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Attisch

(1,329 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Köln) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[English version] A. Attisch der älteren Zeit (bis 5./4.Jh.) Das A., das in der Lit. eine überragende Stellung einnimmt, ist seit E. des 7.Jh. auch durch eine Fülle von Inschr. bezeugt: Privatinschr., offizielle Urkunden, dazu auch Aufschriften auf Vasen und Ostraka sowie Fluchtafeln (4.-3.Jh.), die z.T. das “Vulgär-A.” widerspiegeln. Seit der Gründung des 1. Attisch-Delischen Seebundes (478/7) und während der Zeit, als Athen im Mittelpunkt der griech. Politik stand, lassen die auch außerhalb Attikas ge…

Beneventana

(471 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[English version] Eine charakteristische Hs. des MA., die etwa Mitte des 8.Jh. in der Abtei von Montecassino entstand und sich im 9.Jh. im gesamten Herzogtum Benevento ausbreitete. Sie wurde noch in der zweiten Hälfte des 15.Jh. in Montecassino und in der ersten Hälfte des 15.Jh. in Neapel verwendet [1]. Die Schrift erreichte auch die dalmatinische Küste, wo die frühesten Belege beneventanische Urkunden aus dem 10.Jh. sind. Die ältesten beneventanischen Hss. aus dieser Gegend datieren ins 11.Jh., …

Ionisch

(1,478 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Köln) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[English version] I. Von der vorklassischen Zeit bis zur Koine Das I. ist seit vorklass. Zeit in drei Hauptgebieten belegt, von denen aus es sich im Laufe der Zweiten Kolonisation bis ans Ende des Pontos und bis nach Hispania ausgebreitet hat: (1) West-I.: Euboia (und Oropos) mit Kolonien in der Chalkidike (Olynthos), Unteritalien (Kyme, Pithekussa) und Sizilien; (2) Insel-I. (ion. Kykladen): u.a. Keos, Delos, Paros (mit Thasos), Naxos (mit Amorgos); (3) Ost-I. (Ionien mit vorgelagerten Inseln Chios und S…

Griechische Dialekte

(2,780 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Köln) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Altgriechische Dialekte [English version] A. Dialekt und Gemeinsprache Von den ersten Texten in Linear B an ist das Griech. durch Dial. bezeugt. Lokale Dial. werden in jeder Stadt bzw. Landschaft seit archa. Zeit bis in hell. Zeit (in Konkurrenz mit der Koinḗ und den regionalen Koinaí) gebraucht; in der Kaiserzeit werden einige Dial. (z.B. Aiolisch [Lesbisch], Lakonisch) eher archaisierend gebraucht. Varianten der alten Dial. leben noch h. in Lakonien (Tsakonisch) und in Unteritalien fort. Ein einheit…

Griechisch

(2,634 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Altgriechisch [English version] A. Alter, Quellen Die erh. g. Texte setzen um 1400 v.Chr. ein. Das G. ist damit in Europa die am frühesten überl. bekannte Sprache, unter den idg. Sprachen steht es an zweiter Stelle (Hethitisch). Da das G. eine teilweise erschlossene Vorgesch. hat (s.u. B., C.) und bis h. fortlebt, kann Sprachgesch. hier durch etwa 5000 J. hindurch verfolgt werden. Die wichtigsten sprachlichen Quellen des Alt-G. sind die Texte. Sie reichen von Gebrauchstexten (Mykenisch, Papyri) bis zu lit. Texten. Diese sind in Hss. des MA mitunter entst…

Koine

(827 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[English version] (aus ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, “die gemeinsame Sprache”). Eingebürgerter Begriff der griech. Sprachgesch.; man bezeichnet damit zumeist undifferenziert ein relativ einheitliches nachklass. Griechisch auf att. Basis, aber mit zahlreichen ion. Einflüssen durchsetzt, das die altgriech. Dial. (Griechische Dialekte) verdrängt habe und der Vorfahr des Neugriech. sei; als Quellen gelten eine Reihe nicht mehr att., aber noch nicht attizistischer Prosaschriftsteller in Hell. und Kaiserzeit (etwa…

Kletorologion

(284 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[English version] (κλητορολόγιον). Titel eines der bekanntesten Werke aus der Gattung der Taktiká, der Listen byz. Ämter und Titel als Handbücher zur korrekten Einhaltung des Hofzeremoniells v.a. aus dem 9. und 10. Jh. (z.B. der vom atriklinḗs zu bewerkstelligenden Sitzordnung der Würdenträger bei einschlägigen höfischen Festivitäten). Sie sind eine wichtige Quelle nicht nur für Sitten und Konventionen am byz. Kaiserhof, sondern auch für die byz. Verwaltung, den Beamtenapparat und das Ämterwesen der entsprechenden Zeit. Von sprach…

Scribes

(4,529 words)

Author(s): Cavigneaux, Antoine (Geneva) | Fischer-Elfert, Hans - W. | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Mesopotamia [German version] A. Scribes and schools In the course of the long history of Mesopotamian cuneiform culture from about 3200 BC to the end of the 1st millennium BC, scribes and schools undoubtedly underwent more changes than the continuity of terminology seems to indicate. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, when cuneiform writing had already been used for more than two centuries, the art of writing itself had not yet become a profession in its own rights. This is evident from texts da…

