamis, Jerome and Theophilus of Alexandria. Rufinus, whom h…

Catechesis and Catechetics

(3,702 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Schoberth, Ingrid | Schweitzer, Friedrich | Phan, Peter
[German Version] I. History – II. Practical Theology – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. History 1. Early Church. The verb κατήχειν/ katḗchein originally denoted the oral transmission of a message in the sense of “tell, inform.” In Paul and early Christian literature it usually means “teach, instruct” (Gal 6:6; Lat. catechizare); in contrast to glossolalia, it refers to intelligible speech (1 Cor 14:19; Luke 1:4) such as instruction in the law (Rom 2:18) or in the teaching (“the way”) of the Lord (Acts 18:25). In the context of baptism (III) – normally adult baptism in the Early Church –, catechesis (κατήχη…

Conversion

(6,787 words)

Author(s): Bischofberger, Otto | Cancik, Hubert | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Zumstein, Jean | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Bible – IV. Church History – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam…

Allegory

(3,568 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Most, Glenn W. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Rieger, Reinhold | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Classical Antiquity – III. Bible– IV. Church History – V. Systematics – VI. Practical Exegesis– VII. Religious Art…
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