Rhomaioi

(443 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖοι). Rhōmaîos is the original Greek name for 'Romans', found in this sense especially in Greek historiographers (e. g. Polybius [2] or Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus). As the imperial capital moved to Byzantium (Constantinople), however, Rhōmaîos came to be increasingly used for the Greek-speaking Byzantines; an initially still existing differentiation between οἱ ἐῷοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi eṓioi Rhōmaîoi ('the eastern R.') and οἱ ἑσπέριοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi hespérioi Rhōmaîoi ('the western R.' ) finally became obsolete with the decline of the western empire …

Doric/Northwest Greek

(2,516 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] A. Spread The Doric dialects in the broader sense are well documented since the pre-classical period (see map): in central and northwest Greece (Phocis: 1, with Delphi, Western and Eastern Locris: 2 and 3), Peloponnese and Isthmus (only Elis: 15, Laconia: 13, Argolis: 11-12, Corinthia: 10, Megaris: 9), Crete (16) and the Doric Islands (Thera: 17c, Rhodos: 17a, etc.: 17), and since the classical period also in Cos (17b), Cyrene and in the Doric colonies of  Magna Graecia (above all  …

Greek

(2,918 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Ancient Greek [German version] A. Age, Sources The earliest extant Greek texts date from around 1400 BC. Greek is thus the oldest known language transmitted in Europe and takes second place (after  Hittite) amongst the Indo-European languages. As Greek has a partly accessible prehistory (see B., C. below) and survives today, its linguistic history can be traced over about 5,000 years. The most important linguistic sources of Ancient Greek are textual. They range from functional ( Mycenaean,  Papyri) to literary texts. The latter are transmitted, sometim…

Kletorologion

(334 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (κλητορολόγιον; klētorológion). Title of one of the best-known works of the genre of Taktiká, the lists of Byzantine offices and titles mainly from the 9th and 10th cents. AD that were manuals for the correct observance of court ceremonies (e.g. the seating order of dignitaries at court festivities, to be worked out by the atriklinḗs). They are an important source not only for customs and conventions at the Byzantine imperial court but also for the Byzantine administration, bureaucracy and officialdom of the period. From a linguistic…

Orthography

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] A. Principles Orthography (Greek ὀρθογραφία/ orthographía is recorded as the title of ancient works, e.g. of the grammarian Herodianus [1], cf. also Flavius Caper, De Orthographia), 'correct' writing, i.e. that conforming to the norm, was originally not a topic of historical linguists, because for a long time they considered written language only as a more or less deficient copy of spoken 'true' language, not as a subject of study in its own right; in this respect they were able to view historical orthogr…

Tsakonian

(294 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Modern Greek dialect spoken in a small number of villages in the eastern Parnon mountain ridge on the east coast of the Peloponnese. It is unanimously considered the only modern Greek dialect to predominantly continue an Ancient Greek dialect, Dorian Laconic, without any effects of the Koine. In other respects, it is difficult to assign Tsakonian to any dialect groupings (splitting into East or West Greek dialects according to retention/loss of final - n, respectively; splitting into North or South Greek according to the treatment of vowels following u…

Multilingualism

(2,975 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen) | Schwemer, Daniel (Würzburg) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Rieken, Elisabeth (Berlin)
[German version] I. General ‘Multilingualism’ refers to two different things: on the one hand the ability of an individual to use several languages, on the other hand a situation where, within a social group, several languages are used (linguistic contact). As a result, research into multilingualism can look at multilingual individuals or a multilingual society; accordingly, points of contact arise to psycho- and neurolinguistics on the one hand or to sociolinguistics and historical linguistics (des…

Translations

(4,791 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | L.FL. | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Ancient Orient and Egypt [German version] A. General Points Translation by means of an interpreter (Akkadian targumannu; Ugaritic targumiānu; Hittite tarkummija- ('to translate'); Aramaic ta/urgmānā; Arabic tu/arǧumān; Italian turcimanno; cf. dragoman) played an important role in the cultures of the Ancient Orient in their contacts with other ethnic groups. Mesopotamian rulers prided themselves on their command of foreign languages. Especially during the second half of the second millennium BC, Akkadian served as a kind …

Language strata

(763 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] I. Overview From a synchronic point of view, ‘language strata’ (LS) represents a cover term for the different forms that a given language takes in its use by individual speakers (idiolect), by speaker groups defined by their social position (sociolect) or by geographically determined speaker communities ( Dialect); from a diachronic point of view, LS refers to the various historical strata of a given language that can be identified on the lexical (inherited and loan vocabulary), grammatical (syntactic or morphological) and phonological levels. The existence of L…

Scriptorium

(940 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] The present-day use of the term scriptorium refers to the writing workshop for the production of books in the period prior to the invention of the printing press. For Antiquity, there is no evidence of the word scriptorium in this sense; the first record is Isid. Orig. 6,9,2 (in the sense of a writing stylus). However, we know that ancient libraries must have had such an establishment since the book supply for the library was not acquired from booksellers but was produced on site. In an anecdote transmitted by Galen,…

Latinization

(645 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Latinization is understood as the influencing of other languages by Latin as a result of language contact. Since the historical circumstances varied for each language contact, Latinization occurred in a number of different ways. The most drastic result of language contact is the complete eradication of languages and dialects; thus, Latin replaced related Italic dialects and languages at an early time ( Italy, languages), the most prominent victim being Etruscan. However, the Rom…

Hellenization

(5,313 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. History [German version] A. Term Hellenization is understood here to be a complex acculturation phenomenon composed of different processes operating on several levels. In addition to the area of language and literature, Greek ideas and forms of expression were also adopted in architecture, fine arts, as well as in religion and cult; non-Greek patterns of sociopolitical organization were also adapted to fit the Greek model (polis state, forms of organizations and associations,  gymnasium). All of th…
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